Born the son of one of the few wealthy Catholic businessmen in Waterford in 1823, Meagher benefited from a quality education (partly in England) during which he won awards for poetry and debating. His passion for Irish nationalism and his temperamental nature led him to join the radical Young Ireland movement. These hot blooded young revolutionaries had lost patience with elder statesman Daniel O'Connell's non-violent approach to gaining independence from Britain and now advocated armed insurrection. Meagher's fiery speeches earned him the nickname "Meagher of the sword."
In 1845, the potato famine crippled Ireland, and nationalists like Meagher blamed the tragedy on continued food exports to Britain, then the richest nation on earth. He traveled to France in 1848 as a delegate for the Young Irelanders and returned with the Irish tricolor flag, a gift from the sympathetic French. The flag (adopted as the national flag upon Irish independence in 1921) consisted of three colors: green, white and orange. The green represented the Gaelic/Catholic natives, while the orange represented the English/Protestant planters who arrived in the early 1600s. The white stripe between the green and the orange signified the "lasting truce and heroic brotherhood between the two communities."
When the Young Ireland rebels finally mounted an uprising in 1848, the country was too weak from starvation to care. The only pathetic skirmish that took place was a gun fight with local police in county Tipperary that became knows as the "Battle for Widow McCormack's cabbage patch." Meagher and a handful of other rebel leaders were sentenced to hang (then to be drawn and quartered). But Queen Victoria commuted these sentences to life in the penal colony of "Van Dieman's Land" (the island of Tasmania in Australia).
After three years of penal servitude, in 1852 Meagher escaped in an open rowboat and spent four days at sea. The luck of the Irish held as he was eventually picked up by an American whaling ship and taken to San Francisco. A few months later, he had made his way to New York where he reveled in the opportunities that independence from Britain had given the Americans. He became a lawyer, popular speaker, and founder of newspapers for the growing Irish immigrant population.
Thriving on adventure and quick to spot opportunities, Meagher then spent a year in Central America studying the feasibility of a rail line across Panama or a canal through the isthmus in Nicaragua. While there, he managed to also find time to hunt jaguars and write articles about his travels for Harpers Magazine.
He was back in the USA in time to witness the start of the Civil War in 1861. As an officer in the Union army, Meagher recruited Irish immigrants into the New York militia and rose to the rank of general in command of the "fighting 69th" Irish Brigade. His soldiers wore sprigs of clover in their hats while marching under a green flag embroidered with an Irish harp and the words "Erin go Bragh" (gaelic for "Ireland forever"). In the fall of 1862 on the bloodiest day of the war, Meagher had his horse shot out from underneath him as he led his soldiers on an almost suicidal charge against Confederate forces at the battle of Antietam. Three months later he was wounded during the carnage of repeated charges on Marye's Heights in the battle of Fredricksburg. The Irish Brigade was decimated, but Meagher survived the war.
A few months after war's end, he was appointed acting Governor of the Montana Territory and was soon raising forces to combat hostile Indians (a decade before Custer's demise at Little Bighorn). And then suddenly in the summer of 1867, after beating the odds time and again on three different continents, Thomas Francis Meagher fell off a riverboat and drowned in the Missouri river at age 44. His body was never found.
A statue of Meagher gallantly charging on horseback — sword in hand — stands today in front of the Montana state capitol building in Helena. His brief life as a revolutionary, orator, patriot, convict, journalist, explorer, soldier, and politician can only be summed up as Irish pride...personified.