Brigadier-General Armistead Lindsay Long was born in Campbell county, Va., September 13, 1827. He was educated at the United States military academy, with graduation in the class of 1850, and promotion to brevet second lieutenant of artillery. He served in garrison at Fort Moultrie until 1852, and on frontier duty in New Mexico, with promotion to first lieutenant, Second artillery, until 1854. His subsequent service was at Fort McHenry and Barrancas barracks, until 1855, when he was again ordered to the frontier. With the exception of a period at Fortress Monroe he was on duty in Indian Territory, Kansas and Nebraska until 1860. When the crisis arrived between the North and South he was stationed at Augusta arsenal, GA, but was transferred to Washington, where he served as aide-de-camp to General Sumner until his resignation, which took effect June 10, 1861. Repairing to Richmond he accepted the commission of major of artillery in the Confederate service, and soon accompanied Gen. W. W. Loring, assigned to the command of the army of Western Virginia, as chief of artillery. He served in the Trans-Alleghany, performing the duties of inspector-general in addition to those of his regular position, during the summer and fall of 1861, and was then ordered to report to Gen. R. E. Lee in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The association with the future commander-in-chief of the Confederate armies, begun amid the mountains of West Virginia, was continued throughout the four years' war, with intimate friendship and confidence. When Lee was given command of the army of Northern Virginia, Long was appointed military secretary with the rank of colonel. During the subsequent campaigns he rendered valuable service upon the field, especially in posting and securing the artillery. His efficiency in the disposition of artillery was particularly shown upon the fields of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. In September, 1862, he was promoted brigadier-general and assigned to the duty of chief of artillery of the Second corps of the army. He was actively engaged during the Bristoe and Mine Run campaigns, and throughout the severe fighting of 1864 managed his artillery with vigor and unfailing judgment sharing the battles of Ewell's corps until disabled by illness. He organized the artillery which accompanied Early in his campaign against Washington. Throughout the disasters which befell Early's army in the Shenandoah valley, subsequently, his artillery corps behaved with a steadfast gallantry and unfaltering courage that elicited the unbounded praise of the lieutenant-general commanding. General Long was with the Shenandoah army at the final disaster at Waynesboro and afterward accompanied Gordon's corps in the withdrawal from Richmond, participated in its engagements in April, 1865, and finally was surrendered and paroled at Appomattox. After the war closed he was appointed chief engineer of the James River & Kanawha canal company. Soon afterward he lost his eyesight by reason of exposure during his campaigns. He then removed to Charlotteville, where he passed the last twenty years of his life in total darkness. During this period his active mind was much employed in recalling the incidents of the war, and it was then that he wrote the Memoirs of Gen. R. E. Lee, a model of biographical history, containing a very clear and most intelligent account of the military operations of the army of Northern Virginia. This book was published in 1886. He also prepared reminiscences of his army life, and a sketch of Stonewall Jackson, which so far has not been published. By reason of his infirmity he was compelled to use a slate prepared for the use of the blind, and to depend on members of his family and on friends for much assistance. Under all these disadvantages he worked along uncomplainingly, drawing his interest and delight from what was most pleasant in his past life, cheerful, and always with placid courage looking forward to the end of his sad but honored career. He died April 29, 1891, leaving a wife and two children, Virginia L. and E. McLean.
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