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Throughout the nineteenth century, China lost significant power and autonomy to foreign nations, such as Great Britain and Japan. Harsh concessions in treaties forced China to cede territory, allow Christian missionaries within its borders, and accept the import of foreign goods. The difficult terms led to dissent and discontent. A group called the Order of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, nicknamed the Boxers, rebelled against the foreign powers in 1899 and began to attack Christian missions and foreign legations. Aiding the rebels, imperial troops turned back a small, multinational force sent to aid foreigners. Great Britain then allied with seven other nations to send a larger force to China to quell the rebellion. The foreign troops captured Beijing, ousted the rebels, and occupied the capital for a year. On September 7, 1901, both sides agreed to the Boxer Protocol, formally ending the conflict.
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