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The Ten Costliest Battles of the Civil War

The Ten Costliest Battles of the Civil War - Stories


Battle of Gettysburg

    Date: July 1-3, 1863

    Location: Pennsylvania Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: George G. Meade
    Confederate Forces Engaged: 75,000
    Union Forces Engaged: 82,289
    Winner: Union
    Casualties: 51,112 (23,049 Union and 28,063 Confederate)

    JUNE 1863

    Following his victory at Chancellorsville in May, 1863, General Lee received approval from his government to invade the north. Lee hoped an invasion would fuel the northern peace movement and, at least, disrupt the Union war effort. After the death of Stonewall Jackson, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, 75,000-strong, had been reorganized into three army corps under Longstreet, Ewell, and A.P. Hill, with a cavalry division under J.E.B. Stuart. On June 3, advance troops of the Confederate army left their camps near Fredericksburg and marched west toward the Shenandoah Valley.
           The 95,000-strong Federal Army of the Potomac, under General Hooker, was initially uncertain of Lee's intentions. On June 9, Hooker ordered cavalry general Alfred Pleasonton to conduct a reconnaissance with 11,000 men across the Rappahannock River toward Brandy Station. Pleasonton ran into Stuart's cavalry, and the largest cavalry battle of the war ensued. The result was a standoff, but the Federals were now alerted to the Confederate army's movements.
           By June 13, elements of Ewell's corps appeared before Winchester. On the same day, Hooker with-drew the Army of the Potomac from the Rappahannock and ordered it north. On June 14-15, Ewell attacked the 9,000-strong Federal garrison at Winchester and defeated it, inflicting heavy losses and capturing much valuable war material.
           After Winchester, Lee's army moved unchecked into the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania. On June 25, Lee agreed to Stuart's plan to take three brigades of cavalry across the Potomac cast of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and cut across the rear of the Federal army. Stuart's march encountered frequent delays and detours and an increasingly aggressive Federal cavalry, and was unable to rejoin Lee until July 2.
           By June 28, Longstreet and Hill's corps were at Chambersburg. Divisions of Ewell's corps had crossed the mountains to York and Carlisle, and were preparing to move against Harrisburg. However, Lee learned on this day that the Federal army was at Frederick, and that Hooker had been replaced by General Meade. Lee decided to bring his entire army east of the mountains and offer battle. At the same time, Meade moved his army north. By June 30, both armies were converging upon Gettysburg and the battle, which would be the turning point of the war, was set to commence.

    JULY 1 1863

    After the discovery on June 30 that Gettysburg was occupied by Brigadier General John Buford's division of Federal cavalry, the Confederates on July 1 sent the divisions of Major General Henry Heth and Major General William Pender of Hill's Corps, down the Chambersburg Road to drive Buford away and occupy Gettysburg.
           The battle began at 5.30 a.m., when shots were exchanged over Marsh Creek. In the face of Buford's resistance, Heth pushed on cautiously until he reached a point about two miles west of Gettysburg. Here he deployed two brigades in line, and pressed ahead; it was nearly 10 a.m. Federal General John F. Reynolds, commanding I Corps, arrived on the field at this point, and determined to engage Herb. He ordered I Corps and Major General Oliver 0. Howard's XI Corps to march to Gettysburg.
           Soon after 10.30 a.m., I Corps arrived and engaged Heth along McPherson's Ridge. By 11.30 a.m., Heth had been defeated and forced to withdraw to Herr Ridge. Early in the action, Reynolds was killed, and field command devolved upon Howard. A lull now settled over the field as both sides brought up reinforcements. The Federal I Corps deployed to defend the western approaches to Gettysburg, while XI Corps formed up north of the town. Buford's cavalry covered the flanks. Howard left one division in reserve on Cemetery Hill. His strategy was simple: delay the Confederates long enough to enable the rest of the Federal army to concentrate.        Lee arrived on the field after noon. He had initially hoped to avoid a general engagement since the strength of the enemy was unknown, and the terrain in the Gettysburg area unfamiliar. But, soon after noon, Rodes's division of Ewell's Corps arrived on Oak Hill and attacked the right of I Corps. At 2 p.m. Heth's division joined the attack on I Corps. At 3 p.m., the battle spread north of the town when Jubal Early's division of Ewell's Corps attacked down the Harrisburg Road and crushed the flank of XI Corps. At about the same time, west of Gettysburg, Pender's division relieved Heth and assaulted I Corps' position along Seminary Ridge. By 4 p.m., both Federal corps were in retreat through Gettysburg to Cemetery Hill. Federal losses numbered slightly over 9,000, including some 3,000 captured, compared with Confederate losses of about 6,500.
           The day's action had resulted in a Confederate victory, but Federal forces held onto the high ground south of Gettysburg, where their position was soon strengthened by reinforcements.

    JULY 2 1863

    The success of his army in the fighting on July 1 encouraged Lee to renew the battle on July 2. An early morning reconnaissance of the Federal left revealed that their line did not extend as far south as Little Round Top. Lee directed Longstreet to take two divisions of I Corps and march south until they reached the flank of the Federal forces. They would attack from this point, supported by a division of A.P. Hill's corps - a total force of nearly 20,000 men. While Longstreet carried out the main offensive, Ewell was ordered to conduct a demonstration against the Federal right. However, he was given discretion to mount a full-scale attack should the opportunity present itself.
           The Federal army was well prepared for Lee's offensive. Six of its seven corps had arrived on the battlefield, and VI Corps was making a thirty-six-mile forced march to reach it. Meade had deployed his army in a fish-hook-shaped formation, with the right on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill, the center along Cemetery Ridge, and the left on Little Round Top. The left of the Federal line was held by Major General Daniel Sickles's III Corps. Sickles was dissatisfied with his assigned position and in the early afternoon, without orders, he advanced his line nearly half a mile west in order to take advantage of the high open ground around a nearby peach orchard.
           Soon after Sickles took up this new position, Longstreet attacked. Third Corps was hard pressed and Meade sent V Corps and part of 11 Corps to reinforce Sickles in the Peach Orchard. But, after furious fighting, Longstreet's forces broke through, causing Sickles's entire line to collapse. The Confederates pursued to the base of Little Round Top, but Federal reinforcements, including elements of VI Corps, checked their advance. Farther north, elements of a division of the Confederate III Corps advanced to the slopes of Cemetery Ridge before they too were forced to retire.
           On the Federal right, Ewell did not attack until evening, after Longstreet's onslaught had subsided. The effort to storm Cemetery Hill was ultimately unsuccessful. Ewell's attacks were also repulsed at Culp's Hill, although a foothold was gained near the base of the hill.
           The second day's fighting had cost each army some 9,000 casualties. Lee's forces had again gained ground, but had failed to dislodge the Federal army from its strong position.

    JULY 3 1863

    Lee's confidence was unshaken by the events of July 2. That night, he ordered Longstreet, who had been reinforced by Major General George Pickett's division, to renew his assault on the Federal left. Simultaneously, Ewell, who had also been reinforced, was to storm Culp's Hill. Stuart's cavalry, which had rejoined the army late that day, was ordered to march well east of Gettysburg, and attempt to penetrate to the Federal rear where they might disrupt communications and distract Meade.
           Meanwhile, Meade had determined to hold his position and await Lee's attack. However, at Culp's Hill he authorized XII Corps to drive Ewell's forces out of the captured Federal trenches at daylight. The Federal effort opened with a concentrated artillery bombardment which precipitated a tremendous musketry battle.
           With Ewell already engaged, Lee rode to Longstreet's headquarters to observe his preparations for the attack on the Federal left. Longstreet misunderstood his orders and was planning instead a movement to turn the Federal left. With the hope of a coordinated attack now lost, Lee was forced to modify his plans. He determined to shift his main attack to the Federal center on Cemetery Ridge. Longstreet was placed in command of the effort. The plan was first to subject the Federal position to bombardment by nearly 140 cannon, then to send Pickett, Pettigrew and half of Trimble's divisions (formerly Heth's and Pender's) - nearly 12,000 men - forward to smash the Federal center.
           While Longstreet made his preparations during the morning, Ewell's forces were defeated in their counterattacks on Culp's Hill, and withdrew around 11:00 a.m.
           At l:00 p.m., Longstreet opened the great bombardment of the Federal line. The Federal army replied with approximately 80 cannon and a giant duel ensued which lasted for nearly two hours. After the bombardment subsided, the infantry went forward. This has subsequently been known throughout history as "Pickett's Charge."  Federal artillery, followed by musketry, cut their formations to pieces and inflicted devastating losses. A small Confederate force effected one small penetration of the Federal line, but was overwhelmed. The attack ended in disaster, with nearly 5,600 Confederate casualties. Meanwhile, three miles east of Gettysburg, Stuart's cavalry was engaged by Federal cavalry under Brigadier General David Gregg. The cavalry clash was indecisive, but Stuart was neutralized and posed no threat to the Federal rear.
           The battle was effectively over. Federal losses numbered approximately 23,000, while estimates of Confederate losses range between 20,000 and 28,000.
    Source: This description of the battle was taken, for the most part, from James M. McPherson's " The Atlas of the Civil War."

    Battle of Chickamauga

      Date: September 19-20, 1863

      Location: Georgia
      Confederate Commander: Braxton Bragg
      Union Commander: William Rosecrans
      Confederate Forces Engaged: 66,326
      Union Forces Engaged: 58,222
      Winner: Confederacy
      Casualties: 34,624 (16,170 Union and 18,454 Confederate)

      Rosecrans' successful Tullahoma Campaign turned Bragg out of his positions in Tenn. North of Chattanooga and opened the way for the capture of that vital communications hub. The town was too well fortified to be taken by frontal assault, so Rosecrans planned another strategic envelopment. He decided to operate west of the town, rather than to the east, so as to make the best use of the rail lines to Stevenson for supplying his forces. Bragg expected his opponent to shift his line of operations to the other side of Chattanooga, where he would be in a better position to secure the assistance of Burnside's forces in east Tenn.
             The Confederate authorities considered another offensive into Tenn., but decided they lacked the means. They then ordered a reorganization of Bragg's forces in order to assure the defense of Chattanooga. Buckner was put under Bragg's command, and Longstreet was ordered from the Army of Northern Va. with the divisions of McLaws and Hood to reinforce Bragg.
             After much unsuccessful urging, the authorities in Washington on 5 Aug. Sent Rosecrans and Burnside orders to advance and gain possession of the upper Tennessee Valley. On 15 Aug. Rosecrans issued orders for an advance to the Tennessee River, and Burnside ordered an advance on Knoxville and Kingston. Rosecrans' forces reached their initial objectives 21 Aug. And spent the rest of the month preparing to cross.
             Bragg began concentrating his forces around Chattanooga when he learned from Wheeler's cavalry that the Federals were starting to cross the river. About 1 Sept. He was reinforced by two divisions from the Army of the Miss. (Breckinridge and W.H.T. Walker). Wheeler and Forrest remained in command of the cavalry carps. On the morning of the 18th three brigades of Longstreet's corps arrived, under Hood's command. Longstreet himself arrived the next night with two more brigades. The six brigade of the eastern troops and E.P. Alexander's artillery did not arrive in time for the battle.
             Rosecrans crossed the river without opposition, completing the operation 4 Sept. Assuming from incorrect reports that Bragg was evacuating Chattanooga, Rosecrans advanced through the mountainous terrain on a 40-mile front to cut off Bragg's retreat. By 6 Sept. His three corps were in the valley of Lookout Creek, with the most advanced division in Steven's Gap. Burnside occupied Knoxville and Kingston this same day. It was also on 6 Sept. That Bragg decided to abandon Chattanooga, concentrate at LaFayette, and defeat the Federals as they emerged from the mountain passes. Hill moved the night of the 7th to LaFayette; Polk started the next morning for Lee and Gordon's Mill; Walker joined Hill near LaFayette; and Buckner took up a position generally between the two wings.
             There followed a complex sequence of maneuvers in which the failures of Bragg's subordinates deprived the Confederates of their opportunity for defeating isolated Federal units in detail. The first failure was on the 10th when faulty coordination between the divisions of Hindman (Polk) and Cleburne (Hill) enabled Negley's isolated division at Dug Gap to be reinforced before the Confederates could attack it. Rosecrans now believed the entire enemy army was around LaFayette and started concentrating his own forces. Crittenden, who had taken Chattanooga and then moved to Ringgold, started westward on 12 Sept. To Lee and Gordon's Mill. Walker was ordered from LaFayette to reinforce Polk and to attack Crittenden. The forces of both commanders now began to shift north. Rosecrans order McCook to withdraw from Alpine and move west of Lookout Mountain to join Thomas at Steven's Gap.        Both commanders shifted troops as bits of enemy information were reported. Bragg, having missed repeated opportunities for destroying isolated Federal forces, now was content to await his reinforcements from Miss. And Va.
             Bragg ordered a dawn attack for 18 Sept. Against Crittenden's corps on the Federal north flank. This well-conceived plan was frustrated by Federal mounted brigades. Bushrod Johnson's division finally succeeded in forcing a crossing against Minty's cavalry at Reed's Bridge late in the afternoon. Wilder's cavalry inflicted heavy losses on Liddell's division (Walker's corps), succeeding finally in dismantling Alexander's bridge and forcing the Confederates to cross at Lambert's Ford. Polk was to attack Crittenden frontally at Lee and Gordon's Mill after the enveloping force of Forrest, Buckner, W.H.T. Walker, and Bushrod Johnson crossed the creek; the failure of the envelopment meant that Polk could not attack. As a result, Crittenden's corps was not engaged at all during the day.

      The First Day (19 Sept. '63)

      **       During the night preceding the battle both sides were shifting troops. "Neither army knew the exact position of the other....It is probable that division commanders on either side hardly knew where their own commands were, in the thick woods., let alone the other troops of their own arm, or the troops of the hostile army. The lines were at this time about six miles long."
             On the morning of the 19th Thomas ordered Brannan's division, then posted on the road two miles north of the Lee and Gordon's Mill, to reconnoiter toward Chickamauga Creek. Brannan encountered and drove back Forrest's dismounted cavalry, which called on the nearest Confederate infantry for help. This brought on an all-day battle. Every division of the XIV, XX, and XXI Corps was committed. Of the Confederate forces, only the divisions of Breckinridge and Hindman, on the south flank, were not engaged. Neither side gained any decided advantage.**

      The Second Day (20 Sept. '63) Battle Map

      **       During the night the two opposing forces further rearranged their dispositions in the difficult terrain. Rosecrans prepared defensive positions, and Bragg planned an attack. Longstreet had arrived during the night; he was given command of the left wing of Bragg's army, and Polk was given command of the other.
             Bragg's units were to attack successively from north to south. Breckinridge attacked on the north at 9 o'clock Sunday morning. Thomas, commanding the Federal left wing, called for Negley's division, which was supposed to be in reserve. Due to an error, however, Negley was in the line. Wood, whose division was in reserve where Negley's was supposed to be, moved up to relieve Negley, while the latter sent one brigade and then another to reinforce Thomas. For two hours the Federal left successfully held off heavy attacks.
             Rosecrans' misunderstanding as to the true location of his units then led to a fatal error. He was trying to strengthen the defenses on his right while Thomas held the other flank. Thinking that Wood was on Reynolds' (right) flank, he ordered Wood "to close up and support Reynolds." Actually, Brannan was on Wood's left, and following his instructions, Wood pulled out of the line, passed behind Brannan, and fell in on Reynolds' flank. The divisions of Sheridan and J.C. Davis were closing to fill this gap at abut 11:30 when Longstreet attacked. By a strange coincidence, Longstreet hit the precise point left open by the Federal error. Sheridan's and Davis' divisions were shattered by superior force, and the Federal right was driven back on its left flank.
             Rosecrans, McCook, and Crittenden, unable to rally the troops around them, fled to Chattanooga, thinking the entire army was being destroyed. Thomas remained on the field, turning Wood and Brannan to block Longstreet on the south. Bragg had failed to provide for a general, and so was unable to exploit Longstreet's success. Three brigades of Granger's Reserve Corps ("Army of the Kentucky") were near McAffee's Church with orders to remain there and protect the flank. In a splendid example of battlefield initiative Granger violated his orders and "at the moment of greatest need reported to Gen. Thomas with two brigades" (Whittaker and Mitchell from Steedman's division). Van Horne says "the opportune aid o these two brigades saved the army from defeat and rout" (Van Horne, I, 353). Thomas held the field until dark and then, on orders from Rosecrans, withdrew to Rossville Gap.        Rosecrans withdrew his army into the defenses of Chattanooga. Bragg followed, occupied Missionary Ridge and laid siege to the town.**


      **       Although Bragg had won a decided tactical victory, his piecemeal method of attack and lack of a general reserve deprived him of the success that an outstanding general might have achieved under the circumstances--particularly the rare bit of luck occasioned by Longstreet's attack finding a gap. Failure to pursue the shattered Federals deprived Bragg of the fruits of his victory. The work of Thomas--the "Rock of Chickamauga"--the steadfastness of the troops on his wing, and the troops on his wing, and initiative of Granger, all helped make this a Pyretic victory for the South.
             An evaluation of the statistics shows that the Union had 19.6 percent killed and wounded and Confederates 25.9 percent. Using Livermore's "hit by 1,000" system of comparing the combat effectiveness, Rosecrans' troops killed or wounded 292 Confederates for every 1,000 Federal soldiers engaged; Bragg's forces, on the other hand, killed or wounded only 172 Federals for every 1,000 of their own troops engaged. The battle, fought in a densely wooded area which permitted little or no tactical control of units, was one of the bloodiest of the war.
             Chickamauga was a maker and breaker of reputations. Thomas's performance elevated him to top command, and Granger was also marked for higher responsibility. Rosecrans, Alexander McCook, Crittenden, and Negley were relieved: the last three were charged with misconduct but acquitted. The fractious Bragg, whose personality defect were large responsible for the poor cooperation of his subordinates, relieved Polk, D.H. Hill, and Hindman for unsatisfactory performance during the campaign.
      Source: "The Civil War Dictionary," by Mark M. Boatner III**

      Battle of Chancellorsville

        Date: May 1-4, 1863

        Location: Virginia
        Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee
        Union Commander: Joseph Hooker
        Confederate Forces Engaged: 60,892
        Union Forces Engaged: 133,868
        Winner: Confederacy
        Casualties: 30,099 (17,278 Union and 12,821 Confederate)

        The Beginning
        April 26 - May 1, 1863

        Morale in the Federal Army of the Potomac rose with the appointment of Joseph Hooker to command. Hooker reorganized the army and formed a cavalry corps. He wanted to strike at Lee's army while a sizable portion was detached under Longstreet in the Suffolk area. The Federal commander left a substantial force at Fredericksburg to tie Lee to the hills where Burnside had been defeated. Another Union force disappeared westward, crossed the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers, and converged on Fredericksburg from the west. The Federal cavalry would open the campaign with a raid on Lee's line of communications with the Confederate capital at Richmond. Convinced that Lee would have to retreat, Hooker trusted that his troops could defeat the Confederates as they tried to escape his trap.
               On April 29, Hooker's cavalry and three army corps crossed Kelly's Ford. His columns split, with the cavalry pushing to the west while the army corps secured Getmanna and Ely's fords. The next day these columns reunited at Chancellorsville. Lee reacted to the news of the Federals in the Wilderness by sending General Richard H. Anderson's division to investigate. Finding the Northerners massing in the woods around Chancellorsville; Anderson commenced the construction of earthworks at Zoan Church. Confederate reinforcements under Stonewall Jackson marched to help block the Federal advance, but did not arrive until May 1. The Confederates had no intention of retreating as Hooker had predicted.
               Hooker's troops rested at Chancellorsville after executing what is often considered to be the most daring march of the war. They had slipped across Lee's front undetected. To some the hardest part of the campaign seemed to be behind them; to others, the most difficult had yet to be encountered. The cavalry raid had faltered in its initial efforts and Hooker's main force was trapped in the tangles of the Wilderness without any cavalry to alert them of Lee's approach.

        The End
        May 1-6 1863

        As the Federal army converged on Chancellorsville, General Hooker expected Lee to retreat from his forces, which totaled nearly 115,000. Although heavily outnumbered with just under 60,000 troops - Lee had no intention of retreating. The Confederate commander divided his army: one part remained to guard Fredericksburg, while the other raced west to meet Hooker's advance. When the van of Hooker's column clashed with the Confederates' on May 1, Hooker pulled his troops back to Chancellorsville, a lone tavern at a crossroads in a dense wood known locally as The Wilderness. Here Hooker took up a defensive line, hoping Lee's need to carry out an uncoordinated attack through the dense undergrowth would leave the Confederate forces disorganized and vulnerable.
               To retain the initiative, Lee risked dividing his forces still further, 'retaining two divisions to focus Hooker's attention, while Stonewall Jackson marched the bulk of the Confederate army west across the front of the Federal line to a position opposite its exposed right flank. Jackson executed this daring and dangerous maneuver throughout the morning and afternoon of May 2. Striking two hours before dusk, Jackson's men routed the astonished Federals in their camps. In the gathering darkness, amid the brambles of the Wilderness, the Confederate line became confused and halted at 9 p.m. to regroup. Riding in front of the lines to reconnoiter, Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot and seriously wounded by his own men. Later that night, his left arm was amputated just below the shoulder.
               On May 3, Jackson's successor, General J.E.B. Stuart, initiated the bloodiest day of the battle when attempting to reunite his troops with Lee's. Despite an obstinate defense by the Federals, Hooker ordered them to withdraw north of the Chancellor House. The Confederates were converging on Chancellorsville to finish Hooker when a message came from Jubal Early that Federal troops had broken through at Fredericksburg. At Salem Church, Lee threw a cordon around these Federals, forcing them to retreat across the Rappahannock. Disappointed, Lee returned to Chancellorsville, only to find that Hooker had also retreated across the river.
               Chancellorsville is considered Lee's greatest victory, although the Confederate commander's daring and skill met little resistance from the inept generalship of Joseph Hooker. Using cunning, and dividing their forces repeatedly, the massively outnumbered Confederates drove the Federal army from the battlefield. The cost had been frightful. The Confederates suffered 14,000 casualties, while inflicting 17,000. Perhaps the most damaging loss to the Confederacy was the death of Lee's "right arm," Stonewall Jackson, who died of pneumonia on May 10 while recuperating from his wounds.
        Source: "The Atlas of the Civil War" by James M. McPherson

        Battle of Spotsylvania

          Date: May 8-19, 1864

          Location: Virginia
          Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee
          Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant
          Confederate Forces Engaged: 50,000Union Forces Engaged: 83,000Winner: Confederacy
          Casualties: 27,399 (18,399 Union and 9)000 Confederate)

          Spotsylvania Court House 8-21 May 1864

          As darkness settled over northern Virginia on the evening of May 6, 1864, the two-day series of military engagements that would become known as the battle of the Wilderness came to a close. The first encounter between the war's most prominent military leaders - Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, commanding all United States armies from a headquarters in the field with the Army of the Potomac, and General Robert E. Lee, commanding the Army of Northern Virginia - had ended. At 6:30 A.M. on May 7 Grant issued a directive to the Army of the Potomac commander, Major General George Gordon Meade. The order, one of the most important of Grant's military career, began, "General: Make all preparations during the day for a night march to take position at Spotsylvania Court-House."
                  On the night of May 7-8 the Union Fifth Corps and the Confederate First Corps, moving independently and unknown to each other, led the marches of their respective armies toward Spotsylvania Court House. In the morning the lead elements met on the Spindle farm along the Brock Road, and the fighting lasted throughout the day as more units from each army arrived. Elements of the Federal Sixth Corps joined in the attack around midday, but the Union troops were unable to force their way through, and nightfall found two sets of parallel fieldworks across the Brock Road. What the Federals had thought would be a rapid march into open country had stalled behind these works. The battle of Spotsylvania Court House was under way.
                  More units of each army continued to arrive on May 9. The Confederate Third Corps marched along the Shady Grove Church Road (today State Route 608) to the village of Spotsylvania Court House. The Federal Second Corps, commanded by Major General Winfield S. Hancock, moved from Todd's Tavern along the Brock Road, then moved off the road to take position to the right of the Fifth Corps, overlooking the Po River. Late in the afternoon troops from the Second Corps crossed the river and moved east on the Shady Grove Church Road as far as the Block House bridge over the Po before darkness halted them.
                  During the night Lee sent one brigade, commanded by Brigadier General William Mahone, to block and one division, led by Major General Henry Heth, to attack the Federal force the following day. On the morning of May 10 the three divisions of the Federal Second Corps south of the Po River were directed to return north of that stream to assault another segment of the Confederate line. Two divisions recrossed successfully, but the third crossed under Confederate fire.
                  Elsewhere that day, the Federal commanders attempted to execute a combined attack all along the lines. A series of piecemeal assaults by elements of the Fifth and Second corps at Laurel Hill proved unsuccessful. A bit farther east a charge by twelve Union regiments against the western face of a great salient in the Confederate line was far more carefully arranged. The British military historian C. F. Atkinson, writing in 1908 in Grant's Cam_paigns of 1864 and 1865_, labeled the charge "one of the classic Infantry attacks of military history". This dramatic action also failed, because of the failure of a supporting assault and because of strong Confederate counterstrokes.
                  Grant decided to attack the apex of the Confederate salient with the entire Federal Second Corps on May 12. Two divisions of Major General Ambrose Burnside's Ninth Corps were to attack the east face of the Confederate position simultaneously. The Second Corps moved into position after dark.
                  At 4:35 A.M. on May 12 the Federal Second Corps moved forward from its position near the Brown house, advanced across the Landrum farm clearing, and struck the apex of the salient. Continuing forward for about half a mile, the Federals captured approximately 3,000 prisoners from Major General Richard S. Ewell's Second Corps before being driven back to the outside of the works by Confederate reserve forces. Both sides forwarded reinforcements (the Federals added units of Major General Horatio Wright's Sixth Corps to the assault), and the northern face of the salient became the focus of close firing and fighting that lasted for twenty-three hours. In midafternoon a division of the Ninth Corps advanced, and a portion of it was struck by an advancing pair of Confederate brigades, James H. Lane's and David A. Weisiger's, in an area approximately three quarters of a mile north of the village of Spotsylvania Court House. The resulting engagement was a wild melee in dark woods, with every soldier trying to fight his way back to his own lines.
                  A Federal Second Corps soldier, viewing the churned landscape around the "bloody angle" on the morning of May 13, wrote: "The trench on the Rebel side of the works was filled with their dead piled together in every way with their wounded. The sight was terrible and ghastly." Sometime before 2:00 A.M. on May 13 a large oak tree just behind the west face of the salient crashed to the ground. Its trunk, twenty Inches In diameter, had been severed by musket balls.
                  The Confederates successfully withdrew to a newly constructed line along the base of the salient at 3:00 A.M. On the night of May 13, 14 the Federal Fifth and Sixth corps marched around to the Fredericksburg Road and went into position south of that road on the left of the Ninth Corps. On May 15 the Second Corps joined the other three Union corps so that the Federal lines, east of the village, now faced west and ran north and south. Three days later two Union corps returned to the salient and attacked the Confederates' final line but were unsuccessful.
                  On May 19 Ewell's Confederate Second Corps made a forced reconnaissance around to the Fredericksburg Road to attempt to locate the right flank of the Union line. There they ran into some newly arrived Federal troops that had formerly manned the forts surrounding Washington, D.C. These heavy artillerymen, most of whom were serving under Brigadier General Robert 0. Tyler, were acting as infantry for the first time. The resulting engagement on the Harris farm exacted a heavy toll on both sides: It cost the Confederates 900 casualties and the Federals slightly more than 1,500.
                  The battle of Spotsylvania Court House was over. If Grant's intention had been to defeat or even destroy the Army of Northern Virginia, he was unsuccessful at Spotsylvania. Assuming that Lee's primary objective was to hold the line of the Rapidan River and keep the enemy out of central Virginia, the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania can be considered strategic defeats. However, by delaying Grant for two weeks at Spotsylvania, Lee permitted other Confederate forces to resist Union efforts in the vicinity of Richmond and in the Shenandoah Valley, unmolested by the Army of the Potomac.
                  Confederate casualties for the two-week long battle were estimated at 9,000-10,000 (combat strength: 63,000). Federal casualties were reported as slightly less than 18,000 (combat strength: 111,000). Perhaps the most notable death was that of Sixth Corps commander Major General John Sedgwick, killed by a sharpshooter's bullet as he prowled the front lines on May 9. Shortly before, Sedgwick had chided some infantrymen trying to dodge the occasional minie balls whistling past with the comment that the Confederates "couldn't hit an elephant at this distance."
                  Both armies departed Spotsylvania on May 20 and 21. Lee rode south, aware that he had to avoid a siege of Richmond or the Confederacy would be doomed. He would next meet Grant at the North Anna River.
                  Grant had sent a dispatch on May 11 declaring, "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. It would take that long and more. Source: "The Civil War Battlefield Guide"

          Battle of Antietam

            Date: September 17, 1862

            Location: Maryland
            Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee
            Union Commander: George B. McClellan
            Confederate Forces Engaged: 51,844
            Union Forces Engaged: 75,316
            Winner: Inconclusive (Strategic Union Victory)
            Casualties: 26,134 (12,410 Union and 13,724 Confederate)

            Antietam Battle Description
            (Battle Map)

            The Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862, climaxed the first of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's two attempts to carry the war into the North. About 40,000 Southerners were pitted against the 87,000-man Federal Army of the Potomac under Gen. George B. McClellan. And when the fighting ended, the course of the American Civil War had been greatly altered.
                    After his great victory at Manassas in August, Lee had marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Maryland, hoping to find vitally needed men and supplies. McClellan followed, first to Frederick (where through rare good fortune a copy of the Confederate battle plan, Lee's Special Order No. 191, fell into his hands), then westward 12 miles to the passes of South Mountain. There on September 14, at Turner's, Fox's, and Crampton's gaps, Lee tried to block the Federals. But because he had split his army to send troops under Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson to capture Harpers Ferry, Lee could only hope to delay the Northerners. McClellan forced his way through, and by the afternoon of September 15 both armies had established new battle lines west and east of Antietam Creek near the town of Sharpsburg. When Jackson's troops reached Sharpsburg on the 16th, Harpers Ferry having surrendered the day before, Lee consolidated his position along the low ridge that runs north and south of the town.
                    The battle opened at dawn on the 17th when Union Gen. Joseph Hooker's artillery began a murderous fire on Jackson's men in the Miller cornfield north of town. "In the time I am writing," Hooker reported, "every stalk of corn in the northern and greater part of the field was cut as closely as could have been done with a knife, and the slain lay in rows precisely as they had stood in their ranks a few moments before." Hooker's troops advanced, driving the Confederates before them, and Jackson reported that his men were "exposed for near an hour to a terrific storm of shell, canister, and musketry."
                    About 7 a.m. Jackson was reinforced and succeeded in driving the Federals back. An hour later Union troops under Gen. Joseph Mansfield counterattacked and by 9 o'clock had regained some of the lost ground. Then, in an effort to extricate some of Mansfield's men from their isolated position near the Dunker Church, Gen. John Sedgwick's division of Edwin V. Sumner's corps advanced into the West Woods. There Confederate troops struck Sedgwick's men on both flanks, inflicting appalling casualties.
                    Meanwhile, Gen. William H. French's division of Sumner's corps moved up to support Sedgwick but veered south into Confederates under Gen. D. H. Hill posted along an old sunken road separating the Roulette and Piper farms. For nearly 4 hours, from 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m., bitter fighting raged along this road (afterwards known as Bloody Lane) as French, supported by Gen. Israel B. Richardson's division, also of Sumner's corps, sought to drive the Southerners back. Confusion and sheer exhaustion finally ended the battle here and in the northern part of the field generally.
                    Southeast of town, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's troops had been trying to cross a bridge over Antietam Creek since 9:30 a.m. Some 400 Georgians had driven them back each time. At 1 p.m. the Federals finally crossed the bridge (now known as Burnside Bridge) and, after a 2-hour delay to reform their lines, advanced up the slope beyond. By late afternoon they had driven the Georgians back almost to Sharpsburg, threatening to cut off the line of retreat for Lee's decimated Confederates. Then about 4 p.m. Gen. A. P. Hill's division, left behind by Jackson at Harpers Ferry to salvage the captured Federal property, arrived on the field and immediately entered the fight. Burnside's troops were driven back to the heights near the bridge they had earlier taken. The Battle of Antietam was over. The next day Lee began withdrawing his army across the Potomac River.
                    More men were killed or wounded at Antietam on September 17, 1862, than on any other single day of the Civil War. Federal losses were 12,410, Confederate losses 10,700. Although neither side gained a decisive victory, Lee's failure to carry the war effort effectively into the North caused Great Britain to postpone recognition of the Confederate government. The battle also gave President Abraham Lincoln the opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which, on January 1, 1863, declared free all slaves in States still in rebellion against the United States. Now the war had a dual purpose: to preserve the Union and end slavery.
            This page last updated 02/23/02

            Battle of The Wilderness

              Date: May 5-7, 1864

              Location: Virginia
              Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee
              Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant
              Confederate Forces Engaged: 61,025
              Union Forces Engaged: 101,895
              Winner: Inconclusive
              Casualties: 25,416 (17,666 Union and 7,750 Confederate)

              Battle of the Wilderness, Va.
              5-7 May '64.

              (Battle Map)

              **       The Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock on 4 May but was forced to stop in the Wilderness to wait for the supply train to catch up. That afternoon Hancock's 11 Corps bivouacked at Chancellorsville, Warren's V Corps was at Old Wilderness Tavern, and the cavalry divisions of Gregg and J. H. Wilson were forward at Piney Branch Church and Parker's Store, respectively. The Federals had detected some enemy activity along the road from Orange C.H. Lee, who had anticipated Grant's movement and had resolved to hit the Federals while they were in the difficult Wilderness terrain, had Ewell's corps on the Orange Turnpike, and A. P. Hill (minus R. H. Anderson's division) on the Plank Road. The head of Ewell's column was at Locust Grove, little more than three miles from Warren, while A. P. Hill was but slightly more distant from J. H. Wilson. Yet neither army seemed aware of the other's proximity. Longstreet's corps had been at Mechanicsville, and Stuart's cavalry at Fredericksburg; both were moving in to join the rest of the Army of Northern Va. R.H. Anderson's division (A. P. Hill) was near Orange C.H.
                     At 6 P.m. 4 May Grant issued orders to continue the march at 5 o'clock the next morning through the Wilderness to the southeast. Burnside's IX Corps had also been ordered up from its previous mission of guarding the Orange and Alexandria R. R. Sedgwick's VI Corps was just across the Rappahannock. The stage was set.
                     At 7:15 A.m. 5 May Warren reported a considerable enemy force on the turnpike about two miles from Wilderness Tavern. He was ordered to attack what Grant and Meade believed to be no more than a division.
                    Crawford, whose division (3, V) had advanced to the Chewning farm, was ordered to hold his position, but to be prepared to send one brigade to support Warren. About noon Griffin (1, V) attacked, routed John M. Jones's brigade of Johnson's division, and then advanced against Battle's and Doles's brigades of Rodes's division (south of the turnpike). Jones was killed. In this advance, however, his right flank became exposed and was attacked by Gordon and Daniel. The Federal brigade of Ayres (1, 1, V) was driven back and Griffin had to pull back his entire line. Stafford was mortally wounded and Pegram wounded. Wright's division (1, VI) had been ordered to move from Spotswood to fall in on Griffin's right for this attack and protect his flank, but had not been able to get up in time. He arrived about 3 P.m. and then repulsed an attack by two brigades of Edward Johnson's division. On the other flank Wadsworth's division (4, V) had been ordered to reinforce Griffin's south flank, but it got lost and was driven back in disorder when its right flank was hit by the advancing brigades of Gordon and Daniel. This created a gap through which the Confederates advanced and overpowered Denison's brigade of Robinson's division (3, 2, V). McCandless' brigade (1, 3, V) had also been ordered to form on Wadsworth's left, but Wadsworth had moved out before McCandless could make contact with him. McCandless collided with the forces of Gordon that had just defeated Denison and was also defeated with considerable loss after a heavy engagement. Ewell then dug in along the line where contact had first been made. Opposite him Warren formed (south of the pike) and Sedgwick (minus Getty) extended the line north of the pike.
                     To the south, along the Plank Road, the 5th N.Y. and 3d Pa. Cav. were left to outpost Parker's Store while Wilson moved with the rest of his division southwest toward Craig's Meeting House. Kirkland's brigade of Heth's division led A. P. Hill's advance along the Plank Road and drove the Federals toward Wilderness Tavern. Getty's division (2, VI), which had been marching southeast through the latter crossroads at 9 A.M.,was sent to stop this enemy advance. At the same time Hancock's corps was ordered to halt in the vicinity of Todd's Tavern. However, in accordance with his earlier orders, Hancock was already two miles beyond the tavern toward Shady Grove Church, and had to countermarch. Getty reached the intersection of the Brock and Plank roads just in time to stop Heth's advance. Both sides then dug in. D. D. Birney's division (3, 11) arrived at 2 P.m. and formed to Getty's south; Mott, Gibbon, and Barlow followed and extended the line to the south. Baxter's brigade (2, 2, V) arrived late in the afternoon. A. P. Hill, meanwhile, had been building up his own line and extending north to link up with Ewell; at the same time he was anxiously awaiting the expected arrival of Longstreet behind him. Longstreet, however, had delayed his advance while getting permission to move via the Catharpin Road instead of the Plank Road as Lee had ordered; the result was that he did not arrive in time for the first day's fighting.
                     Hancock had also wasted time digging a defensive position before attacking A. P. Hill. Getty attacked at 4:15, after delaying an hour to shift position to make room for Hancock. Although he gained ground with the assistance of Ricketts' battery against the center of Heth's position, he was repulsed on both flanks. The brigade of Col. Lewis A. Grant (2, 2, VI) lost almost 50 per cent. Hancock reinforced with the divisions of D. B. Birney (along the road) and Mott (against the enemy's right); later he committed Carroll's brigade of Gibbon's division (3, 2, II) to the right of the Plank Road in support of Eustis' brigade of Getty's division (4, 2, VI). "There was never more desperate fighting than now ensued," wrote E. P. Alexander. During the action Wilcox' division reinforced Heth. About 5:30 P.m. the Confederates attacked and gained about 50 yards. Two of Barlow's brigades then charged and drove back Hill's right. At 8 p.m., after dark, the fighting stopped. Five Federal divisions (38.000 men) had failed to dislodge A.P. Hill's two divisions (14,000).
                     Wadsworth's division (4, V) had been ordered from the north to reinforce Hancock by attacking Hill's exposed left. It was unable to find its way through the difficult underbrush in time to be effective.
                     Along the turnpike there had been heavy skirmishing. About 5 P.m. the brigades of Seymour (2, 3, VI), Neill (3, 2, VI), and part of Wright's 1st brig. (under W. H. Penrose) attacked the strongly-entrenched brigades of Hays and Pegram south of Flat Run. Neill and Penrose were repulsed with heavy loss by guns Pegram had located so as to enfilade their lines. Seymour attacked until darkness without being able to break through.
                     Since he expected Longstreet to arrive soon to relieve his tired troops on the Orange Plank Road, A. P. Hill made the mistake of disapproving the urgent recommendation of Heth that earthworks be constructed in this sector in preparation for the anticipated continuation of Federal attacks.
                     Not having identified either Longstreet's corps or R. H. Anderson's division during the day's fighting, Grant ordered a general attack to start at dawn of 6 May. During the night Burnside's IX corps hurried up to reinforce Hancock, while Longstreet and Anderson moved to reinforce A.P. Hill.
                     At 5 A.M. Birney attacked with the support of Getty and two of Gibbon's brigades. Mott advanced toward Hill's right. Wadsworth, who had made contact with Hill's left about dark of the preceding day, was to attack in that area. Birney was stopped when he came up against Hill's line, but then succeeded in enveloping it from the south while Wadsworth made progress against the other flank, The Confederates were about to be routed when Field's and Kershaw's divisions ofLongstreet's corps arrived and formed a new defensive line.
                     Gibbon was in command of a force on the Federal south flank along the Brock Road to guard against an expected advance by Longstreet from this direction. In compliance with an order to attack the Confederate south flank with Barlow's division, Gibbon had sent forward only Frank's brigade (3, 1. II). After hard fighting this unit made contact with Mott's left. Due to the difficult terrain Burnside's two divisions were late. At about 8 o'clock Stevenson's division of this corps reported to Hancock and Hancock was informed at about the same time that Burnside with the two other divisions was in position to attack on his right. Actually Burnside did not get into position until 2 P.m.
                     Shortly before 9 A.m. Hancock resumed his attack along the Plank Road with Birney, Mott, Wadsworth, part of Stevenson's division, and three brigades of Gibbon's division. Having heard firing to his south, Hancock sent Brooke's brigade (4, 1, 11) to guard the Brock Road against a possible approach of Longstreet. Actually, the latter was at this moment on Hancock's front; the firing to the south was a skirmish between Sheridan's and Stuart's cavalry at TODD's TAVERN. The concern over an attack from this area was further heightened when a column was reported advancing on the Brock Road. This turned out to be a group of Federal convalescents who were trying to rejoin their units. While Hancock diverted strength to guard his left, Burnside's attack failed to materialize on his right. By about 9:45 A.M. Longstreet had pushed Hancock back to his line of departure.
                     Looking for a way to take the offensive, Longstreet learned of an unfinished railroad cut that would provide a covered approach for attacking the Federal south flank. He put his adjutant, Lt. Col. G. Moxley Sorrel, in command of four brigades to make this attempt. The brigades were those of Wofford, G. T. Anderson, Davis, and Mahone. (Many accounts, e. g., Steele, state that Mahone was in command.) Sorrel attacked at 11 A.M., and overwhelmed the Federal flank. Frank's brigade, almost out of ammunition when the attack started, withdrew under heavy pressure; the left of Mott's division then was forced back. Wadsworth was killed while trying to rally his troops. On Birney's suggestion the line was withdrawn to the Brock Road. When Longstreet learned of Sorrel's success, he ordered forward the brigades of Benning, Law, and Gregg. Mahone's men fired by mistake on their own troops, killing Micah Jenkins and seriously wounding Longstreet. (This occurred within five miles of where Stonewall Jackson had been mortally wounded under similar circumstances almost exactly a year before.) Longstreet ordered Field to assume command and press the attack. Lee, however, arrived and ordered this advance delayed until the lines could be straightened out.
                     There was little fighting in this area between 11 o'clock and 4 P.m. Burnside finally arrived, attacked near the Tapp House, took some ground, but was driven back by reinforcements from Heth's division and Wofford's brigade of Kershaw's division. Before Burnside and Hancock could comply with their orders to attack at 6 P.m.. Lee took the initiative. At 4:15 the Confederates advanced to the abatis 100 yards from the Federals' first line of defense and brought it under heavy musket fire. The Federal line held for half an hour; then Ward's brigade (1, 3, 11) and part of Mott's division broke. Brush fires had started and Hancock reported that portions of the breastworks were burning so that they could not be defended. Although the Confederates planted their flags over the captured works they were then driven back by Carroll's brigade, supported by Dow's battery. Burnside attacked again but accomplished no more than keeping Heth and Wilcox from moving to Lee's support.
                    To the north Sedgwick and Warren had attacked repeatedly and failed to penetrate Ewell's lines. Gordon had found the exposed Federal right flank, but Ewell had refused him permission to attack it. When Lee visited this portion of the front at 5:30 P.m. he ordered the attack made. Gordon's brigade, supported by part of Robert Johnston's, attacked Sedgwick's exposed right flank just before dark, while Pegram's brigade attacked frontally. Shaler's brigade (4, 1, VI) was driven back on Seymour's (2, 3, VI) and both of these Federal generals were captured with several hundred men. Johnston reached Wright's rear and captured some prisoners before being ejected from the Federal position. Both sides then entrenched. Brush fires had become such a problem that the fighting stopped at several points throughout the day by mutual consent while soldiers of both sides cooperated in trying to save the wounded. During the night of 7-8 May about 200 men were suffocated or burned to death.
                     After dark Grant's forces withdrew and both armies maneuvered toward their next encounter at Spotsylvania, 7-20 May '64.
                     The Federals lost an estimated 17,666 out of 101,895 (exclusive of cavalry) engaged; of these, 2,246 were killed and 12,073 wounded. Generals Wadsworth and Alexander Hays were killed, Getty and Carroll wounded, and Shaler and Seymour captured. Confederate effective strength is estimated at 61,025. Although there are no complete casualty reports, Livermore estimates that the Confederates lost a total of 7,750. Gens. Jenkins and J. M. Jones were killed, Stafford mortally wounded, Longstreet, Pegram, Hunter, and Benning were wounded.**
              Source: : "The Civil War Dictionary" by Mark M. Boatner III

              Battle of Second Manassas

                Date: August 29-30, 1862

                Location: Virginia
                Confederate Commander:
                Robert E. Lee
                Union Commander: John Pope
                Confederate Forces Engaged: 48,527
                Union Forces Engaged: 75,696
                Winner: Confederacy
                Casualties: 25,251 (16,054 Union and 9,197 Confederate)

                **2nd BULL RUN CAMPAIGN, Va.
                June-Sept. '62.

                After the failure of Fremont, Banks, and McDowell to destroy Stonewall Jackson's greatly outnumbered force in the Shenandoah Valley, the top Federal leaders realized the necessity for unity of command. The short lived US Army of Va. was formed 26 June '62, under the command of John Pope, to be composed initially of the three separate commands just mentioned. When Fremont refused to serve under Pope, Franz Sigel succeeded him. The new army numbered about 47,000.
                        Pope's mission was threefold: to cover Washington; to protect the Valley; and to move east of the Blue Ridge Mountains toward Charlottesville so as to present a threat that would assist McClellan by drawing Lee's strength away from the defense of the Southern capital . The day the Army of Va. was ordered into existence Lee started the Seven Days' Battles, which caused the failure of McClellan's Peninsular campaign.
                        Lincoln's unilateral selection of Pope has been singled out as one of the President's errors of the war. As a "western man," Pope was not accepted warmly by the Federal forces of the Eastern theater. He got off to a bad start by the publication of a bombastic address. He antagonized the South by prescribing harsh treatment of Confederate sympathizers. The mild mannered Lee developed a personal animosity toward his new opponent, referring to him as "the miscreant Pope" and saying that he must be "suppressed."
                        On 14 July Pope started an advance toward Gordonsville. With about 80,000 troops around Richmond, Lee had McClellan's army of 90,000 in front of him and Pope's 50,000 converging from the north. Alert to the certainty of eventual defeat unless he seized the initiative, Lee took advantage of McClellan's inactivity and sent Jackson north toward Gordonsville with 12,000 men. On Jackson's request, Lee next sent A. P. Hill to reinforce Jackson, raising the latter's strength to 24,000.

                Cedar Mountain
                9 Aug. '62.

                **        Federal forces were advancing slowly toward Culpeper, and Jackson saw the opportunity of striking rapidly toward that place to destroy the first enemy corps to arrive. Having done this, he thought he would then be able to operate from a central position and defeat the other two corps, one at a time, as he had done at Cross Keys and Port Republic. However, Jackgon's movement was slow because in . his mania for secrecy he did not keep his division commanders-Winder, Ewell, and A. P. Hill-informed of his plans and the subsequent modifications.
                        A meeting engagement took place at Cedar Mountain 9 Aug. Banks attacked furiously and was driving Winder and Ewell back when A. P. Hill finally came up to save the day with a crushing counterattack against the Federal east flank. Banks had made the mistake of attacking without reserves and without sending back a request for reinforcements.
                        By now Lee knew that McClellan's army was being withdrawn by water to reinforce Pope. Seeing the opportunity of striking the latter before this reinforcement could take place, Lee moved with Longstreet's corps to join Jackson. Pope's army was in position with its center opposite Cedar Mountain and its left opposite Clark's Mountain. Both forces numbered 55,000. Lee saw the opportunity of using CIark's Mountain to shield the concentration of his army and then deliver a crushing attack against Pope's eastern flank; such an operation would not only cut the line along which McClellan's forces were moving to reinforce the Federal army of Virginia, but it would also cut Pope's line of retreat to Washington and might well -destroy his entire force. However, poor staff work again delayed the attack. Then Pope captured J. E. B. Stuart's adjutant general (Major Norman R. Fitz Hugh, on the night of 17 - 18 Aug.) with a copy of Lee's plan and was able to withdraw in time to avoid the threat. Stuart was surprised and almost captured with his entire command group the morning of the 18th.
                        While the two armies faced each other across the Rappahannock, Lee probed the enemy lines in a vain effort to find a vulnerable point. In one of the daring Confederate cavalry raids Fitzhugh Lee captured Pope's headquarters near Catlett's Station (22 Aug.) and brought back information that within five days Federal reinforcements from the Peninsula would swell Pope's ranks to 130,000.**

                Lee's Strategic Envelopment

                **        Refusing to abandon the hope of a decisive blow against the enemy, Lee adopted a bold plan that is still controversial among military historians. Against an enemy that now outnumbered him 75,000 to 55,000, he intended to split his forces, send one half on a wide strategic envelopment to get astride the Federal line of communications and to follow a day later with the rest of his army. Success depended on speed, deception, and the skill of his subordinate commanders. Failure would have meant the destruction of most, if not all, of his army. On the other hand, a defensive role would have led to inevitable defeat. As always, Lee was taking advantage of the mediocre Federal generalship and the panic he knew would result from any maneuver that put him between the Federal army and Washington.
                        On the morning of 25 Aug. Jackson and Stuart's cavalry left the line of the Rappahannock with three days' rations and a small wagon train. That night they bivouacked at Salem, 26 miles away. The next night Jackson was destroying the Federal supply depot at Manassas, after having marched an additional 36 miles.**

                Lee's Turning Movement

                **        Pope had observed Jackson's movement on 25 Aug., but assumed he was going to the Valley, perhaps to precede Lee's entire army to Front Royal. He had ordered no pursuit. Longstreet kent up a show of activity the 25th, but the next day started off to join Jackson. On the 26th Pope had also been content to maintain his original position. Early that evening, however, he learned that enemy forces were on the railroad to his rear. Subsequent reports convinced him that this was more than a raid and he started withdrawing. Pope ordered the concentration of Sigel and McDowell at Gainesville, Porter and Banks at Warrenton Junction, and Reno and Heintzelman in between, at Greenwich and Bristoe Station. This put a Federal force of 75,000 between Jackson's 24.000 (at Manassas) and Longstreet's 30,000, which were still west of the Bull Run mountains, about 20 miles away. Pope had a rare opportunity to block Longstreet while annihilating Jackson with overwhelming superiority of force. However, Jackson's next moves so thoroughly confused Pope that he completely lost his head and threw away his chance for victory.
                        Jackson's problem was to take up a position on the enemy's flank which had enough natural strength to enable him to hold until Lee could come up with Longstreet's corps. He also wanted to be able to strike the Federals if feasible and to retreat if Longstreet were blocked. Stony Ridge (Sudley Mountain) satisfied his requirements admirably. But further to gain time and to observe his maxim of "always mystify, mislead, and surprise the enemy if possible," A. P. Hill was ordered to march on Centreville, Ewell was to cross Bull Run and move along the north side of that stream, Taliaferro was to move direct; all were to join up on Stony Ridge. This maneuver, starting during the night of 27-28 Aug., was completed by mid-afternoon.
                        Lacking accurate information, and drawing inept conclusions, Pope ordered successive movements in vain efforts to capture Jackson, while ignoring Longstreet's advance until too late to prevent junction. He reached Manassas the morning of the 28th to find the Confederates gone. Getting reports of enemy in Centreville, Pope assumed this was Jackson's whole force and issued orders at 4:15 P.m. for his entire force to proceed there. At about 5:30 King's division was moving east along the Warrenton pike when it was fired on near Groveton.**

                Battle of Groveton
                28 Aug. '62.

                **        By disclosing his position Jackson accepted the risk of being overwhelmed before the rest of the army could reinforce him. However, the Confederate commander realized that the entire campaign would be futile if Pope were permitted to move to the strong defensive positions around Centreville. In one of the fiercest little skirmishes of the war both Confederate division commanders were wounded and the casualties were high on both sides. This was the "baptism of fire" for John Gibbon's "Black Hat" (later "Iron") brigade: it suffered 33 per cent casualties. The Federals did not withdraw until around midnight.
                        When Pope learned of this fight he drew the erroneous conclusion that King had hit the head of Jackson's troops withdrawing toward the Valley. He ordered his forces to assemble in the vicinity of Groveton to destroy Jackson. The stage was set for the main battle.**

                2d Battle of Bull Run
                29-30 Aug. '62.

                (Battle Map)

                **        Pope had 62,000 with which to destroy Jackson's 20,000 before Longstreet's corps could arrive. Pope conducted a series of piecemeal, uncoordinated frontal attacks, all of which failed to drive Jackson from his strong position behind a railroad cut.
                        Longstreet came up alongside Jackson's right Bank about 11 A.M. By failing to attack on the first day of the battle (29 Aug.), Longstreet deprived Lee of a victory that would have destroyed the bulk of the Federal army. Although neither side was aware of it at the time, there was a two-mile gap between the corps of Fitz-John Porter (on the south) and the rest of the Federal forces which were attacking Jackson. At the end of the first day Jackson withdrew from positions he had reached in following up the repulse of Pope's attacks. The Federal commander interpreted this movement as a retreat and ordered a vigorous pursuit for the next day.
                        On the second day (30 Aug.) the Federal attack was repulsed with heavy losses. Pope still did not realize that Longstreet had arrived. Lee permitted Pope to commit his forces against the Confederate left, then he enveloped the weakened Federal left flank, with Longstreet's corps. Pope suffered a decisive tactical defeat, although the retention of Henry House Hill by Federal forces permitted the bulk of his troops to retreat across Bull Run via the Stone Bridge and the neighboring fords.**

                Battle of Chantilly (or Ox Hill)
                1 Sept. '62

                **        Maintaining the offensive, Lee executed another wide envelopment, moving around the west flank of the Federal position at Centreville. Striking toward Fairfax Courthouse, Jackson's corps hit Federal forces under Stevens and Kearny near Chantilly. A hot encounter followed and lasted until nightfall, when the Union force withdrew. This skirmish was costly for the Union, however, because Stevens and Kearny -two of the most promising commanders of the army - were both killed. Losses were 1,300 Federals and 800 Confederates (E.&B.). Although reinforcements were near, Pope withdrew into the defenses of Washington.**

                Summary and Evaluation

                **        Tactical failures of Jackson and Longstreet at Cedar Mountain, Clark's Mountain, and Bull Run had deprived Lee of the opportunity of destroying Pope's army in the 2d Bull Run campaign. However, his over-all strategic accomplishment during the first three months of his command of the Army of Northern Virginia was remarkable. Starting in an apparently hopeless situation, with McClellan moving on Richmond from the Peninsula and other Federal forces advancing from the north, Lee had succeeded not only in eliminating the immediate threat, but had driven the Federals back into Washington. While the Peninsula campaign, Jackson's Valley campaign, and the 2d Bull Run campaign are usually considered separately, the three actually comprise a single strategic operation. The outcome represented a remarkable Confederate accomplishment and pointed up the marked superiority of Southern generalship at this stage of the war in the East.
                        The Federals lost 13 per cent killed and wounded, as compared to 19 per cent for their opponents. Using Livermore's "hit by 1,000" method of comparing effectiveness of the two sides, the Federals killed and wounded 120 of the enemy for every 1,000 of their own troops engaged, whereas the Confederates hit 208 Federals.**
                Source:  "The Civil War Dictionary" by Mark M. Boatner III**

                Battle of Stone's River

                  Date: December 31, 1862

                  Location: TennesseeConfederate Commander: Braxton Bragg
                  Union Commander: William S. Rosecrans
                  Confederate Forces Engaged: 37,739
                  Union Forces Engaged: 41,400
                  Winner: Union
                  Casualties: 24,645 (12,906 Union and 11,739 Confederate)

                  After Gen. Braxton Bragg's defeat at Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, he and his Confederate Army of the Mississippi retreated, reorganized, and were redesignated as the Army of Tennessee. They then advanced to Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and prepared to go into winter quarters. Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans's Union Army of the Cumberland followed Bragg from Kentucky to Nashville. Rosecrans left Nashville on December 26, with about 45,000 men, to defeat Bragg's army. He found Bragg's army on December 29 and went into camp that night, within hearing distance of the Rebels. At dawn on the 31st, Bragg's men attacked the Union right flank. The Confederates had driven the Union line back to the Nashville Pike by 10:00 am but there it held. Union reinforcements arrived from Rosecrans's left in the late forenoon to bolster the stand and before fighting stopped that day, the Federals had established a new, strong line. On New Years Day, both armies marked time. Bragg surmised that Rosecrans would now withdraw, but the next morning he was still in position. In late afternoon, Bragg hurled a division at a Union division that, on January 1, had crossed Stones River and had taken up a strong position on the bluff east of the river. The Confederates drove most of the Federals back across McFadden's Ford, but with the assistance of artillery, the Federals repulsed the attack, compelling the Rebels to retire to their original position. Bragg left the field on the January 4-5, retreating to Shelbyville and Tullahoma, Tennessee. Rosecrans did not pursue, but as the Confederates retired, he claimed the victory. Stones River boosted Union morale. The Confederates had been thrown back in the east, west, and in the Trans-Mississippi.

                  The Battle of Stones River (or Murfreesboro), Tenn.,
                  31 Dec. '62 and 2 Jan. '63.

                  **        The Stones River campaign is sometimes considered to include four other operations that are mostly treated separately: Halleck's advance on CORINTH, Miss.; BRAGG'S INVASION OF KENTUCKY; Kirby SMITH'S INVASION OF KENTUCKY; PERRYVILLE (or Chaplin Hills).**

                  (Battle Map)

                  After his retreat from Perryville, Ky., Bragg ordered a concentration at Murfreesboro, Tenn. Both the North and the South were dissatisfied with the performance of their top commanders at Perryville, and both sides made changes in organization. The Federal Dept. (and Army) of the Cumberland was created under Rosecrans. The Confederate Army of Tennessee was created under Bragg. J. E. Johnston was sent to command all Confederate armies in the West (Division of the West).
                         Three Confederate cavalry operations took place before the armies of Bragg and Rosecrans clashed: Morgan's Second (Lexington) Raid, Oct.'62; Forrest's Second Raid (in West Tenn.), 11 Dec.'62-3 Jan.'63; and Morgan's Third (Christmas) Raid, 21 Dec.'62-1 Jan.'63. Although these raids on the Federal lines of communications did little significant damage, Rosecrans took advantage of this detachment of Confederate cavalry to move out of Nashville and attack Bragg.
                         Crittenden's corps advanced southeast along the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga R.R., while the other two corps-McCook and Thomas (less two divisions)-advanced to his right. Bragg was known to be deployed between Triune and Murfreesboro, and Rosecrans' plan was to turn the Confederate left while refusing Crittenden's corps.
                         Bragg's intelligence sources informed him immediately of Rosecrans' movement. Wheeler's cavalry successfully delayed the Federal advance while Bragg concentrated his forces at Murfreesboro. On 31 Dec. the two armies faced each other just west of Stones River. Strangely, each was planning to attack the other's right.
                         The Confederate division of Breckinridge (8,000) was left across the river, northwest of Murfreesboro, while Hardee's other two divisions-McCown (4,500) and Cleburne (7,000)-moved into position opposite the Federal right. The Confederate center was held by Polk's two divisions; Withers (8,500) in front, and Cheatham (5,500) to his rear. McCown's division was to attack at dawn.
                         The Federal right, where the initial Confederate blow was about to fall, was held by Alexander McCook's corps; Johnson's division (6,300) was on the extreme right flank, on the Franklin Road, with the divisions of J. C. Davis (4,600) and Sheridan (5,000) extending left to the Wilkinson Pike. Negley's division (4,700) of Thomas' corps was in the center of the line. Crittenden's divisions of Palmer (4,400) and Wood (5,100) extended the line to the river. In conformity to the Federal plan of attacking with their own left, two divisions were in assembly areas behind this flank: Rousseau's (6,200) of Thomas' corps, and Van Cleve's (3,800) of Crittenden's. (Two of Thomas' divisions were absent: Mitchel's was garrisoning Nashville; Reynolds' was pursuing Morgan's raiders. Only one brigade of Fry's division took part in the battle; one arrived 2 Jan. and the other was pursuing Morgan.) Rosecrans had ordered his attack to start at 7 A.M., after his troops had eaten.
                         The Federal brigades of Kirk and Willich were driven back by the brigades of Rains, Ector, and McNair as the battle opened at dawn. Although Kirk's outposts detected the enemy advance, Willich's brigade was caught by surprise (Horn, 200). As Cleburne's division kept up the momentum of the attack by moving up on McCown's right, the Federal division of Davis and Sheridan held off the attacks of Hardee's three divisions. A second assault, reinforced by Cheatham's division (Polk's corps), was also repulsed. A third effort enveloped Davis' right, forcing him to retreat and thereby exposing Sheridan's right. About 9:30 Sheridan counterattacked with Roberts' brigade and gained sufficient time to withdraw to a new position behind the Nashville Pike and at a right angle to Negley's division. Rousseau's division was brought up to form on Sheridan's right. Davis followed Johnson's routed division to the rear, while Wharton's cavalry brigade (2,000 men) harried his flank from the west.
                         A renewed attack, all along the Federal front, finally forced Sheridan, whose ammunition was exhausted, to withdraw. This left a gap between Negley and Rousseau which the Confederates exploited. Shepherd's brigade of regulars lost 20 officers and 518 killed and wounded in covering a general withdrawal of the Federal right half of the line to a new position. The right of Palmer's division also had to withdraw to avoid being enveloped; but his left-Hazen's brigade-held its strong position on a wooded ridge astride the railroad. This was a four-acre oak grove which reports of the battle call the Round Forest, but which the troops dubbed "Hell's Half Acre." By noon the Federals had been forced back to what turned out to be their final defensive line.
                         The Federal divisions of Van Cleve and Wood, which were scheduled to move north of the river and make Rosecrans , main attack, had been called back to bolster the Federal defense. Van Cleve had crossed, and Wood was ready to follow, when the Confederate attack started. Wood was held back and put into position on the Federal left. Van Cleve was ordered back and arrived about 11 A.M., just in time to reinforce the final defensive line.
                         In preparation for what he could hope to be the knockout blow, Bragg called on Breckinridge to send two of his five brigades to reinforce Hardee. Only one was sent in time to be of assistance, however; Pegram's Confederate cavalry had reported the arrival of Van Cleve's division opposite Breckinridge, but had not detected its withdrawal. Breckinridge therefore believed he was in danger of being overwhelmed and could not spare more than one brigade.
                         The final Confederate assaults were vigorously pressed and effectively repulsed by a well-organized Federal defense. Chalmers' brigade which had been waiting 48 hours in shallow trenches and without fires on the extreme right of Withers' division attacked shortly after noon against the Round Forest. Having to charge across an open field against a strongly entrenched position, they were cut to pieces by enemy musket and artillery fire. After desperate fighting, in which some regiments lost six to eight color bearers, Chalmers was wounded, and his brigade fell back. Donelson's brigade (Cheatham's division) made the next effort. After some initial confusion in reaching the field, and in the face of heavy fire, it penetrated the Federal line just west of the Round Forest and took 1,000 prisoners and 11 guns. However, continued possession of the critical Round Forest position by the Federals forced Donelson to retreat. In this action the 8th Tenn. lost 306, including its commander, Col. W. L. Moore, out of 425 engaged. The 16th lost 207 out of its 402 engaged.
                         Late in the afternoon the four other brigades of Breckinridge were brought south of the river and committed to action against "Hell's Half Acre." First Adams and Jackson, then Preston and Pillow were repulsed with heavy losses.
                         Special mention should be made of the units that held Round Forest against these attacks. Cruft's brigade had initially been posted in advance of Hazen's. When Sheridan and Negley were driven back at about 11 A.M., Palmer's right had been exposed. The attacks of Chalmers and Donelson had finally driven back Crufts brigade. The brigade of Grose, in reserve, had to face to the rear and attack in that direction to enable Cruft to withdraw. This left Hazen alone at the tip of the salient against which Bragg now directed his subsequent attacks. Grose was forced again to change front to enable Hazen to adjust his dispositions while Cruft withdrew.
                         To repulse the attacks of Breckinridge's last four brigades (see above) Hazen had the 41st Ohio, 9th Ind., and 110th ILL. In direct support of Hazen, or on his flanks, the following regiments moved up during the last Confederate attacks of Preston and Pillow: 3d Ky., 24th Ohio, 58th Ind., 100th ILL., 6th Ky., 2d Mo., 40th and 97th Ohio, and the 6th and 26th Ohio. (The units are mentioned in the approximate order of arrival.) Along the riverbank Wagner led two regiments, the 15th and 57th Ind., in a counterattack that drove back the Confederate infantry on its front before being forced by enemy artillery to withdraw.
                         After some hesitation Rosecrans decided to remain on the field during the night and to resume the offensive if Bragg did not attack. The battlefield was quiet on I Jan., but Confederate cavalry under Wheeler and Wharton were active along Rosecrans' line of communications to Nashville. Wheeler attacked a wagon train near LaVergne, dispersed the guard, and destroyed about 30 wagons. Col. Innes, commanding the lst Mich. Engineers and Mechanics, held the stockade near the town against several attacks and refused Wheeler's demand to surrender.
                         When Polk observed that the Federals had abandoned the Round Forest during the night he took possession of this position. Bragg then determined to have Breckinridge recross the river and take high ground from which enfilade fire might drive the Federals from their position. Breckinridge went on record as considering this task impossible, and Polk told Bragg he considered the operation would accomplish no worthwhile purpose. Bragg insisted, however, and at 4 P.M., 2 Jan., Breckinridge attacked with 4,500 men.
                         Rosecrans had realized the importance of this high ground and had occupied it with Van Cleve's division (commanded by Beatty, since Van Cleve had been wounded). Beatty was reinforced by the brigades of Grose and Hazen.
                         The Federals were driven from the hill. However, as the Confederates pursued down the forward slope they were slaughtered by the massed fire of 58 guns that Crittenden's Chief of Arty., Maj. John Mendenhall, had posted across the river. Reinforcements hurried across the river; Beatty rallied his troops for a counterattack; and Breckinridge was driven back to his line of departure. He had lost 1,700 men.
                         On 3 Jan. Rosecrans held his defensive perimeter west of the river with the corps of Thomas and McCook (less Palmer's division). Crittenden, reinforced with Palmer's division of McCook's corps, was posted north of the river. The night of 3-4 Jan. Bragg withdrew through Murfreesboro toward Shelbyville. Rosecrans did not pursue. It was not until June that Rosecrans renewed operations in this area when his Tullahoma Campaign set the stage for the Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns..
                         Stones River was a tactical victory for the Confederates, but Bragg lacked the strength to destroy Rosecrans' larger army or drive it from the field. The historian Ropes says, "Few battles have been fought which have better exhibited the soldierly virtues than the battle of Murfreesboro or Stones River. The Confederate assaults were conducted with the utmost gallantry and with untiring energy. They were met with great coolness and resolution. . . ." From a strategic viewpoint, however, the campaign was a Confederate failure.
                         The Federals had 41,400 troops engaged, of which they lost 12,906. The Confederates lost 11,739 out of 34,739 engaged.
                  Source: "Civil War Dictionary" by Mark M. Boatner III

                  Battle of Shiloh

                    Date: April 6-7, 1862

                    Location: Tennessee
                    Confederate Commander: Albert Sidney Johnston/ P. G. T. Beauregard
                    Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces Engaged: 40,335
                    Union Forces Engaged: 62,682
                    Winner: Union
                    Casualties: 23,741 (13,047 Union and 10,694 Confederate)

                    The Battle of Shiloh

                    (Battle Map)

                    The First Day
                    April 6, 1862

                    **       With the loss of Forts Henry and Donelson in February, General Johnston withdrew his disheartened Confederate forces into west Tennessee, northern Mississippi and Alabama to reorganize. In early March, General Halleck responded by ordering General Grant to advance his Union Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River.
                           Occupying Pittsburg Landing, Grant entertained no thought of a Confederate attack. Halleck's instructions were that following the arrival of General Buell's Army of the Ohio from Nashville, Grant would advance south in a joint offensive to seize the Memphis & Charleston Railroad, the Confederacy's only east-west all weather supply route that linked the lower Mississippi Valley to cities on the Confederacy's east coast.
                           Assisted by his second-in-command, General Beauregard, Johnston shifted his scattered forces and concentrated almost 55,000 men around Corinth. Strategically located where the Memphis & Charleston crossed the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, Corinth was the western Confederacy's most important rail junction.
                           On April 3, realizing Buell would soon reinforce Grant, Johnston launched an offensive with his newly christened Army of the Mississippi. Advancing upon Pittsburg Landing with 43,938 men, Johnston planned to surprise Grant, cut his army off from retreat to the Tennessee River, and drive the Federals west into the swamps of Owl Creek.
                           In the gray light of dawn, April 6, a small Federal reconnaissance discovered Johnston's army deployed for battle astride the Corinth road, just a mile beyond the forward Federal camps. Storming forward, the Confederates found the Federal position unfortified. Johnston had achieved almost total surprise. By mid-morning, the Confederates seemed within easy reach of victory, overrunning one frontline Union division and capturing its camp. However, stiff resistance on the Federal right entangled Johnston's brigades in a savage fight around Shiloh Church. Throughout the day, Johnston's army hammered the Federal right, which gave ground but did not break. Casualties upon this brutal killing ground were immense.
                           Meanwhile, Johnston's flanking attack stalled in front of Sarah Bell's peach orchard and the dense oak thicket labeled the "hornet's nest" by the Confederates. Grant's left flank withstood Confederate assaults for seven crucial hours before being forced to yield ground in the late afternoon. Despite inflicting heavy casualties and seizing ground, the Confederates only drove Grant towards the river, instead of away from it. The Federal survivors established a solid front before Pittsburg Landing and repulsed the last Confederate charge as dusk ended the first day of fighting.**

                    The Second Day
                    April 7, 1862

                    **       Shiloh's first day of slaughter also witnessed the death of the Confederate leader, General Johnston, who fell at mid-afternoon, struck down by a stray bullet while directing the action on the Confederate right. At dusk, the advance division of General Buell's Federal Army of the Ohio reached Pittsburg Landing, and crossed the river to file into line on the Union left during the night. Buell's arrival, plus the timely appearance of a reserve division from Grant's army, led by Major General Lewis Wallace, fed over 22,500 reinforcements into the Union lines. On April 7, Grant renewed the fighting with an aggressive counterattack.
                           Taken by surprise, General Beauregard managed to rally 30,000 of his badly disorganized Confederates, and mounted a tenacious defense. Inflicting heavy casualties on the Federals, Beauregard's troops temporarily halted the determined Union advance. However, strength in numbers provided Grant with a decisive advantage. By midafternoon, as waves of fresh Federal troops swept forward, pressing the exhausted Confederates back to Shiloh Church, Beauregard realized his armies' peril and ordered a retreat. During the night, the Confederates withdrew, greatly disorganized, to their fortified stronghold at Corinth. Possession of the grisly battlefield passed to the victorious Federal's, who were satisfied to simply reclaim Grant's camps and make an exhausted bivouac among the dead.
                           General Johnston's massive and rapid concentration at Corinth, and surprise attack on Grant at Pittsburg Landing, had presented the Confederacy with an opportunity to reverse the course of the war. The aftermath, however, left the invading Union forces still poised to carry out the capture of the Corinth rail junction. Shiloh's awesome toll of 23,746 men killed, wounded, or missing brought a shocking realization to both sides that the war would not end quickly.
                    Source: "The Atlas of the Civil War" by James M. McPherson**

                    Battle of Fort Donelson

                      Date: February 13-16, 1862

                      Location: Tennessee
                      Confederate Commander: John B. Floyd/Simon B. Buckner
                      Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant
                      Confederate Forces Engaged: 21,000
                      Union Forces Engaged: 27,000
                      Winner: Union
                      Casualties: 19,455 (2,832 Union and 16,623 Confederate)

                      Begun in the East, the war was spreading to the West, even beyond the Mississippi where the fate of the important border state of Missouri and the chief city of the West in those days, St. Louis, hung in the balance between slaveholding and non -slaveholding elements. This, from the days of the Kansas-Nebraska troubles in the fifties, had been "dark and bloody ground" Both sides claimed Missouri and both sides needed her. In August 1861, a Union army was defeated at Wilson's Creek in southwestern Missouri and the casualties amounted to over 23 per cent of all engaged, among them the stalwart Unionist General Nathaniel Lyon. The following March came the Battle of Pea Ridge in northwestern Arkansas. This was the first clear and decisive victory gained by the North in a pitched battle west of the Mississippi River, and until 1864 the last effort of the South to carry the war into Missouri except by abortive raids. More importantly perhaps, its result made it possible for veterans of a long series of minor engagements west of the Mississippi to reinforce the armies in the mid South under Buell, Rosecrans, Sherman, and Grant.
                             In this area the object of the Federal armies was, of course, to cut the Confederacy in half by clearing the Mississippi from St. Louis all the way to the Gulf and to stab at the heart of the Confederacy via the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. If successful, these maneuvers would cut Texas off from the main body of the South, hold Kentucky firmly in the Union, and make it difficult for Tennessee to cooperate with her sister states.
                             In February 1862, Fort Henry, commanding the Tennessee River, was captured with support from gunboats on the river by a taciturn, rumpled, cigar smoking (some said whisky-drinking) character named Ulysses Simpson Grant of Illinois. Ten days later, Fort Donelson, eleven miles away on the Cumberland River and a very much stronger position for the Confederates, followed suit. The North was beside itself, reveling in the victory and in Grant's memorable answer to Buckner, the Confederate commander who had asked for terms. "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted, " said Grant. "I propose to move immediately upon your works." Apparently Mr. Lincoln had at last found a fighting general in Unconditional Surrender Grant.

                      The Battle of Fort Donelson, Tennessee
                      (Taken From "The Confederate Military History")

                      General Grant invested Fort Donelson on the 12th of February, 1862, with 15,000 troops, reinforced that evening by six regiments of infantry and Flag-Officer Foote's fleet of four ironclad and two wooden gunboats--the St. Louis, Carondelet, Louisville, Pittsburg, Tyler and Conestoga. Reinforcements continued to arrive. Wallace's division was brought over from Fort Henry, 10,000 men were sent by General Buell, and the Confederate lines were enveloped by 24,000 troops. General Buckner states, in his report, that at the close of the attack Grant's forces exceeded 50,000. Brig.-Gen. John B. Floyd, of Virginia, commanded the Confederate forces, amounting to 12,000 men. General Pillow commanded the left, General Buckner the right.
                             The Tennesseeans present were, the Third Tennessee, Col. John C. Brown; Eighteenth, Col. Jos. B. Palmer: Twenty-sixth, Col. John M. Lillard; Thirty-second, Col. Ed. C. Cook; Forty-first, Col. Robert Farquharson; Tenth, Col. A. Heiman; Forty-second, Col. W. A. Quarles; Thirtieth, Col. John W. Head; Forty-ninth, Col. James E. Bailey; Forty-eighth, Col. W. M. Voorhees; Tennessee battalion, Colonel Browder; Fiftieth, Colonel Sugg; five companies of infantry, Col. S. H. Colms; Fifty-third, Col. Alfred H. Abernathy; Forrest's regiment of cavalry, Col. N. B. Forrest; Ninth battalion of cavalry, Lieut.-Col. George Gantt; Maney's light battery of four guns, Capt. Grant Maney; Green's battery, Captain Green; Porter's battery, six guns, Capt. Thomas Kennedy Porter. The heavy guns were commanded by Capt. J. H. Dixon; one battery of 32-pounders, one rifle gun, one 10-inch columbiad and two howitzers were commanded by Capt. R. R. Ross; Capt. B. G. Bidwell, Thirtieth Tennessee infantry, was assigned to a battery of four 32-pounders; Capt. T. W. Beaumont, Company A, Fiftieth Tennessee infantry, had charge of a battery of four 32-pounders, and a battery of eight 32-pounders was commanded by Capt. Jacob Culbertson. Brig.-Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, Brig.-Gen. Simon B. Buckner and Brig.-Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson commanded the troops, General Floyd in chief command. The Tennessee brigade commanders were Col. A. Heiman, Col. John C. Brown and Col. James E. Bailey, the latter commanding the garrison of the fort; Col. N. B. Forrest commanded the cavalry.
                             The investment of Fort Donelson and the works occupied by the Confederate forces was complete by the afternoon of the 12th of February, and on the 13th an unsuccessful assault was made on Bushrod Johnson's left wing. It was met gallantly and repulsed by the Tenth Tennessee, Lieut.-Col. R. W. MacGavock; the Fifty-third Tennessee, Lieut.-Col. Thomas F. Winston; the Forty-eighth Tennessee, Col. W. M. Voorhees; the Forty-second Tennessee, Col. W. A. Quarles, and Maney's battery. General Johnson and Colonel Heiman both commended in high terms the conduct of the men who met this attack. After a second and third assault, the enemy retired, leaving his dead and wounded on the field. He had met three bloody repulses. The principal sufferer on the part of Heiman's brigade was Maney's battery; it was fought without protection and with skill and courage, but his loss, chiefly from sharpshooters, was such that he was afterward unable to man two of his four guns. Colonel Brown, commanding brigade, reports that pending this engagement of two hours' duration, "the enemy planted one section of a battery (of field guns) almost in front of Captain Graves, commanding a Kentucky battery, and opened an enfilading fire upon the left of my line, and at the same time a cross-fire upon Colonel Heiman. Captain Graves, handling his favorite rifle piece with the same fearless courage that characterized his conduct during the entire week, in less than ten minutes knocked one of the enemy's guns from its carriage, and almost at the same moment the gallant Porter (commanding battery) disabled and silenced the other, while the supporting infantry retreated precipitately before the storm of grape and canister poured into their ranks from both batteries." Two hours before this assault on Heiman's brigade, General Buckner reports, "the enemy made a vigorous attack on Hanson's position (the Second Kentucky, Col. Roger W. Hanson), but was repulsed with heavy loss. The attack was subsequently renewed by three heavy regiments, but was again repulsed by the Second Kentucky, aided by a part of the Eighteenth Tennessee (Colonel Palmer). In both of these affairs, also in a third repulse of the enemy from the same position, Porter's battery played a conspicuous part." Col. Roger Hanson, in his report of this action, states that "in resisting these attacks I was greatly assisted by Porter's battery upon the left. It always fired at the right time and to the right place.
                             General Grant had so far failed to accomplish anything with his army. On the 14th the main attack was made with the enemy's gunboats. Flag-Officer A. H. Foote, United States navy, reported that the action continued one hour and a half, and that "in the latter part of the action his fleet was less than 400 yards from the fort." "The wheel of this vessel [the flagship], by a shot through her pilot-house, was carried away, and the tiller-ropes of the Louisville also disabled by a shot, which rendered the two boats wholly unmanageable. They then drifted down the river. The two remaining boats, the Pittsburg and Carondelet, were also greatly damaged between wind and water, and soon followed us, the enemy rapidly renewing the fire as we drifted helplessly down the river. This vessel, the St. Louis, alone received 59 shots, four between wind and water, and one in the pilot-house, mortally wounding the pilot and others. There were 54 killed and wounded" on the several vessels.
                             Capt. Joseph H. Dixon, an officer of great intelligence and courage, was killed on the evening of the 13th when a few shots were exchanged between the fleet and fort. One shot came through the embrasure, striking the left cheek of one of the gun-carriages out of which a screw bolt was driven, striking him in the forehead, killing him instantly. This was the only casualty sustained by the batteries. Colonel Bailey's brigade constituted the garrison of the fort and rendered great assistance to the gunners.
                             No battle or combat of the war was more decided than that between the heavy batteries and the Federal fleet, and there were no higher intelligence and gallantry displayed on any field of service than that exhibited by Captains Dixon, Culbertson, Ross, Beaumont, Bidwell and Graham. Lieutenants Stankiewitz, Fitzgerald, Spark-man, Bedford, George Martin and W. C. Allen were honorably mentioned. Captain Culberson reported that "our success is mainly attributed" to Lieut. H. S. Bedford, who directed the 10-inch gun. Captain Bidwell, referring to Private John G. Frequa (or Fuqua) in his report, stated that "at the highest gun in my battery he stood perfectly upright, calm, cool and collected. I heard him say, 'Now, boys, see me take a chimney.' The chimney [of the vessel] and the flag both fell. Very soon he sent a ball through a porthole and the boat fell back." Captain Beaumont makes honorable mention of Major Robertson, who volunteered to serve one of his guns; also of Sergt. J. S. Martin, Corps. W. H. Proctor and Dan C. Lyle, and of Privates Elisha Downs, Poston Couts, Nelson Davis, Isaac Christie, Wm. Trotter, Thomas Pearce and R. M. Crumpler. But no duty was omitted by officers or men, and Tennessee will always hold in grateful memory the prowess of her sons who manned the heavy guns in the defense of Fort Donelson.
                             On the 15th of February a combined attack was made by the two divisions commanded by Generals Pillow and Buckner. General Pillow led the left to the attack, soon followed by the right. Pillow's division constituted two-thirds of the army. The battle raged from daylight to 1 o'clock and to that hour was a great success. It was won by the troops of all of the States. Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, Alabama, all shared alike in the glory of the achievement. The object of this attack is stated in the report of General Floyd to have been, as the result of a consultation with the officers of divisions and brigades, "to dislodge the enemy from the position on our left, and thus to pass our people into the open country."
                             Col. John G. Brown reported that when his brigade moved out on Saturday morning it "was provided with three days' cooked rations and marched with knapsacks, the purpose being to turn the enemy's right wing and march out on the Wynn's Ferry road to fall back on Nashville." After several fierce combats in cooperation with the left division he reports that he "led the Third, Eighteenth and Thirty-second Tennessee across an open field on the right of Wynn's Ferry road under the fire of a battery posted on that road." The infantry support retreated, leaving one section of the battery in his hands. He pursued the retreating forces. After this another fierce combat ensued, but after the firing of a few volleys of musketry the enemy abandoned the field, leaving 800 killed and wounded. In this last combat Colonel Brown was reinforced by the Fourteenth Mississippi regiment and Graves' battery. The brigade lost 50 in killed and wounded, among them Col. Thomas M. Gordon of the Third, wounded, and the accomplished Lieut.-Col. W. P. Moore, mortally wounded.
                             General Pillow, leaving Heiman's brigade in the trenches, with the balance of the left division, assisted by Forrest's cavalry, engaged the enemy hotly for two hours and succeeded in driving him back on Buckner's division. Forrest's cavalry charged the infantry support of and captured a battery composed of four field pieces and two 24-pounders. Gen. Bushrod Johnson, of Tennessee, always reliable and strong in battle, contributed largely to the success of the movement. His command became united with the forces of General Buckner as the enemy retired, as General Pillow reports, "and engaged the enemy in a hot contest of nearly one hour, with large forces of fresh troops that had now met us. This position of the enemy being carried by our joint forces, I called off further pursuit after seven hours of continuous and bloody conflict, in which our loss was severe, and leaving not less than 1,000 of the enemy dead on the field." The object of this battle seemed to be accomplished, but our council of war was divided, and the troops were ordered to their original position in the intrenchments.
                             As Buckner returned he found the Federal forces of Gen. C. F. Smith advancing rapidly to take possession of his portion of our works, bravely opposed by Maj. James J. Turner of the Thirtieth Tennessee. He had a stubborn conflict lasting one hour and a half, resulting in the seizure of our extreme right. This position was in rear of the Confederate river batteries and field-work for their protection, and was the key to the Confederate situation. It took Buckner in reverse and necessitated the ultimate surrender of our forces. The position seized by the Federal forces had been occupied by the Second Kentucky. In the struggle to regain it, this gallant regiment was reinforced by the Eighteenth, the Third and Thirty-second Tennessee, and subsequently by the regiments of Colonels Quarles, Sugg and Bailey. General Buckner reported that "the enemy made repeated attempts to storm my line on the right, but the well-directed fire of Porter's and Graves' artillery, and the musketry fire of the infantry, repelled the attempts and forced him to shelter. Porter's battery, from its exposed position, lost more than half its gunners, and the intrepid commander was severely wounded late in the afternoon of Saturday, being succeeded in command by the gallant Lieutenant Morton."
                             The artillery of Tennessee was especially conspicuous. Colonel Heiman reported that in the battle of the 13th, referring to Maney's battery. "First Lieutenant Burns was one of the first who fell. Second Lieutenant Massie was also mortally wounded. but the gallant Maney, with the balance of his men, stood by their guns like true heroes." Generals Pillow and Bushrod Johnson warmly commended Captains Maney and Green; and General Floyd, commander-in-chief, in his report of the battle of the 13th, said: "Too high praise cannot be bestowed upon the battery of Captain Porter for their participation in the rout of the enemy in this assault. My position was immediately in front of the point of attack, and I was thus enabled to witness the incidents of it." Col. John C. Brown reported that Captains Porter and Graves "excited the admiration of the whole command by an exhibition of coolness and bravery, under a heavy fire from which they had no protection, which could not be excelled. Captain Porter fell dangerously wounded by a minie ball through his thigh while working one of his guns, his gunners being nearly all of them disabled or killed. The command then devolved upon Lieutenant Morton, a beardless youth, who stepped forward like an old veteran, and nobly did he emulate the example of his brave captain." Lieutenant Morton subsequently became distinguished as captain of Morton's battery of Forrest's cavalry.
                             Gen. N. B. Forrest, then colonel of Forrest's Tennessee cavalry, disputed the advance of General Grant on Fort Donelson with commendable enterprise and skill, no other obstacle being offered to the march from Fort Henry, and pending the engagement he was actively employed on the flanks of our army. Besides his own regiment, three mounted companies from Kentucky, commanded by Captains Williams, Wilcox and Henry, were assigned to his command, and gallantly assisted him. He also had assigned to him Gantt's Tennessee battalion. Forrest reported that he "charged two batteries of artillery, taking nine pieces of artillery with 4,000 stand of arms." He lost between 300 and 400 men, killed, wounded and missing, a greater loss than was sustained by any other regiment of the army. Among his killed was Capt. Charles May, who fell leading his company to a charge on the enemy. Fort Donelson was the opening of a career to Forrest that carried his name and fame to the civilized world and yet excites the admiration of all who read of his personal prowess and heroic actions. He retired from Fort Donelson before its final surrender. General Floyd with his brigade, and General Pillow with his staff, left on a transport pending negotiations.
                             The Confederate forces amounted to 12,000 to 14,500 men. General Badeau, in his life of Grant, Vol. I, page 36, says, on the last day of the fight Grant had 27,000 men, and other reinforcements arrived after the surrender; but General Buckner believed that this was far below the number, and General Buell stated in 1865 that Grant had 30,000 to 35,000 exclusive of the naval contingent.
                             The Federal loss amounted to 2,500 killed, wounded and missing. The Confederate loss was about 1,420. On Thursday there was a rainfall, followed by snow on Friday, with freezing weather, and by the evening of Saturday, the 15th, the men who had spent a week in the trenches without sleep and without fire to warm them, were worn out to such an extent that General Buckner decided he could not longer maintain himself, and surrendered the troops on the morning of the 16th.

                      Medals of Honor for battle of Gettysburg

                        Medals of Honor for battle of Gettysburg
                        JUNE 3-AUGUST 1, 1863.--The Gettysburg Campaign.

                        O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/2 [S# 44]

                        GENERAL ORDERS, No. 91.

                        WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJT. GEN.'S OFFICE,
                        Washington, July 29_,_ 1862_._

                        I. The following resolutions, acts, and extracts from acts of Congress are published for the information of all concerned:

                        *       *       *       *       *       *       *       *      *      *

                        I.--PUBLIC RESOLUTION.

                        No. 43.--A RESOLUTION to provide for the presentation of medals of honor to the enlisted men of the army and volunteer forces who have distinguished or may distinguish themselves in battle during the present rebellion. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to cause two thousand medals of honor to be prepared, with suitable emblematic devices, and to direct that the same be presented, in the name of Congress, to such non-commissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldierlike qualities, during the present insurrection. And that the sum of ten thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby, appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of carrying this resolution into effect.

                        Approved July 12, 1862.

                        *       *       *       *       *       *       *       *      *      *

                        By order of the Secretary of War: E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.

                        BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.

                        _        Fourteenth Connecticut._--Sergt. Maj. William B. Hinks, capture of flag of Fourteenth Tennessee; Private Elijah W. Bacon, Company F, capture of flag of Sixteenth North Carolina; Corpl. Christopher Flynn, Company K, capture of flag of Fifty-second North Carolina. One hundred and twenty-sixth New York.--Capt. Morris Brown, jr., capture of flag; Private Jerry Wall, Company B, capture of flag; Sergt. George H. Dore, Company D, capture of flag. Seventy-first Pennsylvania.--Private John E. Clopp, Company F, capture of flag of Ninth Virginia. Seventh Wisconsin.--Sergt. Jefferson Coates, Company H, gallantry in action. Sixth Wisconsin.--Corpl. Francis A. Waller, Company I, capture of flag of Second Mississippi. Nineteenth Massachusetts.--Corpl. Joseph H. De Costro, Company I, capture of flag of Nineteenth Virginia; Sergt. Benjamin F. Falls, Company A, capture of flag; Sergt. Benjamin H. Jellison, Company C, capture of flag of Fifty-fourth Virginia; Private John Robinson, Company I, capture of flag of Fifty-seventh Virginia. First Delaware.--Private John B. Mayberry, Company F, capture of flag; Private Bernard McCarren, Company C, capture of flag. Eighth Ohio.--Sergt. John Miller, Company G, capture of two flags (Thirty-fourth North Carolina and Thirty-eighth Virginia); Private James Richmond. Company F, capture of flag. Twentieth Indiana.--Private Oliver P. Rood, Company B, capture of flag of Twenty-first North Carolina. First Minnesota.--Private Marshall Sherman, Company C, capture of flag of Fifty-eighth Virginia. First Pennsylvania Rifles.--Sergt. James B. Thompson, Company G, capture of flag of Fifteenth Georgia. Fifty-ninth New York.--Sergt. James Wiley, Company B, capture of a flag of a Georgia regiment.

                        The Confederate Roll of Honor

                          The Confederate Roll of Honor
                          JUNE 3-AUGUST 1, 1863.--The Gettysburg Campaign

                          O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/2 [S# 44]

                          GENERAL ORDERS, No. 93.

                          ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                          Richmond, Va., November 22_,_ 1862_,_

                          I. The following acts of Congress, having been approved by the President, are published for the information of the army:

                          No. 27.--AN ACT to authorize the grant of medals and badges of distinction as a reward for courage and good conduct on the field of battle.

                          The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized to bestow medals, with proper devices, upon such officers of the armies of the Confederate States as shall be conspicuous for courage and good conduct on the field of battle, and also to confer a badge of distinction upon one private or non-commissioned officer of each company after every signal victory it shall have assisted to achieve. The non-commissioned officers and privates of the company who may be present on the first dress-parade thereafter, may choose, by a majority of their votes, the soldier best entitled to receive such distinction, whose name shall be communicated to the President by commanding officers of the company; and if the award fall upon a deceased soldier, the badge thus awarded him shall be delivered to his widow, or, if there be no widow, to any relative the President may adjudge entitled to receive it.

                          Approved October 13, 1862.

                          By order: S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.


                          GENERAL ORDERS, No. 131.

                          ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                          Richmond, Va., October 3_,_ 1863_._

                          Difficulties in procuring the medals and badges of distinction having delayed their presentation by the President, as authorized by the act of Congress approved October 13, 1862, to the officers, non-com-missioned officers, and privates of the armies of the Confederate States conspicuous for courage and good conduct on the field of battle, to avoid postponing the grateful recognition of their valor until it can be made in the enduring form provided by that act, it is ordered--
                                  I. That the names of all those who have been, or may hereafter be, reported as worthy of this distinction, be inscribed on a Roll of Honor, to be preserved in the office of the Adjutant and Inspector General for reference in all future time, for those who have deserved well of their country, as having best displayed their courage and devotion on the field of battle.
                                  II. That the Roll of Honor, so far as now made up, be appended to this order, and read at the head of every regiment in the service of the Confederate States at the first dress-parade after its receipt, and be published in at least one newspaper in each State.
                                  III. The attention of the officers in charge is directed to General Orders, No. 93, section No. 27, of the series of 1862, Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, for the mode of selecting the non-commissioned officers and privates entitled to this distinction, and its execution is enjoined.

                          BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.


                          Ninth Georgia Infantry:
                          Lieut. Col. John C. Mounger.
                          Private P. B. Millican, Co. B.
                          Private Thomas J. Michael, Co. C.
                          Private James W. Mann, Co. D.
                          Corpl. Joseph A. Hough, Co. E.
                          Private Jesse McCullar, Co. F.
                          Private John Mills, Co. G.
                          Private Chesley Alderman, Co. H.
                          Corpl. Luther J. Copeland, Co. I.
                          Private Henry F. Daniel, Co. K.

                          By order: S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.


                          GENERAL ORDERS, No. 64.

                          ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                          Richmond, Va., August 10_,_ 1864_._

                          I. The following Roll of Honor is published in accordance with Paragraph I, General Orders, No. 131, 1863. It will be read to every regiment in the service at the first dress-parade after its receipt.

                          BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.


                          Eighth Regiment of Infantry:
                          Sergt. Edmond Clark, Co. A.
                          Private Z. Haynes, Co. B.
                          Sergt. Robert Gaddes, Co. C.
                          Sergt. L. L. McCurdy, Co. D.
                          Sergt. James R. Strickland, Co. E.
                          Company K declined making a selection.
                          Sergt. C. P. Ragsdale (color-bearer), Co.E
                          Private C. G. Bush, Co. G.
                          Private J. Sprowl, Co. H.
                          Private Michael Duff, Co. I.
                          Private Michael Kane, Co. I.


                          Cobb's Legion:
                          Sergt. J. L. Born, Co. C.
                          Sergt. A. C. Adair, Co. D.
                          Corpl. James D. Putman, Co. F.

                          Phillips Legion:
                          Private Alfred Norris, Co. E.
                          Private E. J. Smith, Co. E.
                          Private Thomas B. Jolly, Co. B.
                          Private Michael McGovern, Co. F.
                          Private J. A. Blanton, Co. B.
                          Private ----- Ootero [?], Co. D.

                          North Carolina.

                          Baker's North Carolina Brigade:
                          Capt. James L. Gaines, assistant adjutant-general.
                          First Lieut. R. T. Fulgham, aide-de-camp.

                          By order: S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

                          GENERAL ORDERS, No. 87.

                          ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                          Richmond, Va., December 10_,_ 1864_._

                          I. The following Roll of Honor is published in accordance with Paragraph I, General Orders, No. 131, 1863. It will be read to every regiment in the service at the first dress-parade after its receipt.

                          BATTLE OF UPPERVILLE.


                          Jeff. Davis Legion Cavalry:
                          Capt. W. G. Henderson, Co. B.
                          Capt. A. K. Ramsey, Co. D.
                          Capt. David Waldhauer, Co. F.
                          First Lieut. P. B. Fisher, Co. B.
                          Corpl. R. Eustis, Co. A.
                          Private G. W. Seals, Co. B.
                          Private C. M. Taylor, Co. C.
                          Private William Frew, Co. F.
                          Private Thomas H. Lake, Co. F.
                          Private William P. Lake, Co. F.

                          BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.


                          Second Mississippi Regiment Infantry:
                          Private Micajah Faris, Co. A, July 1, 1863.
                          Sergt. M. J. Bennett, Co. B, July 1,1863.
                          Corpl. J.P. Ticer, Co. B, July 3, 1863.
                          Private H. H. Story, Co. C, July 1, 1863 (killed July 3, 1863).
                          Private W. D. Bazemore, Co. C, July 3, 1863.
                          Private J. Fulton, Co. D, July 1, 1863.
                          Private W. T. Moore, Co. D, July 3, 1863.
                          Private C. L. Humphries, Co. E, July 1-3, 1863 (killed July 3, 1863).
                          Private W. L. Luna, Co. F, July 1, 1863.
                          Private L. J. Blythe, Co. F, July 3, 1863.
                          Private Patrick McAnally, Co. G, July 1, 1863.
                          Private J. J. Donalson, Co. G, July 3, 1863.
                          Corpl. J. A. Raines, Co. H, July 1, 1863.
                          Private H. McPherson, Co. H, July 3, 1863.
                          Private W.D. Cobb, Co. I, July 1, 1863.
                          Private M. Yeager, Co. I, July 3, 1863.
                          Private W. J. Condrey, Co. K, July 1, 1863.
                          Private James L. Akers, Co. K, July 3, 1863.
                          Private D. M. White. Co. L, July 1, 1863.
                          Private O. F. Carpenter, Co. L, July 3, 1863.

                          Jeff. Davis Legion Cavalry:
                          Maj. W. G. Conner.

                          BATTLE OF FALLING WATERS.


                          Second Regiment Mississippi Infantry:
                          Corpl. P. G. Braddock, Co. B.
                          Private Henry W. Miller, Co. F.
                          Corpl. G. M. Easterwood, Co. G.
                          Private J. M. Nunnelee, Co. H.

                          By order: S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General.

                          Confederate Roll of Honor~Battle of Antietam

                            **The Confederates were a little short of Medals so they just made up a set of orders to honor those who fought courageously. From the Official Records, this is their Roll of Honor for the Antietam Campaign. **

                            Confederate Roll of Honor.
                            SEPTEMBER 3-20, 1862.-The Maryland Campaign.
                            O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XIX/1 [S# 27]

                            GENERAL ORDERS No. 93.

                            ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                            Richmond, Va,., November 22_,_ 1862_._

                            I. The following acts of Congress, having been approved by the President, are published for the information of the Army:

                            No. 27.--AN ACT to authorize the grant of medals and badges of distinction as a reward for courage and good conduct on the field-of battle.

                            The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized to bestow medals, with proper devices, upon such officers of the armies of the Confederate States as shall be conspicuous for courage and good conduct on the field of battle; and also to confer a badge of distinction upon one private or non-commissioned officer of each company after every signal victory it shall have assisted to achieve. The non-commissioned officers and privates of the company who may be present on the first dress-parade thereafter rosy choose, by a majority of their votes, the soldier best entitled to receive such distinction, whose name shall be communicated to the President by commanding officers of the company; and if the award fall upon a deceased soldier, the badge thus awarded him shall be delivered to his widow; or, if there be no widow, to any relation the President may adjudge entitled to receive it.

                            Approved October 13, 1862.

                            By order:
                            S. COOPER,
                            Adjutant and Inspector General.

                            No. 131_. Richmond, Va., October_ 3_,_ 1863_._

                            **        Difficulties in procuring the medals and badges of distinction having delayed their presentation by the President, as authorized by the act of Congress approved October 13, 1862, to the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of the armies of the Confederate States conspicuous for courage and good conduct on the field of battle, to avoid postponing the grateful recognition of their valor until it can be made in the enduring form provided by that act, it is ordered--**

                            I. That the names of all those who have been, or may hereafter be, reported as worthy of this distinction, be inscribed on a roll of honor, to be preserved in the office of the Adjutant and Inspector General for reference in all future time, for those who have deserved well of their country, as having best displayed their courage and devotion on the field of battle.

                            II. That the roll of honor, so far as now made up, be appended to this order, and read at the head of every regiment in the service of the Confederate States at the first dress-parade after its receipt, and be published in at least one newspaper in each State.

                            III. The attention of the officers in charge is directed to General Orders, No. 93, section No. 27, of the series of 1862, Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, for the mode of selecting the non-commissioned officers and privates entitled to this distinction, and its execution is enjoined.

                            By order:
                            S. COOPER,
                            Adjutant and Inspector General

                            GENERAL ORDERS No. 64.

                            ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                            Richmond, Va., August 10_,_ 1864_._

                            I. The following roll of honor is published in accordance with Paragraph I, General Orders, No. 131, 1863. It will be read to every regiment in the service at the first dress-parade after its receipt.

                            (Webmaster Note: * = Killed in Action)

                            BATTLE OF SHARPSBURG.


                            **Eighth Regiment of Infantry:
                            Corpl. Davis Tucker, Company A.
                            Sergt. G. T. L. Robison, Company B.
                            Private John Curry, Company C.
                            Sergt. C. F. Brown, Company D.
                            *Sergt. T. S. Ryan, Company E.
                            Corpl. J. R. Searcy, Company F.
                            *Fifth Sergt. James Castello, Company G.
                            Private J. Herbert., Company H.
                            Private James Ryan, Company I.
                            Private O. M. Harris, Company K.

                            By order:
                            S. COOPER,

                            Adjutant and Inspector General.


                            GENERAL ORDERS No. 87.

                            ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,

                            Richmond, Va., December 10_,_ 1864_._

                            I. The following roll of honor is published in accordance with Paragraph I, General Orders, No. 131, 1863. It will be read to every regiment in the service at the first dress-parade after its receipt.

                            BATTLE OF BOONSBOROUGH.


                            **Second Regiment Mississippi Infantry:
                            Private R. L. Boone, Company A.
                            Sergt. T. B. McKay, Company B.
                            Sergt. Robert Harris, Company C.
                            Private W. B. Houston, Company D.
                            Private G. W. Monk, Company E.
                            Private T. G. N. Thompson, Company F.
                            Private John Vanzant, Company G.
                            Private B. Weatherington, Company H.
                            Private E. Browning, Company I.
                            Private James L. Ackers, Company K.
                            Private Jacob McCarty, Company L.

                            BATTLE OF SHARPSBURG.


                            **Second Regiment Mississippi Infantry:
                            *Private W. H. Looney, Company A.
                            *Private H. H. Johns, Company B.
                            *Private A. C. Howard, Company C.
                            *Private J. B. Elliott, Company D.
                            *Sergt. J.P. Black, Company F.
                            Sergt. F. H. Daggett, Company G.
                            *Sergt. P. F, Harris, Company H.
                            *Corpl. M. L. Golding, Company I.
                            Private J. W. Gibson, Company K.
                            Private Leander Griffin, Company L.

                            Fitz-John Porter Court-Martial~Page One

                              Charges and Specifications Exhibited Against Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, of the Volunteers of the U. S. Army,
                              B. S. Roberts, brigadier-general of U. S. Volunteers, and inspector-general of Major-General Pope's Army of Virginia.

                              CHARGE 1st.--Violation of the Ninth Article of War.

                              Specification 1st.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, of the volunteers of the United States, having received a lawful order, on or about the 27th August, 1862, while at or near Warrenton Junction, in Virginia, from Maj. Gen. John Pope, his superior and commanding officer, in the following figures and letters, to wit:

                              HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF VIRGINIA,
                              Bristoe Station, August 27, 1862--6.30 p.m.

                              Maj. Gen. F. J. PORTER,
                              Warrenton Junction:

                              GENERAL: The major-general commanding directs that you start at 1 o'clock to-night, and come forward with your whole corps, or such part of it as is with you, so as to be here by daylight to-morrow morning. Hooker has had s very severe action with the enemy, with a loss of about 300 killed and wounded. The enemy has been driven back, but is retiring along the railroad. We must drive him from Manassas, and clear the country between that place and Gainesville, where McDowell is. If Morell has not joined you, send word to him to push forward immediately; also send word to Banks to hurry forward with all speed, to take your place at Warrenton Junction. It is necessary, on all accounts, that you should be here by daylight. I send an officer with this dispatch, who will conduct you to this place. Be sure to send word to Banks, who is on the road from Fayetteville, probably in the direction of Bealeton. Say to Banks, also, that he had best run back the railroad trains to this side of Cedar Run. If he is not with you, write him to that effect.

                              By command of Major-General Pope:
                              GEO. D. RUGGLES,
                              Colonel and Chief of Staff.

                              P. S.--If Banks is not at Warrenton Junction, leave a regiment of infantry and two pieces of artillery as a guard till he comes up, with instructions to follow you immediately. If Banks is not at the junction, instruct Colonel Clary to run the train back to this side of Cedar Run, and post a regiment and section of artillery with it.

                              By command of Major-General Pope:
                              GEO. D. RUGGLES,
                              Colonel and Chief of Staff--

                              Did then and there disobey the said order, being at the time in the face of the enemy. This at or near Warrenton, in the State of Virginia, on or about the 28th of August, 1862.

                              Specification 2d.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, being in front of the enemy, at Manassas, Va., on or about the morning of August 29, 1862, did receive from Maj. Gen. John Pope, his superior and commanding officer, a lawful order, in the following letters and figures, to wit:

                              HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF VIRGINIA,
                              Centreville, August 29, 1862.

                              Generals McDOWELL and PORTER:

                              You will please move forward with your joint commands toward Gainesville. I sent General Porter written orders to that effect an hour and a half ago. Heintzelman, Sigel, and Reno are moving on the Warrenton turnpike, and must now be not far from Gainesville. I desire that, as soon as communication is established between this force and your own, the whole command shall halt. It may be necessary to fall back behind Bull Run, at Centreville, to-night. I presume it will be so on account of our supplies. I have sent no orders of any description to Ricketts, and none to interfere in any way with the movements of McDowell's troops, except what I sent by his aide-de-camp last night, which were to hold his position on the Warrenton pike until the troops from here should fall on the enemy's flank and rear. I do not even know Ricketts' position, as I have not been able to find out where General McDowell was until a late hour this morning. General McDowell will take immediate steps to communicate with General Ricketts, and instruct him to join the other divisions of his corps as soon as practicable. If any considerable advantages are to be gained by departing from this order, it will not be strictly carried out. One thing must be held in view: that the troops must occupy a position from which they can reach Bull Run to-night or by morning. The indications are that the whole force of the enemy is moving in this direction at a pace that will bring them here by to-morrow night or the next day. My own headquarters will for the present be with Heintzelman's corps, or at this place.

                              JOHN POPE,
                              Major-General, Commanding--

                              Which order the said Major-General Porter did then and there disobey. This at or near Manassas, in the State of Virginia, on or about the 29th of August, 1862.

                              Specification 3d.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, having been in front of the enemy during the battle of Manassas, on Friday, the 29th of August, 1862, did on that day receive from Maj. Gen. John Pope, his superior and commanding officer, a ]awful order, in the following letters and figures, to wit:

                              HEADQUARTERS IN THE FIELD,
                              August 29, 1862--4.30 p.m.

                              Major-General PORTER:

                              Your line of march brings you in on the enemy's right flank. I desire you to push forward into action at once on the enemy's flank, and, if possible, on his rear, keeping your right in communication with General Reynolds. The enemy is massed in the woods in front of us, but can be shelled out as soon as you engage their flank. Keep heavy reserves, and use your batteries, keeping well closed to your right all the time. In case you are obliged to fall back, do so to your right and rear, so as to keep you in close communication with the right wing.

                              JOHN POPE,
                              Major-General, Commanding--

                              Which said order the said Major-General Porter did then and there disobey, and did fail to push forward his forces into action either on the enemy's flank or rear, and in all other respects did fail to obey said order. This at or hear Manassas, in the State of Virginia, on or about the 29th of August, 1862.

                              Specification 4th.--In that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, being at or near Manassas Junction, on the night of the 29th August, 1862, did receive from Maj. Gen. John Pope, his superior and commanding officer, a lawful order, in figures and words as follows, to wit:

                              HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF VIRGINIA,.
                              In the Field, near Bull Run, August 29, 1862--8.50 p.m.

                              Maj. Gen. F. J. PORTER:

                              GENERAL: Immediately upon receipt of this order, the precise hour of receiving which you will acknowledge, you will march your command to the field of battle of to-day, and report to me in person for orders. You are to understand that you are expected to comply strictly with this order, and to be present on the field within three hours after its reception, or after daybreak to-morrow morning.

                              JOHN POPE,
                              Major-General, Commanding--

                              And the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter did then and there disobey the said order, and did permit one of the brigades of his command to march to Centreville--out of the way of the field of battle--and there to remain during the entire day of Saturday, the 30th of August. This at or near Manassas Station, in the State of Virginia, on the 29th and 30th days of August, 1862.

                              Specification 5th.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, being at or near Manassas Station, in the State of Virginia., on the night of the 29th August, 1862, and having received from his superior commanding officer, Maj. Gen. John Pope, the lawful order set forth in specification fourth to this charge, did then and there disobey the same, and did permit one other brigade attached to his command--being the brigade commanded by Brig. Gen. A. S. Piatt---to march to Centreville, and did thereby greatly delay the arrival of the said General Piatt's brigade on the field of battle of Manassas, on Saturday, the 30th August, 1862. This at or near Manassas, in the State of Virginia, on or about the 29th day of August, 1862.

                              B. S. ROBERTS,
                              Brigadier-General of Volunteers and Inspector-General of Pope's Army.

                              CHARGE 2d.--Violation of the Fifty-second Article of War.

                              Specification 1st.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, during the battle of Manassas, on Friday, the 29th August, 1862, and while within sight of the field and in full hearing of its artillery, did receive from Maj. Gen. John Pope, his superior and commanding officer, a lawful order to attack the enemy, in the following figures and letters, to wit:

                              HEADQUARTERS IN THE FIELD,
                              August 29, 1862--4.30 p.m.

                              Major-General PORTER:

                              Your line of march brings you in on the enemy's right flank. I desire you to push forward into action at once on the enemy s flank, and, if possible, on his rear, keeping your right in communication with General Reynolds. The enemy is massed in the woods in front of us, but can be shelled out as soon as you engage their flank. Keep heavy reserves, and use your batteries, keeping well closed to your right all the time. In case you are obliged to fall back, do so to your right and rear, so as to keep you in close communication with the right wing.

                              JOHN POPE,
                              Major-General, Commanding

                              Which said order the said Major-General Porter did then and there shamefully disobey, and did retreat from advancing forces of the enemy without any attempt to engage them, or to aid the troops who were already fighting greatly superior numbers, and were relying on the flank attack he was thus ordered to make to secure a decisive victory, and to capture the enemy's army, a result which must have followed from said flank attack, had it been made by the said General Porter in compliance with the said order, which he so shamefully disobeyed. This at or near Manassas, in the State of Virginia, on or about the 29th of August, 1862.

                              Specification 2d.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, being with his army corps, on Friday, the 29th August, 1862, between Manassas Station and the field of a battle then pending between the forces of the United States and those of the rebels, and within sound of the guns and in the presence of the enemy, and knowing that a severe action of great consequence was being fought, and that the aid of his corps was greatly needed, did fail all day to bring it on to the field, and did shamefully fall back and retreat from the advance of the enemy, without any attempt to give them battle, and without knowing the forces from which he shamefully retreated. This near Manassas Station, in the State of Virginia, on the 29th of August, 1862.

                              Specification 3d.--In that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, being with his army corps near the field of battle of Manassas, on the 29th August, 1862, while a severe action was being fought by the troops of Major-General Pope's command, and being in the belief that the troops of the said General Pope were sustaining defeat and retiring from the field, did shamefully fail to go to the aid of the said troops and general, and did shamefully retreat away and fall back with his army to the Manassas Junction, and leave to the disasters of a presumed defeat the said army, and did fail, by any attempt, to attack the enemy, to aid in averting the misfortunes of a disaster that would have endangered the safety of the capital of the country. This at or near Manassas Station, in the State of Virginia, on the 29th day of August, 1862.

                              Specification 4th.--In this, that the said Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, on the field of battle of Manassas, on Saturday, the 30th August, 1862, having received a lawful order from his superior officer and commanding general, Maj. Gen. John Pope, to engage the enemy's lines and to carry a position near their center, and to take an annoying battery there posted did proceed in the execution of that order with unnecessary slowness, and, by delays, give the enemy opportunities to watch and know his movements and to prepare to meet his attack; and did finally so feebly fall upon the enemy's lines as to make little or no impression on the same, and did fall back and draw away his forces unnecessarily, and without making any of the great personal efforts to rally his troops or to keep their lines, or to inspire his troops to meet the sacrifices and to make the resistance demanded by the importance of his position, and the momentous consequences and disasters of a retreat at so critical a juncture of the day.

                              B. S. ROBERTS,
                              Brigadier-General Volunteers and Inspector-General Pope' s Army.

                              After the reading of the foregoing charges and specifications was concluded, the judge-advocate said: The last specification (specification 4th, under charge 2d) is withdrawn, as it is my purpose to offer no proof under it.

                              The accused asked if that specification was to be entered upon the record, the judge-advocate having notified the court of its withdrawal.

                              The JUDGE-ADVOCATE. It is necessarily a part of the record, because a copy was made out and served upon General Porter before I had consulted with the witnesses and decided that I should offer no testimony under it. I cannot now mutilate the record; but I enter upon the record a formal withdrawal, and that is an end to that specification. There is, therefore, no plea necessary to it.

                              The accused then submitted the following paper as the basis of objection to the court proceeding further in the case:

                              WASHINGTON, D.C., December 3, 1862.

                              There is a question of form, possibly involving important matter of law, to which I now, upon my own reflections and the advice of my counsel, deem it proper respectfully to ask the consideration of the court.

                              The charges and specifications furnished to me are signed by B. S. Roberts, brigadier-general of volunteers and inspector-general of Pope's army. The order convening a military commission in my case recited that the subject-matter of its investigation was charges preferred against me by Maj. Gen. John Pope.

                              I desire to be informed whether, under these circumstances, the charges before this court, signed, as above stated, by an officer of General Pope's staff, whose official character as such appears as part of his signature, be or be not, in the judgment of the court, in contemplation of law, charges preferred by Major-General Pope, or by his order, so as to make the presentation of them his act.
                              Should the court hold this to be the legal fact, then, as the court is aware, the order convening this court is not legal, in view of the provision of the statute of 1830, which requires the court, in such a case, to be convened by the President of the United States, and not, as this court is convened, by order of the General-in-Chief.

                              The determination of this question now may prevent embarrassment and delay hereafter, and in that view solely I now present it, and not with the slightest purpose of taking any exception to any member of the court.

                              F. J. PORTER,

                              The JUDGE-ADVOCATE. The accused refers to the order appointing a military commission, in which it was recited that it was to try charges preferred by Major-General Pope. In point of fact, no charges ever were preferred by him. That commission was dissolved, and this general court-martial appointed, by virtue of this order:

                              SPECIAL ORDERS No. 362.
                              HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
                              ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
                              Washington, November 25, 1862.

                              The military commission ordered to assemble on the 20th instant, by Special Orders, No. 350, November 17, 1862, from Headquarters of the Army, is hereby dissolved, and a general court-martial is hereby appointed, to meet in this city on the 27th instant, or as soon thereafter as practicable, for the trial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, U.S. Volunteers.

                              There is no reference to the charges, or by whom they are preferred, in the order appointing this court.

                              The ACCUSED. The question raised by the paper just read by the accused is that, perhaps, in point of legal effect these charges, although signed by Brigadier-General Roberts, as inspector-general of Pope's army, are to be considered as charges preferred by General Pope himself. We desire to have that question disposed of.

                              The JUDGE-ADVOCATE. There is no reference in the order appointing this court to General Pope at all. I wish to state distinctly that Major-General Pope is not the prosecutor in this case, nor has he preferred these charges, nor do I present them as being preferred by him.
                              The room was then cleared, and the court proceeded to deliberate with closed doors.

                              After some time the doors were reopened.

                              The judge-advocate stated the decision of the court to be as follows: The court determine that they will overrule the objection; that the court is properly organized, and that the accused shall plead to the charges and specifications.

                              Whereupon the accused entered the following plea:

                              To Specification 1st, CHARGE 1st, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 2d, CHARGE 1st, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 3d, CHARGE 1st, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 4th, CHARGE 1st, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 5th, CHARGE 1st, "Not guilty."
                              And to the CHARGE, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 1st, CHARGE 2d, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 2d, CHARGE 2d, "Not guilty."
                              To Specification 3d, CHARGE 2d, "Not guilty."
                              And to the CHARGE, "Not guilty."

                              The judge-advocate stated that there were no witnesses now in attendance.
                              Whereupon the court adjourned to 11 a.m. to-morrow.

                              Source:  Official Records of the War of the Rebellion

                              Finding of the Court in the Court-Martial of Fitz John Porter

                                **WASHINGTON, D.C., January 10, 1863

                                **        The court met pursuant to adjournment.
                                        Present, Maj. Gen. D. Hunter, U.S. Volunteers; Maj. Gen. E. A. Hitchcock, U.S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. Rufus King, U. S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. B. M. Prentiss, U.S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. James B. Ricketts, U.S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. Silas Casey, U.S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. James A. Garfield, U.S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. N. B. Buford, U.S. Volunteers; Brig. Gen. J.P. Slough, U.S. Volunteers; and Col. J. Holt, Judge-Advocate-General.
                                        The accused, with his counsel, was also present.
                                        The minutes of the last session were then read and approved.
                                        The accused then presented a written address (marked "Defense of Accused," and appended hereto), which was read by his counsel in his defense. The judge-advocate then submitted the case to the court with the following remarks:
                                        I will simply remark that this case has been thoroughly and most patiently investigated. A continuous session of some forty-five days sufficiently attests this. Indeed, the greater part of the evidence touching the more important and the more severely contested points has, by re-examination and cross-examination, been again and again impressed upon your minds, so that I now feel entirely satisfied that it is completely comprehended and appreciated by you in all its bearings.
                                        Whatever, therefore, of inaccuracies of interpretation of testimony, and whatever of illogical deduction from it, may have found a place in the very elaborate defense of the accused, which has been read, may be safely left for their correction to the recollection and judgment of the court.
                                        To prepare a written reply, in keeping with the gravity of this proceeding, to the argument of the accused, would require several days, thus involving a delay which it is most important to avoid. From this consideration, and from the urgent demand which exists for the services of members of this court in other and more active fields of duty, it is felt that the public interests will be best subserved by asking, as I now do, that you will proceed at once to deliberate upon and determine the issues which are before you.
                                        The court was thereupon cleared for deliberation, and having maturely considered the evidence adduced, find the accused, Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, of United States Volunteers, as follows:**

                                Of the 1st specification of 1st CHARGE, " Guilty."

                                Of the 2d specification of 1ST CHARGE, "Guilty."

                                Of the 3d specification of 1ST CHARGE, "Guilty."

                                Of the 4th specification of 1ST CHARGE, "Not guilty."

                                Of the 5th specification of 1ST CHARGE, " Not guilty."

                                Of the 1st CHARGE, "Guilty."

                                Of the 1st specification of 2D CHARGE, "Guilty," except so much of the specification as implies that he, the accused," did retreat from advancing forces of the enemy," after the receipt of the order set forth in said specification.

                                Of the 2d specification of 2D CHARGE, "Guilty."

                                Of the 3d specification of 2D CHARGE, "Guilty," except the words "to the Manassas Junction."

                                Of the 2d CHARGE, "Guilty."

                                And the court do therefore sentence him, Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, of the United States Volunteers, to be cashiered, and to be forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit under the Government of the United States.

                                D. HUNTER,
                                Major-General, President.

                                J. HOLT,

                                **        There being no further business before them, the court adjourned sine die.**

                                D. HUNTER,
                                Major-General, President.

                                J. HOLT,


                                HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
                                Washington, January 13, 1863.

                                **        In compliance with the Sixty-fifth Article of War, these whole proceedings are transmitted to the Secretary of War to be laid before the President of the United States.**

                                H. W. HALLECK,

                                JANUARY 21, 1863.

                                **        The foregoing proceedings, findings, and sentence in the foregoing case of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter are approved and confirmed, and it ordered that the said Fitz John Porter be, and he hereby is, cashiered and dismissed from the service of the United States as a major-general of volunteers, and as colonel and brevet brigadier-general in the regular service of the United States, and forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit under the Government of the United States.**

                                ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

                                Source:  Official Records of the War of the Rebellion**

                                William Starke Rosecrans

                                  William Starke Rosecrans

                                  (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. He gained fame for his role as a Union general during the American Civil War. He was the victor at prominent Western Theater battles such as Second Corinth, Stones River, and the Tullahoma Campaign, but his military career was effectively ended following his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863.

                                  From 1868 to 1869, Rosecrans served as U.S. Minister to Mexico, but was replaced when his old nemesis, Ulysses Grant, became president. He turned down the Democratic nomination for Governor of Ohio in 1869. He returned to private mining business in Mexico and California for ten years. He was elected as a congressman from California, serving from 1881 to 1885, and was appointed as a registrar for the U.S. Treasury, serving from 1885 to 1893. He died in 1898 at Rancho Sausal Redondo, Redondo Beach, California, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, outside of San Diego, California, is named in his honor.

                                  Braxton Bragg

                                    Braxton Bragg

                                    (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.

                                    Bragg served in the Second Seminole War in Florida and took part in the occupation of Texas. He won promotions for bravery and distinguished conduct in the Mexican-American War, including a brevet promotion to major for the Battle of Monterrey and to lieutenant colonel for the Battle of Buena Vista. He gained the respect of Gen. Zachary Taylor.

                                    Bragg had a reputation for being a strict disciplinarian and one who adhered to regulations literally. There is a famous, perhaps apocryphal, story about him as a company commander at a frontier post where he also served as quartermaster. He submitted a requisition for supplies for his company, then as quartermaster declined to fill it. As company commander, he resubmitted the requisition, giving additional reasons for his requirements, but as the quartermaster he denied the request again. Realizing that he was at a personal impasse, he referred the matter to the post commandant, who exclaimed, "My God, Mr. Bragg, you have quarreled with every officer in the army, and now you are quarreling with yourself!" It is alleged that some of his troops attempted to assassinate him on two occasions in August and September 1847, but he was not injured either time. In the more serious of the two incidents, one of his soldiers exploded a 12-pound artillery shell underneath his cot. Although the cot was destroyed, somehow Bragg himself emerged without a scratch.

                                    In 1856, Bragg resigned from the U.S. Army to become a sugar planter in Thibodeaux, Louisiana. He also served as Commissioner of Public Works for the state.

                                    Bragg was walking down a street with a friend in Galveston, Texas, when he suddenly fell over dead. A local legend holds that there is a mysterious light near the place of his death, which is called Bragg's light. He is buried in Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile, Alabama.

                                    George C. Meade

                                      George Gordon Meade

                                      (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872)

                                      was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. He fought with distinction in the Seminole War and Mexican-American War. During the American Civil War he served as a Union general, rising from command of a brigade to the Army of the Potomac. He is best known for defeating Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. In 1864–65, Meade continued to command the Army of the Potomac through the Overland Campaign, the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, and the Appomattox Campaign, but he was overshadowed by the direct supervision of the general in chief, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.

                                      Meade died in Philadelphia from complications of his old wounds, combined with pneumonia, and is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery. here are statues of him throughout Pennsylvania, including a few in Gettysburg National Military Park. The U.S. Army's Fort George G. Meade in Fort Meade, Maryland is named for him, as are Meade County, Kansas, and Meade County, South Dakota. The Old Baldy Civil War Round Table in Philadelphia is named in honor of Meade's horse during the war.

                                      Joseph Hooker

                                        Joseph Hooker

                                        (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879, known as "Fighting Joe", was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Although he served throughout the war, usually with distinction, he is best remembered for his stunning defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863.

                                        After the war, Hooker suffered from poor health and was partially paralyzed by a stroke. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in 1866 and retired from the U.S. Army two years later with the regular army rank of major general. He died on a visit to Garden City, New York, and is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio, his wife's home town.

                                        General John Pope (Military Officer)

                                          John Pope

                                          (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He had a brief but successful career in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the East. After the Civil War, he resumed a successful military career in the Indian Wars.

                                          John Pope was promoted to major general in 1882 and retired in 1886. He died at the Ohio Soldiers' Home near Sandusky, Ohio. He is buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri.