Born January 29, 1821, in Frankenstein, Germany. Studied art at Breslau; and from 1842–44 with Wilhelm Wach in Berlin. Studied with Peter Cornelius, whom he assisted with frescoes for the Alte Museum in Berlin, 1846. Joined the Revolutionary uprising of 1848, was wounded, captured, and imprisoned. Immigrated to New York, 1852. Designed banknotes. Did illustrations for Harper's and Leslie's weeklies. In Philadelphia, 1853–60. Elected to various scientific societies. Lived in Washington, D.C., 1860–1910. Opened a photography and portrait studio. Married Veronica Schultze, 1865. Visited Europe. Studied art and photography at Weimer, 1868–70. Was a member of the German Concord Club in Washington. Wrote articles on beetles (had an outstanding collection of local species) and coleoptera, published by the Smithsonian. Died February 17, 1910, in Washington, D.C.