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Black Dog

The young Black Dog was reported to be about 6 foot, 2 inches, in height and weighed around 220 pounds. He did marry and had several sons and daughters. None of his sons survived to manhood. During the War Between the States (Civil War), Black Dog and many of the Osage Indians decided to join the Confederate States Army. 

Some of the Osage Indians joined the 9th Kansas Volunteers as Union supporters, but they were determined to be too wild and untrainable for military service. They were discharged from Kansas military service. In 1861 about 50 Osage Indians joined Colonel Tom Livingston's Missouri Home Guards and fought with General Price at Wilsons Creek.

 Black Dog was named chief of his tribe which became known as the Black Dog Tribe. Their camp was located in the vicinity of where the city of Coffeyville, Kansas, is now located. The Osages were a migratory tribe which would plant corn in an area, then go hunting for buffalo. Once they had their capacity of  buffalo meat and hides, the tribe would return to their camp area where the corn had been planted and harvest it. Their trail in southern Kansas became known as the Black Dog Trail. 

Black Dog and some of his tribe did join the 1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. around 1862 whose commander was Major Broke Arm. This military unit was composed of three companies. Black Dog served as a Captain of Company B. Military records are incomplete on their activities, but we believe that this unit was involved at Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove. 

Black Dog was elected Principal Chief of the Osages in 1880 and died in 1910. A creek near Hominy is named Black Dog Creek and a township in Tulsa County , Oklahoma, is named Black Dog Township.

George Catlin, the artist, painted Chief Black Dog in 1834. The artist, John Mix Stanley, painted Chief Black Dog in 1843, but this portrait was lost during a fire in the Smithsonian Institute in 1866. Black Dog died on 24 March 1848 at the age of about 68 years old.
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White Earth Chippewa Civil War Veterans


White Earth Family Connections to the Civil War
On June 3 of 2003 I received a message from John Lundstrom an Associate Curator at the Milwaukee Public Museum which indicated that he had learned from Dr. Nancy Lurie, at the Museum, that I might know of Captain Charles Beaulieu and the other Chippewa soldiers from White Earth who fought in Company G of the 9th Minnesota during the Civil War. 

He informed me that his great great uncle had also served in the 9th Minnesota, and that he was writing a book on the Regiment for the Minnesota Historical Society. He was interested in speaking with me about his research, hoping to learn how he might find more about the Chippewa who were in the Regiment. He indicated that the Chippewa played such a gallant role in the Battle of Brice's Cross Roads, that he intended to examine it in detail in the book. 

I wrote back telling him I would be very interested in helping him and informed him that I had a picture of Chippewa Civil war veterans at White Earth around 1873, that I obtained from the Minnesota Historical Society in the late 1960’s and that I believed I might have been able to identify Capt. Charles Beaulieu in the photo as there was an individual that had an officers’ sword which may be him. Charles Beaulieu was a cousin to John Beaulieu who had also been in Company G. Both were cousins to my great grandfather, Truman Beaulieu, John Beaulieu’s brother. So both John Lundstrom and I had great great uncles in the 9th Minnesota regiment. I had years prior to 2003 gathered some Information about these Chippewa that fought in the Civil War primarily because of my interest in family genealogy. 

Both Charles and John had enlisted on August 16 1862 , Charles, at the age of 22, as a private and John at age 17 as a corporal. Charles became Lieutenant August 1862 and was promoted to full Captain April 20 1864 before being mustered out because of a disability May 10 1865. John was named a 2nd Lt. in Co. G and served as such for a time, but before he was formally mustered in, he was returned to the ranks for "unsoldierly conduct. John was mustered out at Fort Snelling August 24 1865

Clement Hudon dit Beaulieu who was the father of Charles Beaulieu was born 10 September 1811 Lac du Flambeau Wisconsin (Michigan Territory) and died at White Earth 14 February 1892.. He was half Chippewa and French. His father Basile Hudon dit Beaulieu is buried at La Pointe, on Madeline Island. His mother was the grand daughter of Keskemum the the noted head of the crane clan and leader at Lac du Flambeau. He was an agent of the American Fur Company, established a trading post at Crow Wing and removed in 1868 to White Earth. 

He attended mission school at Mackinac and married Elizabeth Farling the daughter of a Scotch Irish missionary and an Anishenaabe woman. Clements H Beaulieu’s son Reverend Clement Hudon Beaulieu, a brother of Charles wrote that when General Sibley became the first Governor of Minnesota he commissioned some of his old fur trading associates. My father was made a Colonial of a Guard in the Northern counties of the State. As the military status of the Pioneer Guards was more or less nebulous, its real function for the greater part was social. Clement H Beaulieu was responsible for organizing the Chippewa out of St. Cloud Minnesota into a unit for the Civil War. At the end of the Civil War Captain Charles Beaulieu was an agent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs at the Bena District of the Leech lake Agency.

Charles H. Oakes who married Julia Beaulieu entered the banking business with Charles Borup who married Elizabeth Beaulieu both sisters of Clement H Beaulieu and John and Truman’s father Paul H Beaulieu my grandfather’s grandfather. The two families moved from La Pointe in Wisconsin to St. Paul, Minnesota. Oakes and Borup were important to the development of the city of St. Paul. David Oakes son of Julia and Charles fought in the Civil War and was killed in the Battle of Pittsburgh Landing in 1862.

Paul Hudon Beaulieu was born 1820 at Mackinac Michigan and died in White Earth 10 February 1897. Paul H Beaulieu led the first party of Ojibwe to settle the White Earth Reservation and is recognized as the first settler of the White Earth Reservation. He was selected as the farmer for the reservation. He was an interpreter for the Federal government. 

He was an explorer that had led the Stevens' survey expedition which left from Minnesota in June 1853. The expedition was responsible for documenting the potential route of the railroad, and recording information about the flora, fauna, and the Native American tribes whose homelands were being surveyed. On November 19, 1853, the expedition arrived at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River; eventually, it produced the most thorough report of all four surveys also undertaken for the railroad projects. 

Steven’s eventually became the first Governor of Washington Territory
When the civil War broke out Stevens offered his services to the Union government and was appointed Colonel of the 79th New York Highlanders. He was commissioned Brigadier General of Volunteers in September 1861, and promoted to Major General of Volunteers less than a year later. He met his death fighting gallantly in the battle of Chantilly—the battle in which his son, Hazard, was also wounded—on September 1, 1862.

Following the Civil War John H. Beaulieu was appointed village post master at Beaulieu, Minnesota after the Civil War. I heard that the village was named for the post master.

William and Albert Fairbanks were brothers and uncles to John H Beaulieu whom along with Charles Beaulieu were all in Company G of the 9th Minnesota. William and Albert were brothers to Maria Fairbanks who married Paul H Beaulieu

William and Albert’s father was John Fairbanks was born in "The Chazy" New York July 27 1798 and died in White earth April 20 1880. He was a useful scout for the American Army during the War of 1812 and was in the battle on Lake Champlain and render efficient service during the engagement.

In 1822 he was employed by the American fur Company under John Jacob Astor until the dissolution of the company in 1835. He then entered the Northwest Fur Company and remained until 1848 when it also dissolved. 

He married Mary Sayer who was the daughter of John Sayer and an Anishenabe woman. Maria's brother William was born in Mud lake Minnesota August 20 1837 and lived with his parents in Crow Wing until 1861 when he enlisted in the company of his brother Albert Fairbanks born September 23 1840. 

William married Zoway McGillas August 28 1859. They had no children. After the Civil war he removed to Winnebagoshish where he engaged in trade.

Henry Hudon Beaulieu, was a Sgt in Co G and the younger brother of Paul H Beaulieu and Clement H Beaulieu. He was an Uncle of Charles and John Beaulieu. Henry was omitted from the official list of the regiment but John Lundstrom found collaborating evidence that he was indeed within Company G of the Minnesota 9th.

According to John Lundstrom Theodore Beaulieu in 1914 most likely using official rosters developed a list of Minnesota Chippewa Indians who took an active part in assisting the State and Government during the Sioux Uprising and the Civil War. The list was given to the Minnesota State Historical Society which has it in Beaulieu document collection. 

Theodore Beaulieu’s list of Company G 9th Reg't Minn.
Charles H. Beaulieu, Lieutenant afterwards Captain
Roger Aitkin
Salem Aitkin
John Beaulieu
Edward Belland
John Brown, Quaysegood
Thomas Butts
Henry Charon
Alex. Chaboilley
Joseph Comptois
Joesph Charrett Wain ge mah dub, Chief (pensioner living 1914)
Louis Charrett
Albert Fairbanks
Francois Dufoe
William Fairbanks
Henry Foster She muck e nah go
Robert Fox
John H. Hanks Pun ja min
Eustash Jourdain
Charles Mason
John Parker
Frank Tebeau
Thomas Swan



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Warren Cuffee, Montauk Indian Civil War Veteran


The part played in the Civil War by American Indians representing both Eastern and Southern Tribes has never been adequately represented in American literature. With the patriotism that has been characteristic of all Native Americans, Montauks flung themselves into wars unselfishly, yet received so little in return.

This is an interesting photo of a dashing Montauk Civil War veteran who was a member of the Eastville band of the Sag Harbor Montauks. The long hair and the "Kentucky Colonel" type of moustache and goatee gave Warren Cuffee a look of distinction, prompting some to remark, "He looks like an Indian Buffalo Bill!" The Cuffees are buried in the old cemetery in Sag Harbor and some in Northwest Woods in East Hampton township at the old site of the Cuffee homestead.

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Did any Virginia Indians (individuals or tribes) play a role in the Civil War?

The response of Virginia Indians to the American Civil War varied from tribe to tribe. We know that several Pamunkey men served the Union Army as gunboat pilots, not fighting directly as soldiers. These men were thrown off the rolls of the local Colosse Baptist Church for aiding the "enemy." It's likely that the Pamunkey people chose to aid the North because they had had to repeatedly defend their small remaining lands from encroachment by Virginia and by local landholders over time. One of these men, William Terrill Bradby, went on to become a Union spy and eventually became an informant for noted anthropologist James Mooney. Other tribes responded differently. An 1896 article in the Richmond newspaper reported that men belonging to the Monacan community near Bear Mountain in Amherst had been "taken" to Petersburg during the recent war to work on fortifications there, presumably for the South, perhaps against their will. These varied responses are indicative of the nation's Indian tribes as a whole, some of whom fought valiantly for the South, while others took the Northern side. Some tribes, such as the Cherokee, were directly involved.

Statistics show that just under 3,600 Native Americans served in the Union Army during the war. Perhaps the best known of their number was Colonel Ely Parker, who served as an aide to General U. S. Grant and was present at Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House. Statistics for the Confederacy are not reliably available, but most scholars of Native American involvement in the actual fighting of the war are well acquainted with the major Southern figure among them: Brigadier General Chief Stand Watie, a three-quarter blood Cherokee who was born in December 1806 near what would become Rome, Georgia. Stand Watie had been one of the signers of a treaty that agreed to the removal of the Cherokee from their home in Georgia to what was then the Oklahoma territory; this split the tribe into two factions and culminated in 1838 in the infamous removal known today as the "Trail of Tears."


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Battle of Chusto-Talasah


Battle of Chusto-Talasah

This battle site is 9 miles N.E. S.E at the "Caving Banks" beind on Bird Creek. Here Dec. 9 1861- Opothleyohola's Union indians forced the retreat of Col. D.H. Cooper's Confederate troops. 

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Battle of Round Mountain


This first battle of the Civil War in Ind. Ter., begain 6 mi. south, Nov 19, 1861, when Col. D.H. Cooper's Confederate vanguard was repulsed by Little Captain's Warrior's from Opothleyahola's indian allies moving to north of Ark. river to avoid war. 

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Battle of Round Mountains

Here between the landmark known as Round Mountains to the south and a camp on Salt Cree three miles to the northwest was fought the first battle of the Civil War in Oklahoma. 

When the civilized tribes of the Indian Territory joined the Confederacy. A numerous group of fullblood Creeks under Oputhleyohola remained loyal to the Union. With wagons containing their families and household goods and driving their herds of cattle and horses they circled to the west and north of their settlements hoping to effect a junction with a similar element among the Cherokees. They were pursued by the Confederate commander Colonel Douglas H. Cooper of Mississippi with a contingent of Texas cavalry, six companies of Choctaw and Chickasaw mounted rifles, and Creek and Seminole units under native officers. He over took them on Nov. 19, 1861 and the battle was fought that afternoon and evening. During the night. Oputhleyohola withdrew toward a place in the Cherokee Nation northeast of Tulsa. After a second and third battle in that vicinity the Union Indians were completely routed and fled to Kansas where they remained as refugees until they were able to enlist in the Union army and Indian expedition to recover the Indian Territory 

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Battle of the J.R. Williams

Site of the civil war naval battle. Confederate Indian forces, led by Cherokee Brig. Gen. Stand Watie, forced aground and captured Union Steamboat J. R. Williams with cargo valued at $120,000 on June 15, 1864. Southern troops included Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles.


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Growing around Josiah Doak's store, established in the late 1830s, the town became the commercial center of the region. On November 11, 1847, the name of the nearby post office at Fort Towson was changed to Doaksville. None of the original structures are standing today. It was near here that Brigadier General Stand Watie became the last Confederate general to surrender in the Civil War.* 

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Fort Washita

Site selected and named 1842 by Gen. Zachary Taylor, later Pres. of U.S. Fort established 1842 by 2nd Dragoons, occupied by several rifle, infantry, cavalry, artillery companies. Built to protect the Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians from Plains Indians and wagon trains moving west. With the Mexican War and after gold was discovered in California, Fort Washita became center of activity. Occupied during Civil War by Confederate forces. Not occupied any time thereafter by U.S. troops. 

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Stand Waite

Stand Watie Degataga Oo-watee Stand Watie was only American Indian to attain rank of Brigadier General during the Civil War and was last Confederate general to surrender. Born in Georgia December 12, 1806, he spoke only the Cherokee language until he was twelve years of age. When Federal Government began urging Cherokees to move to Georgia, Tennessee, and North Carolina, to a home west of the Mississippi, Stand was one of those who believed it best for Cherokees to make such a move as signer of the Treaty of New Echota in 1836,

Confederate Brigadier General Stand Watie commanded all Southern troops in the Department of Indian Territory at the close of the Civil War. Although most of the troops had already been sent home, Watie formally surrendered here on June 23, 1865-the last Confederate general to lay down his arms.* 


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Washita, Oklahoma

Washita, Oklahoma *Took it's name from the Washita River" *"Washita" is from two Choctaw words. "Owa" and "Chita" meaning "Big Hunt" *The Wachita Indian Agency was nearby prior to the Civil War *Site of a Civil War engagement Oct 23, 1862 *On Hwy 9 and Rock Island Railroad *Post Office Established April 16, 1910 

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Wichita Agency

Wachita Agency First U.S. Indian agency in Western Oklahoma, opened on 1859 for the Wachita and other exiled tribes. Treaties for Confederate States made this agency, 1861. Agency burned in attack by Northern Indians, 1862 Re-established at Anadarko after the Civil War. 

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