The Bounty Mutineers

The Bounty Mutineers - Stories

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The Bounty Mutineers~Continued

    <div>The true story of the the 1789 mutiny on the Bounty is far more complicated than suggested by film versions of the event, which have emphasized the gratuitous cruelty of the ship's captain, William Bligh.  The psychological drama that played out in the South Seas starring Bligh, the efficient disciplinarian, and his mate, the sensitive and proud Fletcher Christian, led to, among other things: one of the most amazing navigational feats in maritime history, the founding of a British settlement that continues to exist today, and  a court-martial in England that answered the question of which of ten captured mutineers should live--and which should die--for their actions.

    The ill-fated voyage of the Bounty would never have happened had it not been for the discovery in 1769 of a botanical curiosity, given the name "breadfruit," on the island of Tahiti.  On board the Endeavor, captained by the celebrated James Cook, as it sailed into Tahiti was some of England's best scientific talent, including botanist Joseph Banks.  After the American colonies achieved independence, and the reliable supply of fish they had been exporting to England became unavailable, Banks (named in 1778 as the president of the Royal Society) concluded breadfruit might fill the sudden gap in the diet of English slaves working the sugar plantations of Jamaica and the Lesser Antilles.  Support built for an expedition to retrieve and transplant breadfruit, thanks to Banks constantly pushing the idea, and in 1787 Banks successfully petitioned the king to sponsor the effort.  A vessel was obtained and a commander, William Bligh, selected.  The voyage, however, did not rank high in the Admiralty's priorities--the ship was small, and Bligh was denied the status "master and commander" and the other commissioned officers and security force usually given to the captain of a voyage of such length.

    William Bligh's career at sea had a remarkable upward trajectory.  By age 22, he had been appointed sailing master (the person in charge of day-to-day management of the ship) of the Resolution, captained by James Cook.  After rounding the Cape of Good Hope, the Resolution spent a year exploring the Pacific from the southern islands to the Arctic north.  In the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii), Bligh witnessed Cook being bludgeoned to death on a beach by natives--a shocking event which might have powerfully shaped his own ideas about discipline.

    By 1786, Bligh earned command of his own ship, the Britannia, and brought on as a young able-bodied seaman Fletcher Christian, a twenty-three-year-old man with connections to the extended Bligh family.  On August 20, 1787, Lieutenant Bligh took command of the Bounty.  When he began to fit-out and man the ship one of the first persons he recruited was Fletcher Christian.

    On December 23, 1787, after weeks of delay, the Bounty sailed from Spithea, England, bound for Tahiti by way of Cape Horn.  Arriving at the tip of South America in late March, the Bounty encountered day after day of mountainous waves that finally forced Bligh to order a ten thousand mile detour around Africa's Cape of Good Hope.  The Bounty reached Cape Town on May 24, where it remained for thirty-eight days as it was completely overhauled and resupplied.  Bligh wrote, "Perhaps a Voyage of five Months which I have now performed without touching at any one place but at Tenarif [Canary Islands], has never been accomplished with so few accidents, and such health among Seamen in a like continuance of bad weather." During the difficult months at sea and the layover on the Cape, Bligh and Christian remained on good terms.  In Cape Town, in fact, Bligh loaned money to Christian, a not insignificant act of friendship from someone who himself had to watch every penny.

    Seven weeks after leaving the Cape, the Bounty anchored off the southern coast of Tasmania.  At Adventure Bay on Tasmania the first signs of real trouble surfaced.  Bligh criticized his carpenter, William Purcell, for cutting poor quality billets of wood.  Purcell responded that Bligh just came onshore "to find fault" and became so insolent that Bligh ordered him back to the ship.  Bligh lamented that he was so shorthanded he could not afford to confine or to try Purcell for refusing orders (and flogging was not, for a warrant officer, an available option)--a fact Purcell seemed to recognize as he continued a course of studied disobedience.  James Morrison, boatswain's mate, wrote that at Adventure Bay "were sown seeds of eternal discord between Lieut. Bligh & the Carpenter, and it will be no more than true to say, with all the Officers in general."  Adventure Bay also brought on the voyage's first death.  Able seaman James Valentine contracted an ailment there that led to his being bled by the ship's surgeon, Thomas Huggan.  Unfortunately, the bleeding resulted in an infection which led to Valentine's delirium and death.  Bligh blamed Valentine's death on the incompetence of Huggan and the indifference of officers who, he believed, should have spotted symptoms earlier.

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    <div>Tahiti
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    <div>28,086 miles after leaving England, on October 24, 1788, the Bounty rounded a reef on Tahiti's Point Venus.  Islanders in throngs of canoes greeted the ship, and "in ten minutes," wrote Bligh, the Bounty was so filled with Tahitians that "I could scarce find my own people."  Within a few days, Bligh busied himself gaining the permission of various island chiefs to pull up and carry to the ship breadfruit.  Bligh's relations with the natives were cordial, and he loved the place, as this entry in his log makes clear: "[Matavai Bay, Tahiti is] certainly the Paradise of the World, and if happiness could result from situation and convenience, here it is to be found in the highest perfection.  I have seen many parts of the World, but Otaheite [Tahiti] is capable of being preferable to them all."

    The onset of the rainy season meant that the Bounty would be in Tahiti for five months.  Crew members constructed a compound that served as a nursery for breadfruit,  and Bligh gave the breadfruit project nearly his full attention.  Discipline problems were fairly minor (although Purcell's insolence continued to be an issue) during the first few months of the Bounty's stay on the island, but  Bligh's order prohibiting crew members from most trading with natives led to considerable grumbling.  Still, crew members couldn't be too unhappy, what with an abundant supply of native women, most of whom seem quite pleased to enjoy frequent sexual relations with their pale-faced visitors for the price of a few nails.

    The first serious problem of the Tahitian stay occurred in January, when three crew members (Charles Churchill, John Millward, and William Muspratt) and a considerable amount of arms and ammunition turned up missing.  Bligh demanded that his Tahitian friends aid in returning the deserters and their supplies.  He warned he would "make the whole Country suffer for it" if they failed to "bring the Deserters back."  Bligh's temper erupted a few days after the desertion when he found that spare sails he had ordered out of storage had been left mildewed and rotted.  "Scarce any neglect of duty can equal the criminality of this," he fumed in his log.  Three weeks after they disappeared, the deserters were tracked down at in a village five miles away from the Bounty.  The men were subjected to repeated lashings and placed in irons, but they remained grateful that Bligh had indicated that he would not recommend them for a court-martial, a proceeding that might be expected to result in their executions.

    Bligh blamed the desertion in large part on Midshipman Thomas Hayward, who had fallen asleep at his station at the critical time.  Bligh began compiling a long list of complaints in his own mind of misconduct and neglect by his officers.  He complained: "Such a neglectfull and worthless petty Officers I believe never was in a Ship as are in this.  No Orders for a few hours together are Obeyed by them, and their conduct in general is so bad, that no confidence or trust can be reposed in them."

    With 1,015 breadfruit safely on board, the Bounty was readied for its departure after twenty-three weeks in Tahiti.  Many of the men did not share Bligh's interest in leaving their island pleasures behind.  On the early afternoon of April 5, the ship sailed west.

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    <div>Mutiny </div>
    <div> On April 11, the Bounty anchored at an island the natives called Whytootackee, one of the Friendly Islands.  Soon after leaving Whytootackee, Master John Fryer later reported, Bligh and Christian argued bitterly.  According to Fryer, around midnight on April 21, Christian complained to Bligh, "Sir, your abuse is so bad that I cannot do my duty with any pleasure.  I have been in hell for weeks with you."  The Bounty continued to sail westward, landing at Anamooka on April 24.  Bligh again had words with Christian at Anamooka, calling him a "cowardly rascal" for letting fear, while he was under arms, of "a set of naked savages" interfere with his work of supervising the kegging of water.  The captain became further enraged when a native diver was able to slip the grapnel, a small anchor, off its line.  Bligh decided to detain some chiefs that were on board the Bounty until the grapnel was returned.  In his rage over the lost grapnel, Bligh also chastised officers and crew as "lubberly rascals" who could be easily disarmed by five people "with good sticks."  The grapnel never showed up and Bligh, not really anxious to cart the chiefs back to England, returned them to native canoes.  The Bounty headed north through calm seas toward the island of Tofua.

    On the morning of August 27, Bligh concluded that some coconuts were missing from the pile kept between the guns.  "Don't you think those coconuts have shrunk since last night?" he asked Fryer.  Bligh announced that he would find and punish the coconut thief.  He questioned one person after another about the missing nuts.  According to boatswain's mate James Morrison, Christian responded to Bligh's interrogation of him by saying, "I hope you don't think me guilty of stealing."  Bligh answered, "Yes, you damned hound, I do--You must have stolen them from me or you could give a better account of them....I suppose you'll steal my yams next., but I'll sweat you for it you rascals.  I'll make half of you jump overboard before you through Endeavor Straights."  He ended the confrontation with orders that rations for yams be cut in half.  Christian was left devastated by the incident.  William Purcell reported that Christian left Bligh with tears "running fast from his eyes in big drops."  Bligh seemed to shrug off the blowup, and later invited Christian to dine with him--as had been his custom on every third evening--that night.

    Bligh described what happened in the predawn hours of  April 28: "Just before sun-rising, Mr. Christian, with the master at arms, gunner's mate, and Thomas Burket, seaman, came into my cabin while I was asleep, and seizing me, tied my hands with a cord behind my back, and threatened me with instant death, if I spoke or made the least noise."  The mutineers hauled Bligh--still in his nightshirt and naked from the waist down--out of bed and forced him on deck.  As others gathered on deck, the mutineers ordered toe boatswain to lower the Bounty's launch.  Eighteen people either were ordered into the launch or entered voluntarily.  Bligh by now recognized was about to be set adrift.  Assorted provisions were gathered, including twine, canvas, lines, sails, a twenty-gallon cask of water, 150 pounds of bread, a tool chest, a compass and a small quantity of rum.  Bligh implored Christian to remember that, back in England, his children had bounced on his knee.  Christian, replying with emotion, said, "I am in hell--I am in hell."  Bligh, after being ordered into the launch, asked for arms, but only received laughs.  At the last minute, four cutlasses were tossed into the twenty-three-foot boat.  Bligh reported: "After having undergone a great deal of ridicule, and been kept some time to make sport for these unfeeling wretches, we were at length cast adrift in the open ocean."  To three loyalists detained on board the Bounty against their will, Bligh called out, "Never fear, my lads; I'll do you justice if I ever reach England!"

    </div>
    <div>Tracking Down the Mutineers
    <div>Eleven months after the mutiny, and against all odds, William Bligh reached the home shores of England. Bligh took rightful pride in his accomplishment, and in his Narrative of the Mutiny, published just months after his return, he devoted a scant six pages to the mutiny and eighty to the story of his remarkable 3, 618-mile subsequent voyage in an overloaded, underprovisioned boat.  The English Chronicle called Bligh's navigation of "his little skiff through so dangerous a sea" a "matchless...undertaking that seems beyond the verge of probability." A court-martial, routine in cases where captains lose ships, found him innocent of any wrongdoing.  The nation hailed Bligh as a hero and within a year he was appointed captain of a new breadfruit expedition, this one with a full complement of lieutenants and marines for better security.

    In the summer of 1790 Captain Edward Edwards assumed command of the 24-gun frigate Pandora, with orders to sail to the Pacific and bring back whatever Bounty mutineers he and his men could round up.  On board as his third lieutenant was Thomas Hayward, a Bounty midshipman who accompanied Bligh on his legendary journey in the 23-foot launch.  The Pandora arrived in Tahiti in on a fine March day in 1791.  Three Bounty crew members, anxious to rebuild their lives back in England, swam out to the Pandora. Peter Heywood, who was just seventeen at the time of the mutiny, and Joseph Coleman and George Stewart, after announcing that they were formerly of the Bounty, were arrested and placed in chains.

    Coleman informed Captain Edwards of events after the mutiny.  He explained that Fletcher Christian left sixteen men on Tahiti and then departed with the other mutineers in search of a safe tropical haven.  Of the sixteen left in Tahiti, Coleman said, two men, Charles Churchill and Matthew Thompson, had been murdered.  From talking with curious Tahitians that had climbed aboard the Pandora, Edwards learned the probable whereabouts of the eleven remaining fugitives on the island.

    Edwards mounted a roundup effort with the help of local leaders.  By the second day, able seaman Richard Skinner was in chains.  A party dispatched to arrest a group that had recently sailed in a schooner on the south coast discovered that the mutineers, having heard of the Pandora's arrival, and fled into the mountain forests.  The search party found three mutineers, James Morrison, Charles Norman, and Thomas Ellison, asleep in a shelter and returned them to the Pandora, where they were placed in a newly constructed prison hut on the quarterdeck.  "Pandora's box" became the name of the eleven by eighteen foot space.  About the same time, Michael Byrn, a fiddler who was nearly blind, became the eighth Bounty crew member captured.  Within the next ten days, the last of the Tahitian fugitives were rounded up.  Searchers discovered Henry Hilbrant and Thomas McIntosh in the hill country near Papara.  In the same area the following night, whey found the last four men: Thomas Burkett, John  Millward, John Sumner, and  William Muspratt, the cook's assistant.

    From journals taken from the captured men, Captain Edwards pieced together the story that unfolded after the mutiny.  Tensions erupted, it seemed, shortly after Christian took control of the Bounty, with some of the men complaining that Christian and his closest friends "were always served better than these who were thought to be disaffected."  The ship anchored first on the island of Tubuai, some 350 miles south of Tahiti.  Quarreling among the men increased, with claims to native women the most intense source of disagreement.  Within a week, the Bounty sailed from tiny island back to Tahiti for supplies.  With a load of pigs, goats, plants, chickens and--most significantly--nine Tahitian women, eight Tahitian men, and seven boys and one girl, the ship sailed back to the Tubuai.  For three months, the mutineers struggled to build a community in Tubuai, but by September tensions had become unbearable among the various factions.  The decision was made to split up, with some men to be brought back to Tahiti, while the others would sail with Christian in search of a new place of safety.  On September 21, 1789, after dropping off sixteen men, each with a musket and seventeen pounds of powder, Christian and eight of his followers bid a final farewell to Tahiti  Where they sailed and what became of them, no one knew.  He had told the men he would "search for an unknown or uninhabited island in which there was no harbour for shipping" and there would run the Bounty ashore--but that was the only clue as to the party's whereabouts.

    For the next three months, Edwards took the Pandora from one Pacific island to another, in a dogged search for the remaining fugitives.  Trouble developed in the Samoas during a June rainstorm, when a vessel carrying nine men was lost.  In August, with Christian's party still uncaptured, the Pandora finally turned toward England.  On Australia's Great Barrier Reef, the Pandora ran aground and broke up.  Thirty-one crew members and four of the fourteen prisoners (Skinner, still in handcuffs, Hilbrant, still in irons, and Sumner and Stewart, struck by a falling gangway) went down with the ship.  The other ten prisoners, scattered among four lifeboats, eventually reached Coupang and, finally, England in March 1792.

    <div>Court-Martial for Mutiny
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    </div>
    <div>All ten of the Bounty prisoners (Burkett, Byrn, Coleman, Ellison, Heywood, McIntosh, Millward, Morrison, Muspratt, and Norman) faced the same charge: mutiny.  Under the law of England, it mattered not whether a man actively participated in seizing command of the ship or took no action to oppose the mutiny.  As Nessy Heywood, sister of one of the charged men, Peter Heywood, was reminded in a letter, "The man who stands Neuter is equally guilty with him who lifts his arms against his Captain."  The President of the court-martial announced that all ten men would be tried together.  Rejecting requests for separate trials, Lord Hood proclaimed, even before the proceeding began: "The Bounty's Mutineers being charged with and were guilty of the same atrocious Crime, committed at the same time."

    The court-martial of the Bounty mutineers opened on the gray morning of September 12, 1792 in the captain's great cabin of  Lord Hood's ship, the Duke, moored in Portsmouth Harbor on England's southern coast.  William Bligh, already a national hero, was far from Portsmouth on that day: As captain of the Providence, he was on his way back to the South Pacific on another breadfruit-gathering mission. The ten defendants in the court martial, each charged with violation of Article XIX of the Articles of War, knew that conviction meant probable death. The law read: "If any Person in or belonging to the Fleet shall make or endeavour to make any mutinous Assembly upon any Pretence whatsoever, every Person offending herein, and being convicted thereof by the Sentence of the Court-martial shall suffer Death."

    Judge Advocate Moses Greetham, handling the case for the British Navy, opened the proceeding by describing the long series of events, beginning with the breadfruit commission, that led to the court-martial.  The jury of twelve naval officers in blue coats and gold buttons listened as Greetham continued by reading William Bligh's detailed report of the mutiny.

    The prosecution's case took only a few days.  The key witnesses, unsurprisingly, were Bounty loyalists.  After each witness testified, the defendants themselves--a rather uneducated lot with no special knowledge in the ways of the law--were given the opportunity to cross-examine them.  One defendant, however, did have both helpful connections and sound legal advice.  Young Peter Heywood (just fifteen at the time of the mutiny), acting on that legal advice, reserved his defense until the prosecution had closed its case.

    The prosecution based its case against the mutineers on three fundamental mistakes they made.  First, in the prosecution's view, they took no actions to directly thwart the mutiny.  Second, they did not get into the Bounty's launch with Captain Bligh.  Finally, the prosecution noted, none of the men made any determined effort to return to England after the mutiny, but instead many went into hiding in Tahiti.

    Master of the Bounty, John Fryer, testified first for the prosecution.  Fryer, who occupied a cabin opposite Bligh's, described being awoken by shouting just before dawn on the night of April 28, 1789.  Mutineer Matthew Quintal stepped into his cabin and warned him that if he said anything he was a dead man. Fryer testified that he looked out his cabin door and saw Christian holding a cord that tied that hands of his nightshirt-clad captain.  "Damn his Eyes," he recalled a mutineer saying to Bligh, "put him into the Boat, and let the bugger see if he can live upon three fourths of a Pound of Yams a day."  Fryer told the court that he pleaded with Christian to abandon his mutinous ways, but Christian replied that he should "hold his tongue" and that "Bligh has brought all this on himself."

    Fryer offered damning testimony concerning some of the defendants.  John Millward, he said, guarded him with arms.  When Fryer suggested to Millward that he "knock down" the mutineer standing next to him, Fryer said, Millward cocked his musket and pointed it at Fryer with the warning, "Mr. Fryer be quiet; no one will hurt you."  Fryer also reported seeing Thomas Burkett carrying a weapon during the mutiny.  The Bounty's master told the court that we encouraged James Morrison to turn against the mutineers, Morrison replied, "It is too late."  Finally, Fryer reported that he observed Thomas Ellison obeying Christian's order to loose the top gallants.

    Fryer's testimony was helpful to several of the other defendants, however.  Fryer noted that Joseph Coleman "called out several times to recollect that he had no hand in the business," and he testified that during the mutiny he saw Thomas McIntosh and Charles Norman leaning against a rail, apparently crying.

    William Cole, the boatswain, testified next.  He described visiting the seamen's quarters to awaken three of the defendants, Morrison, Millward, and McIntosh, after discovering Christian had taken the ship.  None, he said, wanted anything to do with the mutiny, but while he was talking to them one of the mutineers, Charles Churchill, walked into the room and "called out to Millward, desired him to come upon Deck immediately to take a Musquet."  Millward, Cole testified, complied with the request.  Cole also recalled seeing the prisoner William Muspratt "with a Musquet in his Hand."  Asked by the court whether he observed any of the defendants actively resist the mutiny, Cole answered that he did not.  The court also asked Cole, "You have said that Coleman, Norman and McIntosh were retained in the Bounty against their will--Have you reason to believe that any of the other prisoners were detained against their inclinations?"  Cole responded, "I believe Mr. Heywood was."

    The court swore in William Peckover the next morning.  Peckover testified that Burkett, who was carrying arms, called down from the Bounty to the overloaded launch to see if he needed anything else.  When Peckover said that he had "only what I stood in, a shirt, and a pair of trousers," Burkett left and returned ten minutes later with additional clothes, which he tossed into the boat.  Peckover testified that except for Coleman, Norman, McIntosh, and Byrn, he "had every reason to suppose" that the other six defendants supported the mutiny.

    Witness William Purcell  described, in his testimony, how he succeeded in changing Christian's mind, convincing the chief mutineer to allow the Bounty loyalists to have the larger and safer of the two available launches.  Christian also relented to the ship's carpenter's demand that he be allowed to take his tool chest.  Christian's concession on the tool chest prompted other mutineers to urge that Purcell be ordered to stay on the Bounty, as he with his tool chest might secure the loyalists "another vessel in a month."

    Purcell was the first witness to offer evidence that incriminated young Peter Heywood.  Purcell testified that he saw Heywood on the booms with "his hand on a cutlass."  When the carpenter called out to Heywood, "In the name of God Peter, what do you do with that?", Heywood "instantly dropped it."  Purcell undid some of his damage to Heywood's case, however, when he described him as "a person confused and that he did not know that he had the weapon in his hand."   Members of the court had a great number of question's concerning the cutlass, including one as to whether Purcell thought the mutineers would have knowingly allowed a person "well disposed to the Captain" to touch such a weapon.

    Several additional witnesses rounded out the case for the prosecution.  They included midshipmen Thomas Hayward and John Hallett, able seaman John Smith,  and Lieutenants Larkan and Corner of the Pandora.  The prosecution rested its case on Friday, and the court allowed the defendants the weekend, as Caroline Alexander writes in The Bounty (2003),  "to prepare and rehearse the words that would damn or save them."

    </div>
    <div>The Defenses
    </div>
    <div>The four men who Bligh had previously described as having been detained against their will, Norman, McIntosh, Coleman, and Byrn each offered short prepared defenses.  The defenses included--for Norman and McIntosh--personal letters from Bligh declaring them innocent of mutiny.  In the cases of these men, the court-martial was more a formality than a threat, and their eventual acquittal a virtual certainty.

    For three other men, execution no less likely than acquittal for did for the four detained loyalists.  Thomas Burkett, for example, faced the damning testimony of more than one prosecution witness that he, with musket in hand, escorted Captain Bligh from his cabin.  His long shot defense consisted of accusations against Fletcher Christian forced him to participate in the mutiny against his will and suggestions that he desired to retake the Bounty and return it to England--but never had the support to pull it off.  Millward and Ellison also confronted long odds, having been described by witnesses as being armed with cutlasses at the time of the mutiny.   In his defense, Ellison called Christian "a mad man" and said that he feared what would happen if he attempted to thwart the mutiny.  Millward, in his prepared statement, claimed that he--like Burkett--had hoped to retake the Bounty at an opportune time, but that the time never came.  Unfortunately for Millward, when prosecution witness William Cole, was asked by Millward to confirm his story of a conversation about retaking the boat, Cole failed to recall any such discussion.

    Genuine doubt existed only as to the fates of the three remaining defendants, James Morrison, William Muspratt, and Peter Heywood.  Morrison mounted a tenacious defense.  He succeeded it getting witnesses to support his argument, that he had wanted to join Bligh in the launch, but had been prevented by mutineers from doing so.  He also pulled off something rare in the court-martial in successfully impeaching two witnesses that testified against him.  Muspratt had to contend with incriminating testimony that placed a musket in his hands at the time of the mutiny.  He attempted to call two of his fellow defendants, Byrn and Norman, as witnesses to confirm his claim that he expressed displeasure with the mutiny as it was in progress, but the Court denied his request.

    Most public attention focused on the case of Peter Heywood, the lone charged officer.  Heywood's youth, and his upbringing in a wealthy and well-connected British family (one of the court-martial judges, in fact, was related by marriage to the Heywood family), invited considerable speculation.  Heywood's connections were also responsible for landing him a post on the Bounty, a letter of recommendation on his behalf came from William Bligh's own father-in-law, Richard Betham.  Representing Heywood was the well-respected barrister, Francis Const.

    Heywood based his aggressive defense on three main arguments: (1) his "bitterly deplored...extreme youth and inexperience" prevented him from acting wisely at the time of the mutiny, (2) that he had desired to join Bligh on the launch but was sleeping below and did not arrive on deck until most of the action had occurred, and (3) when he finally did have an opportunity to get into the launch, its had become so severely overloaded that his joining the loyalists would have only increased the long odds that the launch could eventually make it to safety. On this last point  concerning the launch's overloaded condition, Heywood wisely drew support from Bligh's own published statements on the matter.  Const tried to present Heywood as the likable young victim of a series of unfortunate events.  He counted on the captains sitting in judgment of Heywood to remember either their own early years as untutored midshipman.

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    <div>Verdicts
    <div>Testimony in the Bounty court-martial ended on September 18, and the twelve post-captains began what would be several hours of deliberations over their fates. The ten defendants assembled in the great cabin to hear Lord Hood announce the verdicts of the court.  As anticipated, Coleman, Norman, McIntosh, and Byrn received acquittals.  The other six defendants were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged.  In the cases of Heywood and Morrison, however, the court "in consideration of various circumstances" did "earnestly recommend" them both "to His Majesty's Royal Mercy." A few weeks later, the King pardoned both men.  Muspratt, too, eventually gained his release, with the granting of his petition for a pardon based on his having been denied the opportunity to call his desired witnesses. 

    On October 29, 1794, at 11:26 in the morning, Burkett, Millward, and Ellison were hanged by the yardarm aboard a British naval ship the Brunswick in Portsmouth Harbor.  The bodies remained hanging from the yards for two hours in the rain.

    <div>Pitcairn Island </div>
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    </div>
    <div> On January 15, 1790, Fletcher Christian and his band of mutineers and Tahitian wifes and six male servants ran the Bounty on shore on uncharted Pitcairn Island, where the ship broke up.  It would be twenty years before the outside world would hear from them again. 

    The admiralty journal  Quarterly Review contained in an 1810 the notice that the American sealing vessel Topaz, under a Captain Folger, stopped at Pitcairn and discovered an Englishman, Alexander Smith, who claimed to be the last surviving Bounty mutineer.  Smith presented Captain Folger with a chronometer, that proved to be the one assigned to the Bounty, thus confirming his unlikely story. The report included Smith's (a.k.a Adams) claim that Christian was the "leader and sole cause" of the mutiny.  Christian, according to Smith, was  murdered "in the neck with a pistol ball" around 1793 in an uprising of jealous Tahitian men.  The thirty-five survivors on Pitcairn "acknowledge Smith as father and commander of them all" and, the report noted, they "have been educated by him in a religious and moral way."  Among the thirty-five was Thursday October Christian, Fletcher's twenty-year-old son, and the island's first-native born resident.

    Today, the population of Pitcairn numbers about fifty, nearly all of whom are descendants of the original mutineers.  Dark-skinned with both European and South Pacific features, the Pitcairn natives use a unique language that combines elements of English and Tahitian.  The British Empire incorporated Pitcairn in 1838.

    Pitcairn made news again in 2004, with the indictment of seven island men on various sex charges.  One of the seven was Steven Christian, a lineal descendant of Fletcher Christian, and the elected mayor of Pitcairn.  Christian admitted to having sexual relations with at least three girls under the age of 16.</div>

    Orders Issued by William Bligh Concerning the Conduct of the Men of the Bounty

      <div>

      NO. 1.

      Rules to be observed by every Person on Board, or belonging to the Bounty, for the better establishing a Trade for Supplies of Provisions, and good Intercourse with the Natives of the South Sea, wherever the Ship may be at.

      1st. At the Society, or Friendly Islands, no person whatever is to intimate that Captain Cook Was killed by Indians; or that he is dead.

      2d. No person is ever to speak, or give the least hint, that We have come on purpose to get the bread-fruit plant, until I have made my

      plan known to the chiefs.

      3d. Every person is to study to gain the good will and esteem of the natives; to treat them with all kindness; and not to take from them, by violent means, any thing that they may have stolen; and no one is ever to fire, but in defence of his life.

      4th. Every person employed on service, is to take care that no arms, or implements of any kind under their charge, are stolen; the value of such thing, being lost, shall be charged against their wages.

      5th. No man is to embezzle, or offer to sale, directly, or indirectly, any part of the King's stores, of what nature soever.

      6th. A proper person or persons will be appointed to regulate trade, and barter with the natives; and no officer or seaman, or other person belonging to the ship, is to trade for any kind of provisions, or curiosities; but if such officer or seaman wishes to purchase any particular thing, he is to apply to the provider to do it for him. By this means a regular market will be carried on, and all disputes, which otherwise may happen with the natives will be avoided. All boats are to have every thing handed out of them at sun-set.

      Given under my hand, on board the Bounty,

      <div>Otaheite, 25th October, 1788. </div>

      NO. II.

      All prisoners are to be kept upon deck in fair weather; and the centinel to report their state in the night, every half hour.

      The key of their irons is to be taken care of by the master.

      The mate of the watch is to be answerable for the prisoners. When they are released for a while, out of necessity, he is to see them again securely confined.

      The mate of the watch is to have the charge of a brace of pistols,

      and one cartouch box, to be kept in the binnacle.

      The mate of the watch is to take care the centinels do not lounge, or sit down.

      No canoe is to come on board after eight o'clock at night, or any to go under the bows of the ship upon any pretence; but whatever is handed in or out of the ship is to be at the gangways.

      All boats, when moored, to have every thing handed out of them at sun-set: and the centinel is to report the state of the prisoners every half hour, after the watch is set.

      Given under my hand, in Oparre harbour, on board the Bounty,

      Jan. 24th, 1789.

      WM. BLIGH

      </div>

      Letters Written by Captain Bligh~To His Wife

        Coupang in Timor
        Augt 19th. 1789

        My Dear Dear Betsy

        I am now in a part of the world that I never expected, it is however a.place that has afforded me relief and saved my life, and I have the happiness to assure you I am now in perfect health. That the chance of this letter getting to you before others of a later date is so very small I shall only just give you a short account of the cause of my arrival here. What an emotion does my heart & soul feel that I have once more an opportunity of writing to you and my little Angels, and particularly as you have all been so near losing the best of Friends-when you would have had no person to have regarded you as I do, and you must have spent the remainder of your days without knowing what was become of me, or what would have been still worse, to have known I had been starved to Death at Sea or destroyed by Indians. All these dreadful circumstances I have combated with success and in the most extraordinary manner that ever happened, never dispairing from the first moment of my disaster but that I should overcome all my difficulties.

        Know then my own Dear Betsy, I have lost the Bounty. I left Otaheite all well on the 4th. April 1789 with 1015 Bread Fruit Plants in Pots and many more in Tubs & Boxes in a most flourishing condition. On the 4th. April I anch at the Friendly Islands & on the 26 Sailed with my  expectations raised to the highest pitch, of the great success I was likely  o meet with–The Ship in the most perfect order and every soul well.

        On the 28th. April at day light in the morning Christian having the  morning watch, He with several others came into my Cabbin while I was a Sleep, and seizing me, holding naked Bayonets at my Breast, tied my Hands behind my back, and threatened instant distruction if I uttered a word. I however call'd loudly for assistance, but the conspiracy was so  well laid that the Officers Cabbin Doors were guarded by Centinels, so that Nelson, Peckover, Samuels [ie Samuel] or the Master could not come to me. I was now dragged on Deck in my Shirt & closely guarded-I demanded of Christian the cause of such a violent act, & severely degraded him for his Villainy but he could only answer-'not a word Sir or you are Dead.' I dared him to the act & endeavored to rally some one to a sense of their duty but to no effect. Besides this Villain see young Heywood one of the ringleaders, & besides him see Stewart joined with him. Christian I had assured of promotion when he came home, & with the other two I was every day rendering them some service-It is incredible! these very young Men I placed every confidence in, yet these great Villains joined with the most able Men in the Ship got possession of the Arms and took the Bounty from me, with huzza's for Otaheite. I have now reason to curse the day I ever knew a Christian or a Heywood or indeed a Manks man.

        The Launch being hoisted out 18 People & Officers were put into her, while I was kept under a guard of armed men, & Christian holding me by the bandage round my wrist with a Bayonet at my Breast, (for all their fear was that I should get 100se)-He told me Sir your Officers & Men are now in the Boat & you must go with them. I therefore determined again to bring on some people to my assistance, but I was carried across the Deck, guarded & forced over the Gangway were [ie where] the Boat was waiting for me, and we were veered a stern. They had got water & a few trifling articles in the Boat, with abt. 150 Ibs of Bread & Samuel saved cloaths  for me, but all my Valuables Maps drawings & Instruments Were kept and TKeeper. I was now cast a drift in the Sea 10 leags. to leward of Tofoa the NWmost of the Friendly Islds. with the following People with me-John Fryer Thos. Ledward, Davd. Nelson, Wm. Cole, Wm. Purcell, Wm. Elphinston Thos. Hayward, Jno. Hallet, Jno. Norton, Peter Linkletter Wm. Peckover, Lawrence Lebogue, Jno. Smith, Robt. Lamb Thos. Hall, Jno. Samuels, George Simpson & Robt. Tinkler.

        The Day proved favorable to us & most providentially we rowed to land and I remained at Tofoa looking for food & water untill 2d. May when the Natives discovering we had no fire arms they made an attack with Clubs & Stones in the course of which I had a very worthy Man (Jno. Norton) killed and most of us more or less hurt. Our getting into our Boat was no security for they followed us in Cannoes loaded with Stones, which they threw with much force and exactness. Happily Night saved the rest of us.

        I was now earnestly sollicited by all hands to take them towards home & when I told them no hopes of relief remained but what I might find at New Holland untill I came to Timor a distance of 1200 leagues, they all agreed to live on one ounce of Bread a day & a Jill of Water. I therefore after recommending this promise for ever to their Memory, bore away for New Holland & Timor across a Sea but little known, & in a small Boat deep loaded with 18 Souls, without a single Map of any kind & nothing but my own recollection & general knowledge of the situation of Places to direct us.

        Unfortunately We lost part our provisions, what we had was 20lbs of Pork 3 Bottles [of wine] 5 Quarts Rum 150lbs Bread & 28 Galls. of Water.

        I steered to the WNW with Strong Gales and heavy Rains, suffering every calamity & distress I discovered many Islands & at last on the 28th. May the Coast of New Holland-On the 4th. June I past the north part of New Holland & steered for Timor and saw it on the 12th.-which was a happy sight to everyone, particularly several who perhaps could not have existed a Week or a day longer. I got into this place on the 14th. and was received with every kindness & civility. Perhaps a more miserable set of Beings were never seen.

        Thus happily ended through the assistance of divine providence without accident a Voyage of the most extraordinary nature that ever happened in the world let it be taken either in its extent, duration, or so much want of the necessaries of life.

        The Secrisy of this Mutiny is beyond all conception so that I cannot discover that any who are with me had the least knowledge of it. Even Mr. Tom Ellison took such a liking to Otaheite that he turned Pirate, so that I have been run down by my own Dogs. I however have every expectation to get the better of every thing. I have purchased a Vessel to Carry me to Batavia & being now ready for Sea I shall sail in the morning.

        This is a very poor little Town I have nevertheless received great attention from its inhabitants particularly the Governor & Second. Poor Nelson died since here having caught a violent fever. The Doctor died at Otaheite of drunkenness.

        The longest I expect to stay at Batavia is the 25th. October when the Dutch Fleet sails for Europe in [word here is indecipherable] I shall take my passage if no English Ship is in the Way. I give myself great hopes my Life, of hearing from you at Batavia, for I desired it in one of my letters. The next Summer will however I trust in God bring me to you and my Dear little Girls and that we shall find our affairs in a flourishing way. I shall certainly see you before this letter can get to England and as the uncertainty of its being sent is so great, it prevents me from saying as much as I otherwise should, and indeed I should not have wrote at all, if I had not considered it as putting it out of the power of chance that you should never hear from me again.

        My misfortune I trust will be properly considered by all the World-It was a circumstance I could not forsee-I had not sufficient Officers & had they granted me Marines most likely the affair would never have happened-I had not a Spirited & brave fellow about me & the Mutineers treated them as such. My conduct has been free of blame, & I showed everyone, that tied as I was, I defied every Villain to hurt me. Hayward & Hallet were Mate & Midshipman of Christian's Watch, but they alarmed no one, & I found them on Deck seemingly uncerned untill they were ordered into the Boat- The latter has turned out a worthless impudent scoundrel, but I beg of you to relate nothing of them untill I come home.

        I know how shocked you will be at this affair but I request of you My Dear Betsy to think nothing of it all is now past & we will again looked forward to future happyness. Nothing but true consciousness as an Officer that I have done well could support me. I cannot write to Your Uncle or anyone, but my publick letters, therefore tell them all that they will find my character respectable & honor untarnished. I have saved my pursing Books so that all my profits hitherto will take place and all will be well. Give my blessing to my Dear Harriet, my Dear Mary, my Dear Betsy & to my Dear little stranger & tell them I shall soon be home Remember to your Father & Annie Campbell & Mrs. C & give affectionate respects to your uncle & family. To You my Love I give all that an affectionate Husband can give-Love, Respect & all that is or ever will be in the power of your ever affectionate Friend and Husband Wm Bligh

        Mrs. Bligh
        to the Care of Duncan Campbell Esqr
        Adelphi in the Strand
        London

        Letter #2: Letter to Duncan Campbell

          Batavia Octr. 13th. 1789

          Dear Sir

          By the account that I enclose to you, you will see what hardships and difficulties I have undergone since I had the happyness to see you. What Mans situation could be so peculiarly flattering as mine twelve hours before the Revolt. I had a Ship in most perfect order and well stored with every necessary both for service and health-by early attention to those particulars I had acted against the power of chance in case I could not get through Endeavor Streights, as well as against any accident that might befall me in them, & to add to this I had most successfully got my Plants in a flourishing & fine order, so that upon the whole the Voyage was 3/1 completed & the remaining part no way doubtful. Every person was in the most perfect health, to establish which I had taken the greatest pains & bore a most anxious care through the whole course of the Voyage.

          It will very naturally be asked what could be the reason for such a revolt, in answer to which I can only conjecture that they have Ideally assured themselves of a more happy life among the Otaheiteans than they could possibly have in England, which joined to female Connections, has most likely been the leading cause of the whole busyness.

          My health has been much impaired but conscious of my honor and integrity with aself acquittal of every particle of disgrace It has buoyed my Spirits up in a most amazing degree-I have done more than ever Mandid-No Man shares with me in what honors I may receive, for I have none that merit it, they however shall never bear any part of my misfortune. I have saved their lives most miraculously & now to save my own I am obliged to fly from Batavia in the Packet which sails on the 15th. and leave all my people behind me except my Clerk & Servant. I have been since here almost dead with a fever, but it seems to be at present tolerably removed. I am still however in a precarious state & scarce can write to you my head is so distracted, the sea air I hope will again reestablish my health.

          I leave this account to be transmitted to you by the next Ship that sails but I hope to arrive in England long before it. Should it please God not to give me' life to return let it be remembered there is no one here that is deserving of any attention from their country but my Clerk who has shewn much resolution & behaved well-also a Young Man a Mr. Hayward, but let this remain among ourselves until I return or not.

          I think I see you feel for my situation but let it be in no other point than for my health-My Character & honor is spotless when examined, & I shall stand to be tried disspising mercy or forgiveness if it can be found I have been guilty even of an error in Judgement-Happy it is for me that my Clerk while I was bound, saved my Journals & every kind of Voucher, but every thing else was lost.

          I write to my Dear Mrs. Bligh to your care also by this opportunity but she will require some information from you. My head is now distracted- I hope You & Mrs. Campbell enjoy perfect health & that I shall see you with all the family enjoying every felicity Give my kind respects & love to them all & believe me my Dear Sir Your most Affectionate Hrble Servt.

          Wm Bligh

          Duncan Campbell Esqr
          Adel phi
          London

          Enclosure to Duncan Campbell

          Batavia October 12th. 1789

          Sir

          I am now unfortunately to acquaint you that His Majesty's Armed Vessel Bounty under my Command was taken from me by the greatest part of the inferior Officers & Men, on the 28th. April 1789 in the following manner. At day light Fletcher Christian who was Mate of the Ship and Officer of the Watch, with the Ships Corporal came into my Cabbin while I was a Sleep, and seizing me tied my hands with a Cord, assisted by others who were also in the Cabbin all armed. I was now threatned with instant death if I spoke a word, I however called for Assistance and awakened everyone, but the Officers who were in their Cabbins were secured by armed Centinels at their doors, so that no one could come to me. The Arms were all secured, & I was forced on Deck in my shirt with my hands tied behind my back in so severe a manner that I suffered the severest torture. I was now putunder a Guard abaft the Mizen Mast, during which the mutineers expressed much joy that they would soon again see Otaheite.

          I now demanded the cause of such a Violent Act, but no other answer could I get, but hold your tongue Sir or you are dead this instant, and holding me by the Cord which tied my hands he as often threatned to stab me in the breast with a Bayonet. I however did my utmost to rally the disaffected Villains to a sense of their duty but to no effect.

          The Boatswain was Orderd to hoist the Launch out, and while I was kept under a Guard with Christian at their head abaft the Mizen Mast, the Officers and Men not concerned in the Mutiny were Ordered into the Boat.

          This being done I was told by Christian "Sir your Officers and Men are now in the Boat and you must go with them", and with the Guard they carried me across the Deck with their Bayonets presented on every Side, when attempting to make another effort, I was saluted with "Blow his brains out"- I was at last forced into the Boat and we were then Veered Astern in all 19 Souls.

          I was at this time 10 leagues to the SW of Tofoa the N Westmost of the Freindly Islands, having left Otaheite the 4th. April with 1015 fine Breadfruit Plants and many fruit kind in all 774 Pots 39 Tubs and 24 Boxes. These Plants were in a very flourishing condition. I anchored at Annamoka 24th. April and left it on the 26th.-

          The Boatswain with some others while the Boat was alongside collected several necessary things and some Water. My Clerk secured to me my Journals and Commission and about 150lbs of Bread also a Compass and Quadrant, but no Arms could be got or any maps or Drawings of which I had many valuable ones besides which was lost a very valuable Time Keeper of Mr Kendals make.

          The Boat was very deep and much lumbered, and in this condition we ere cast adrift with about 28 Galls. of Water 150lbs Bread 321bs Pork 6 Quarts of Rum and 6 Bottles of Wine.

          The day was calm with light Breezes and I got to Tofoa by 7 O Clock in the Evening, but found no place to land, the Shore being so Steep and Rocky, On the 30th I found landing in a Cove in the NW part of the Island, & here I remained with boisterous Weather in search of supplies until the 2nd May, during which everyone Suffered great fatigue in searching for Water as I feared to touch our Original Stock. The Natives now discovered we had no fire Arms and made an Attack on us with Clubs and Stones, In the course of which I had the misfortune to lose a very worthy man John Norton Quarter Master and most of us severely bruized and wounded- Our getting into the Boat was no security for they followed us in their Cannoes loaded with Stones which they threw with much force and exactness. Happily Night saved the rest of us.

          I had determined to go to Amsterdam in search of Paulehow the King, but taking this as a Sample of their Natural dispositions there were little hopes to expect much from them, for I considered their good behaviour hitherto owing to a dread of our Fire Arms, which now knowing us to have none would not be the Case, & that supposing our lives were in safety–Our Boat and every thing would be taken from us and thereby I should never be able to return. I was also earnestly sollicited by all hands to take them towards home, and when I told them no hopes of releif for us remained, but what I might find at New Holland. untill I came to Timor, a distance of 1200 leagues or more, they all agreed to live on one ounce of bread pr. day and a Jill of Water. I therefore after recommending this as a sacred promise forever to their Memory, bore away for New Holland and Timor across a Sea but little known and in a small Boat deep loaded with 18 Souls, without a Single Map of any kind, and nothing but my own recollection and general knowledge of the Situation of Places to direct us.

          Unfortunatly we lost part of our Provisions, our whole Stock therefore only consisted of 20lbs of Pork 3 Bottles of Wine, 5 Quarts of Rum 150lbs Bread and 28 Galls. of Water, with a few Cocoa Nuts we had been able to throw into the Boat.

          I steered to the WNW. with Strong Gales and bad Weather suffering every calamity and distress. I discovered many Islands and at last on the 28th May the Coast of New Holland Where I entered a break in the Reef in Latd. about 12°:50 So and Longd 145:00 East.

          I kept on in the direction of the Coast to the Northward, touching at such places as I found safe and convenient to refresh my people by the best means in my Power. These refreshments consisted of a few Clams and Oysters which they had scarce Strength to gather, we were however benefited by them and a few good nights rest.

          On the 4th June I past the north part of New Holland and steered for Timor, and made it on the 12th.- This was a happy sight to everyone particularly many who would not have exist_d a few days longer. I followed the direction of the South side of the Island, and on the 14th in the Afternoon I saw the Island Rotty and West side of Timor, round which I got that Night, and took a Malay on board to shew me Coupang where he described to me the Governor resided.

          On the next morning I anchored under the Fort, and about II O clock I saw the Governor Wm. Adriaan Van Este, who received me with great humanity and Kindness. necessary directions were instantly given for our support-we exited the commiseration of every individual, for perhaps there never was so miserable a set of beings ever seen.

          For three Weeks we had most severe Rains during the Nights particularly, which so benumbed our limbs, that at daylight we were half dead. At these times I issued a tea Spoonfull of Rum to each person, which triffling as it may appear did us a great deal of good. For the whole time we never had a dry rag about us, for if it did not Rain the Sea was always breakinginto the Boat, so that by turns there was forever One Man bailing. In the Rains when dry intervals came, I made everyone pull off their Cloaths and wring them out of the Salt Water, and to this I attribute that none of us were subject to Colds. Our allowance was 1/24 of a Lb of Bread for breakfast and the same for dinner, giving some times a morsel for Supper, with a Jill of Water at each time. The Pork I gave also in morsels at a time as I saw most fit, and the Wine I kept as a medicine when anyone was faint or ill, by these precautions, I had bread on my Arrival, at the same allowance for a fortnight which I meant to carry me to Java, and also about three pints of Wine.

          <div>Thus ended through divine providence without accident a Voyage of the most extraordinary nature in the World, let it be taken either for its extent, duration, or for such a length so much want of the Necessaries of life....Josh. Coleman Armr.,Chas.Norman Carpr Mate, Michl. Byrne-Ab,Thos McIntosh Carp.Crew....</div>

          In all 25 Hands, but the four last I beleive were kept against their inclinations and are deserving of mercy.

          Mr. Thomas Huggan the Surgeon died at Otaheite, and James Valentine died in my passage there, which together makes the whole Ships Complement 46 Men.

          The Secresy of this Mutiny was beyond all conception, so that I cannot discover that any who are with me had the least knowledge of it. From the open declaration of the Mutineers we are to conclude they are gone to Otaheite, and it is only the alurements of that place and the Womin that has been the cause of all our troubles.

          I found three Vessels here at Coupang bound to Batavia but as their sailing would be late, I considered it to the Advantage of His Majestys Service to purchase a Vessel to take my people to Java before the Sailing of the Fleet for Europe. in the last of October, as no one could be hired but at a price equal to a purchase, I therefore purchased a Vessel and called her the Resource.

          I remained at Coupang untill the 20th. of August, in the course of which some of us became perfectly reestablished in our health, but others very weak and feeble. and I had the misfortune to lose Mr Nelson (Botanist) whose good conduct in the course of the whole Voyage, and manly fortitude in our late disasterous circumstances demands this tribute to his memory. He died of a Fever-.

          I presented a summary account to Mr. Van Este and requested in His Majestys Name that necessary Orders & directions may be given to all their Settlements to detain the Ship wherever she may be found.

          I Arrived at Batavia on the 1st. Instant with my health much impaired, and having gone through some fatigue in arranging my business and fixing on the most elligible mode to preserve the health of my people, I was seized with a Violent fever which has almost reduced me to death, and am now in a very precarious State--One of my Men Thomas Hall died this day of a Fever & Flux-

          The Governor General. has rendered us every Service I asked, and has engaged to send us by the first Shipping that sails about the last of the Month for Europe. A Packet however sails on the 14th. Instant. but is so very small that she cannot carry more than her Complement-

          The Physician General has however made such a report of my health to his Exellency, that it is found absolutely expedient to send me in her to save my life, & I have therefore, considering it not in the present instance inconsistent with the Rules of Service, presumed to seperate Myself from my people. altho with great concern; but to enable me to get my Journals in some order I have permission to take with me my Clerk and One Man, so that there will remain thirteen men who will join me at the Cape of Good Hope.

          The Vessel I purchased to bring me here was sold at Publick Sale on the 10th. The Governor General is informed of all my proceedings and is in possession of a description List of the Ship and Pirates, and I have likewise requested in His Majestys Name that necessary orders and directions may be given to their different Settlements to detain them wherever they may be found.

          Wm Bligh

          A Copy
          of one sent to the Admiralty
          to be kept secret

          Letter #3:William Bligh to Sir Joseph Banks

            Batavia October 13th. 1789

            Dear Sir­

            I am now so ill that it is with the utmost difficulty I can write to you, but as I hope to be in England before you can receive it, the necessary information which perhaps may be omitted in this letter, will be of no consequence.

            I have however for your satisfaction enclosed to you a short account of my Voyage-it is nearly a Copy of what I have given to the Governor of Coupang, & the Governor General here, because my weak habit of body at present will not allow me to do more.

            You will now Sir with all your generous endeavors for the Publick Good see an unfortunate end to the undertaking, and I feel very sensibly how you will receive the News of the failure of an expedition that promised so much. The anxious and miserable hours I have past is beyond my description, but while I have health, the strange vissccitude of human affairs can never affect me. Unhappily I have lost it at present, for on my arrival here I was seized with a Fever, which fixing in my head it made me almost distracted. but I am now better, and am to sail in the Packet on Thursy. next which will save my life.

            You will find that the Ship was taken from me in a most extraordinary manner, and I presume to say it could not have been done in any other way. I can however Sir promise to you that my honor and character is without a blemish, & I shall appear as soon as I possibly can before the Admiralty that my conduct may enquired into, and where I shall convince the World I stand as an officer despising mercy & foregiveness if my conduct is at all blameable.

            Had I been accidentally appointed to the Command, the loss of the Ship would give me no material concern, but when I reflect that it was through you Sir who undertook to assert I was fully capable, and the Eyes of every one regarding the progress of the Voyage, and perhaps more with Envy, than with delight, I cannot say but it affects me considerably. To those however who may be disposed to blame let them see I had in fact completed my undertaking. What Man's situation could be so peculiarly flattering as mine 12 Hours before the loss of the Ship. Every thing was in the most perfect order and we were well stored with every necessary both for service & health-by early attention to those particulars I acted against the power of chance in case I could not get through Endeavour Streights, as well as against any accident that might befall me in them, and to add to this, I had most successfully got my Plants in a most flourishing & fine order, so that upon the whole the Voyage was % over, and the remaining part no way doubtful!, Every person was in the most perfect health, to establish which I had taken the greatest pains, and bore a most anxious care through the whole course of the Voyage.

            I even rejected carrying stock for my own use, & throwing away the Hencoops & every convenience I roofed a place over the Quarter Deck & filled it with Plants which I looked at with delight every day of my life.

            I can only conjecture that the Pirates (among whom is poor Nelson's assistant) have Ideally assured themselves of a more happy life among the Otaheiteans than they could possibly have in England, which joined to some female connections, has most likely been the leading cause of the whole busyness.

            If I Had been equipped with more Officers & Marines the piracy could never have happened.

            I Arrived here on the 1st. Instant & sollicited the Governor General to be allowed a passage in the first Ship that sailed for Europe, but he has told me that he could not possibly send us all in one ship, & has consented, as granting me a favor, to be allowed to go in the Packet, for the Physician General has represented my life in danger if I remained here.

            I am Dear Sir, with great respect
            Your most obliged Hrble Servant
            To Sir Josh. Banks Bart.

            Wm Bligh

            Enclosure to Sir Joseph Banks

            On the 16th. August 1787 I received my Commission to Command His
            Majestys Armed Vessel Bounty (for that was her establishment) and to fit
            her out with the utmost despatch for remote parts.

            The Burthen of this Ship was nearly, Two Hundred & fifteen Tons, Her extreme length on Deck 90F:lOIn and Breadth from outside to outside of the Bends 24F:3In. A Flush Deck and a pretty Figure Head, of a Woman in a Riding Habit....

            Out of the Number 45 is One Borne not actually on board, his Pay going to the support of Widows, so that the real Number on board were 44 Seamen & Officers, likewise One Botanist and an Assistant, the whole being 46.

            On the 4th. October I was fully Victualled and Stored for 18 Months, and on the 20th. Novemr. 1787 I received my Final Orders to proceed on my Voyage, The purport of which was as follows.

            The King upon a representation from His Subjects in the West Indies, that the introduction of the Bread Fruit Tree among them would be of Universal good to constitute an Article of food, and that such having been signified to be His Majestys Pleasure unto the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty by Lord Sydney; One of His Principal Secretaries of State. I was therefore directed to sail forthwith round Cape Horn. for the Society Islands in Latitude about 18°So. and Longitude 210 East of Green'Nich. And there, with the necessary Articles I was furnished with, to procure of the Natives as many Plants as I could stow on board the Ship.

            Having completed this I was to proceed through Endeavor. Streights (which seperate New Guinea from New Holland.) and from thence to Princes Island in the Streights of Sunda. leaving to my discretion to touch at Java or any other Island for refreshment & water as I might think most proper.

            From Princes Island I was to proceed discretionally to St. Vincents one of the Windward Islands, and depositing One Half of my Plants there, I was to go immediatly to Jamaica, and having given the remainder there to Persons appointed to receive them, I was then with such Plants as were directed by His Majesty to be put on board, to return to England.

            This was the sole design of my Voyage, to complete which I sailed from Spithead on the 23d December 1787.

            On the 23d March 1788 I doubled Staten Land and attempted to make my Passage round Cape Horn between the Latitude of 59'So. and 61'So, but I met with such dreadfull. tempestuous Weather and mountainous Seas, with Hail and Snow Storms, that altho I tryed it for 30 Days I could not accomplish it.

            I therefore (as my people were getting ill, and I had the Honor to have the most discretionary Orders to do as I thought best for the good of the Voyage,) determined to bear away for the Cape of Good Hope on the 22d of April, and repassed Staten Land the next day.

            On the 24th. May, Anchored at the Cape of Good Hope, and having refitted and completed my Stores and Provisions I sailed on the 1st. July 1788. Arrived at Van Diemens Land on the 20th. August, and having completed Wooding and Watering, I sailed from thence the 4th. September.

            On the 19th. September after having past the South Part of New Zealand. .I discovered very dangerous Rocky Islets never known before, they extend 3 1/2 Miles East and West, and l 1/2 North and South. .They lie from the Traps Off the South End of New Zealand So. 89 East, distant 146 Leagues, Their Latitude is 47'.44'.30" So. Longitude 179°;09' East.

            On the 26th. October I anchored in Matavai Bay Otaheite. sailed the 25 December and Anchored in Toahroah Harbour 3 Miles distance from the Bay. I remained here until the 4th. April, when I sailed with 1015 Bread Fruit Plants and many Fruit Kind, in all. 774 Pots, 39 Tubs, & 24 Boxes.

            Latitude of this Harbour………………………………………………17';31':26" So Longitude pr. Observn. Sun & Moon and Stars

            each side of the Moon…………………………………………………. 210;31:37 Et Variation Compass……………………………………………………….5;31:Et.

            I left these happy Islanders in much distress, for the utmost affection, regard, and good fellowship remained among us during my Stay. The King and all the Royal Family were allways my Guests, and their good sense and Observations, joined with the most engaging dispositions in World, will ever make them beloved by all who become acquainted with them as Freinds.

            On the 12th. April I discover'd an Island called by the Natives Whytootackee whose Cheif was named Comackaiah, as I was informed by People in a Cannoe that came off to me. Their language seemed to prove them nearly the same People as at Otaheite. This Island is about 10 Miles in Circuit in Latitude 18:52 So. It has Eight small Keys lying joined by a Reef. To the SSE of it, and One to the WSW. The Southermost Key lies in Latitude 18:58 So. the Longitude by Observation is 200': 19' East of Greenwich. Variation Compass 8':14' Et

            On the 18th. of April I saw Savage Island. in 19':02' So.-and Longitude

            by my Observation 190':18' Et of Greenwich.

            On the 21st. of April I made the Freindly Islands and on the 23d. following I Anchored in Annamoca Road. (called by Tasman. Rotterdam,) on the 26th. having completed my Water and got on board some Wood. I sailed.

            This Island lies in Latitude 20':16' So 185':30' Et.

            On the 28th. of April in the Morning the NWr. most of the Freindly Islands called Tofoa bore NE 10 Leagues and I had directed my Course to the WNW. with a Ship in most perfect Order and all my Plants in a most flourishing condition All my Men and Officers in good health and in short every thing to flatter and insure my most sanguine expectations and Success.

            But I am now to relate one of the most atrocious and consumate Acts of Piracy ever committed.

            At Dawn of Day Fletcher Christian, Officer of the Watch, Charles Churchill, Ships Corporal, Thomas Burkitt, Seaman, and several others came into my Cabbin, and while I was asleep seized and tyed my hands behind my back with a Strong Cord, and with Cutlasses and a Bayonet fixed at my breast threatned instant death if I spoke or made the least noise.

            I nevertheless called out so loud that everyone heard me and were flying to my Assistance, but all my Officers except those concerned were kept in their Cabbins by Armed Centinels and the Armed Chest was in their possession. I was now hauled upon Deck in my Shirt and Hands tyed behind me held by Fletcher Christian and Charles Churchill with a Bayonet at my breast, and two Men Alexr. Smith and Thomas Burkitt behind me with Loaded Musquets Cocked and Bayonets fixed., under this Guard I was kept abaft the Mizen Mast. The different Hatchways were all guarded by Armed Men in the same Manner, and those who were to be sent out of the ship and some of the Mutineers who could be spared hoisted the Boats out, Among these was the Boatswain who with some others got Sails, Twine, Rope, Grapnel and a small Cask of Water into the Boat. about which there were many Altercations among the Mutinous Crew, and exerting myself in speaking loud to try if I could rally any with a sense of duty in them, I was saluted with Damn his Eyes blow his brains out.

            Being confined and kept apart from every One, Mr Samuel my Clerk secured to me a Quadrant & Compass, some Cloaths, my Journals, and a few material Ships Papers, but all my Valuable Instruments with a Time peice of Three hundred and fifty Guineas Value, a Valuable collection of Books, Maps, and Drawings, with all my remarks and observations for Fifteen years past, were kept from me, he also secured about One hundred & fifty pounds of Bread.

            The Officers and Men being now drove into the Boat One by One, I was told by Christian, Sir, your Officers are now in the Boat and you must go with them. I was then taken hold of under a Guard. and forced over the Gangway into the Boat. which waited only for me, and untying my Hands I was veer'd astern by a Rope. A few Pounds of Pork were now thrown to us being Nineteen in Number and each began to sollicit some of their little Valuables that were left behind them. I desired only some Fire Arms and even at last sollicited two but we received insolence and were told I should have none, Four Cutlasses were however thrown into the Boat and we were cast adrift and Rowed with all our strength for the land.

            The Size of the Boat was 23 feet from Stem to Stern and Rowed Six Oars, and was so deeply lumberd that they beleived we could never reach the Shore and some of them made their Jokes of it, However by 7 OClock in the Evening I got safe under Tofoa, but could find no landing, and therefore kept the Boat under the land all night. paddling with Two Oars to preserve our Station.

            29th.-Endeavoring to find landing to increase our Stock of Water, and to get some Cocoa Nuts and Provisions.

            30th.-Found landing at the NW part of the Island, in a Cove, Latitude 19°:41 So. as I observed it. Went in search of Water, but found only a few Quarts in holes of the Rocks, suffered much fatigue and distress. I should now have proceeded as I intended for some of the Islands where I had a Knowledge of the Cheifs, for I was well acquainted here, but the Wind and Sea was too Stormy to Venture out. Part of us slept in the Boat and others with myself on Shore and as we saw no Natives we felt our distress the more because we wanted not to use any of our own Stock.

            1st May-Party out as Yesterday and found out the residence of the Natives, who brought Supplies of Cocoa Nuts and Bread Fruit, besides shells of Water, all of which I bought for Buttons, which we cut of our Cloaths. They all left us at Sun Down. Wr. [i.e., weather] so windy could not proceed to Sea.

            2nd.-In the Morning Two Cheifs Eegyeefou, and the other Maccaaccabou, came down, also two Cannoes came in and another Cheif called Vageetee, and having enquired our Situation, and my determination to proceed to Paulehou their King. Eegyeefou agreed as soon as it moderated to go with me. This readiness gave me pleasure, but in a few hours I had as much uneasyness, The Natives began to be very troublesome and shewed signs of hostilities towards us, We however thought they would go off at Sun down as they had done before, and that then I could leave the place without any risk. but it proved to the contrary for three Cannoes were now come in, and places were fixed on for their residence during the night, and fires made.

            I therefore determined to do our best while it was light and directed some provisions we had Bought to be put into the Boat. The Cheifs desired I would Stay notwithstanding they perceived that I sawall their people were Arming with Clubs & Stones. We were now all on the go, and taking One of the Cheifs by the Hand, with a Cutlass in the other, and my people with Sticks. we proceeded down to the Boat. when we were attacked by a Multitude of Indians in the course of which I lost a very worthy good man and the rest of us more or less bruized and Wounded.

            As I hauled out to our Grapnel I hoped they could no longer annoy us, but here I was mistaken for they launched their Cannoes and gave Battle to us, or rather stoned us untill I got a League from the Land. I could not return their Salute but with such Stones as lodged in the Boat. I therefore as the only thing left for to save our lives, exhorted everyone to persevere in rowing. and throwing overboard some Cloaths which beguiled them, and they lost time in taking up, together with the Night coming on, We very miraculously escaped.

            Taking this as a real sample of their natural dispositions, there were little hopes to expect much where I was going, for I considered their good behaviour hitherto owing to a dread of our Fire Arms which now knowing us to have none, would. not be the Case., and that supposing our lives were safe, Our Boat, Compass, and Quadrant, would all be taken from me, and thereby I should not be able to return to my King and Country, to give an Account of the transaction.

            I was now sollicited by every Person to take them towards home, and when I told them no hopes of releif remained for us, but what I might find at New Holland, untill I came to Timor a distance of.l200.1eagues, where there was a Governor, but that I had no idea at what part of the Island the Settlement was. They all agreed to live on One Ounce of Bread per day and One Jill of Water.

            I therefore after reccommending this promise forever to their memory, I bore away for New Holland and from thence to Timor a Distance of 1200 leagues accross a Sea Where the Navigation is dangerous and not known, and in a Small Boat deep loaded with 18 Souls. without a Single Map, and nothing but my own reccollection and general knowledge of the situation of Places, assisted by a Table in an Old Book of Latitude & Longitude to guide me.

            Our Stock of Provisions at first consisted of 150 pounds of Bread (Part of which afterwards got damaged and lost) 28 Gallons of Water, 20 pounds of Pork 3 Bottles of Wine, and 5 Quarts of Rum.

            It may be asked what could be the cause for such a Revolution. In Answer to which I have only to give a description of Otaheite, which has every allurement both to luxury and ease, and is the Paradise of the World.

            The Women are handsome and mild in their manners and conversation, with sufficient delicacy to make them admired and beloved, and the Chiefs have acquired such a liking to our people, that they rather have encouraged their Stay among them than otherwise, and even made promises of large possessions to them.

            Under these and many other attendant circumstance equally desireable, is it to be now wonder'd at, that a set of Sailors void of connections (or if they have any, not possessed of natural feelings sufficient to wish themselves never to be seperated from them;) should be led by such powerful tyes.

            But equal to this, what a temptation is it to such Wretches when they find it in their power (however illegally it can be got at,) to fix themselves in the midst of Plenty in the finest. Island in the World, where they need not labour, And where the allurements of disipation are more than equal to any thing that can be conceived.

            Desertions have happened more or less in every ship that has been at the Society Isles; but it has ever been in the Commanders power to make the Cheifs return their people. They therefore knew such a plan could never succeed; and perhaps suggested that never so small a Ship and so elligable an Opportunity would offer to them again.

            Christian was the Officer on Deck, and the whole Watch being concerned except two Midshipmen who knew not what their Officer was about., it is not surprising that the business was speedily done, all the able men being concerned, and also the Greatest Number, as may be seen by the following List–

            People who came in the Boat

            John Fryer Master

            Willm. Cole. Boatsn

            Willm. Peckover. Gunner

            Willm. Purcell. Carpr.

            Thos.Dr.Ledward. Actg Surgeon

            Wm. Elphinstone Masters Mate

            Thos. Hayward. Midn.

            Jno. Hallett-Do.

            Jno. Samuel-Clerk

            Peter Linkletter. QMr

            Jno. Norton-Do. Killed at Tofoa

            Geo Simpson. Dos. Mate

            Lawce. Lebogue. Sail maker

            Robt. Tinkler. a Boy

            Jno. Smith. Capts. Servt

            Thos. Hall. Ships Cook

            Robt. Lamb. Butcher

            Davd. Nelson-Botanist

            18 Total.

            Michl. Byrn Seaman (20

            Heny. Hilbrant Do.

            Isaac Martin Do.

            People who remained in the Ship

            Fletcher Christian Masters Mate.

            George. Stewart. Acting Do

            Peter. Heywood. Midn

            Edwd. Young-Do

            Chas. Churchill-Corporal

            James Morrison-Boats Mate

            John Mills-Gunners Mate

            Chas. Norman-Carprs. Mate

            Thos McIntosh. Dos. Crew

            Josh. Coleman. Armourer

            Thos. Burkitt-Seaman

            Jno. Sumner-Do.

            ]no. Williams-Do

            Matw. Thompson-Do.

            Thos. Ellison-Do

            Wm. Mickoy-Do

            Jno. Millward. Do.

            Richd. Skinner-Do.

            Matw. Quintal-Do.

            Alexr. Smith Seaman.

            Willm. Muspratt Do

            Willm. Brown. Botanists Assist

            25. Total Remaining in the Ship

            To return now to my proceedings in the Boat. I steered to the WNW. as I formerly had heard from the Freindly Island. people that Land lay in that Quarter.

            The Weather very boisterous and obliged to keep right before the Sea. which at times run into us and nearly filled the Boat, and were obliged to throw all spare Cloaths overboard, and every Article we could possibly do without.

            On the 4th. May Latitude 18°:50' So Longd. 182°:16 Et I discover'd Land an Island. WSW. 4 or 5 Leagues. On the 6th. Discovered Ten other Islands, and that day at noon was in Latd. 17°:53 So. & Longd. 179:43 East. Many Shoals. On the 7th. discovered other Islands, At Noon Latitude 16°:33' So. 178°:34 Et. were chased by Two large Cannoes but got clear of them by Rowing. At Night torrents of Rain with Thunder & Lightning, Caught 6 Gallons Water.

            On the 9th. Fair Wr Kept Steering to the WNW and West.

            On the 10th. very heavy Rains, Hard Gales and'a high Sea unto the 14th. suffered much Cold in the Nights being constantly Wet.

            On the 14th. discovered Land. Five Islands, and were at Noon in Latitude 13°:29' So. 169°:31' Et. Steered to WSW.

            On the 15th. discovered an Island. Latitude at Noon 13°:4' So, Longd. 167°:35 Et. Very fresh Gale & high Sea with Rain, constantly wet, and constantly Bailing. distress'd for Want of Light to see to Steer by the Wr. being Stormy with Thunder, Lightning, Rain and a high Sea, Keeping the Boat before it to the 21st. when we had most dreadfull Weather and the Rain fell so heavy that we could scarce keep the Boat from filling.

            To the 24th. The Weather and Sea continued very bad, and we now dreaded the Nights for we were all benumbed with Cold, and what added to our distress in the weak Situation we were in, One of us in turns was obliged to be constantly bailing the  Boat in all this dreadfull Weather, being continually wet and never having a Dry Rag about us. The resource I directed to be taken, was in the intervals when the Rain ceased, to Strip Naked and Wash and Wring all our Cloaths in the Sea, which was a great refreshment.

            To the 28th the Weather better, when at midnight I fell in with most dreadful Breakers, but I was able to stand away clear of them. As I knew I was near the Coast of New Holland. I considered this to be the Reef Off
            that Coast. and I therefore stood to the West again in the morning to search for a Passage within it. At 9 in the morning I saw the Reef again, and soon after standing along it to the Northward I discovered an Opening which I safely entered and got into Smooth Water.

            At Noon Latitude 12°:46' So 145°:02 Et. the entrance I came in at, SE about 2 leagues.

            At 1/4 past 5 in the Afternoon I got into a Bay on an Island about 1/4 Mile from the Main and finding it uninhabited I determined on searching for Supplies, Night came on, we however got a few Oysters from the Rocks which gave us a tolerable good meal.

            As our Boat was only large enough to admitt One half of us to rest at a time. I consented that one party should Sleep on shore, but unfortunately having no materials we could not light a Fire.

            29th May-At Dawn of day we went in search of Water and what else we could get, and happily by digging found fine fresh Water and plenty of it. Oysters were the only supply besides, of which with our allowance of Bread we made very good Stews. When the Sun came out strong I was enabled to Kindle a fire by a small magnifying Glass.and we then made Tinder and Matches to supply our wants in future.

            All hands were very weak which with dizziness in the Head. and a dreadfull Tenesemus, were the only complaints, At Night part of us slept on shore.  30th May-I now determined as the People were a little refreshed, to proceed on, I therefore by Noon got our small Water Casks filled, and having found some Fern Root. that I thought wholesome and very conducive to prevent thirst, I ordered a parcel into the Boat. Birds could have easily have been got here If I had, had Arms, on that account everyone we Saw recalled to us our miserable situation, but providence has been graciously kind to us, for we frequently caught by hand Sea Fowls, which made great additions to our Dinners of Bread. The frequent supply of Water was also a great Blessing but I had not Vessels to contain a Sufficient allowance, it therefore happen'd that nearly half a pint of water was what each person received in the course of the day. Issued at 8 in the morning, at Noon, and Sunset, with 1/24 of a pound of Bread at Breakfast, and the same at Dinner.

            I found the Latitude of this place 12°:39' So 144°:44' E the main appeared with a Variety of high and low land interspersed with wood, and the more interior parts mountainous.

            31st-At 4 in the afternoon after having performed Divine Service I sailed. Saw Twenty Natives Armed with Spears, come down on the shore opposite to us.

            They were Black and waved to us to come to them.

            I steered along shore to the NNW and NWBN, in the direction of the Coast. Saw several Islands, and at 8 in the morning passed through a cluster and saw more Natives armed in the same manner, and made the same Signs, I however did not land.

            The Appearance of the Country all changed being very low and mostly Sand Hills.

            Landed on an Island and gathered Shell fish, Oysters, and Clams,-also Water in the hollow of a rock which enabled us to fill up our Sea Store.

            From the heights of this Island, I saw a Small Key to the NWBN. As my present situation was therefore too near the main, having discovered at this place the Natives to have Cannoes. I again prepared to sail so as to reach the Key before Night. At Noon dined on Stewed Oysters and Clams. Found the Latitude of this Isld. 11°:58' So. 144:29 Et 1st. June-With a continuance of fine Wr. this Evening I landed and spent the Night at the Key abovementioned, could get no supplies of any Kind. some of my people were taken ill with Vomitings and dizziness besides a most dreadful Tenesemus afflicted many of them who had not been at Stool for Three Weeks and some more.

            At Noon I found the Latitude of this Key Ir:47 So. Longd 144:24 Et

            2nd. June-This Afternoon it came on Strong Gales and my people being still ill I prefered giving them a good Nights rest. to going to Sea. At Dawn of day I sailed, People much better, passed several Islands, The Coast Sandy and Barren. At Noon Latd. 11°:18' So 144°:20' Et I saw what I considered to be Cape York bearing WY2N3 Leagues

            3d-At Night I again stopt on an Island whose Latitude is 10°:52 So. 141:05 Et. by corrected Longitude from Cape York whose true Situation is 141°:15' Et. my Account therefore Yesterday was 3°:05' Wrong

            4th-At Dawn of day I again sailed and followed the direction of the Coast to the NW. saw many Islands and Breakers-At Noon I was in 10°:31' So. and 140:40 Et. I now found I had doubled the North part of New Holland.

            At 5 OClock this Evening I left New Holland and Steered accordingly for Timor. the Latitude of which I was not very certain of, however I determined to make it in the Latitude of about 9°:30' So. On the 12th. June at 3 in the morning I saw the Island of Timor bearing WNW. At Day Light finding I was on the SE end of it, I went to the Southd. of the Island, laying too at Night lest I might pass any Settlement, for I was not certain where the Governor resided.

            On the 14th in the Afternoon after having passed through a very heavy, breaking Sea. and Shoal Water, I discovered an Opening into which I entered And Anchored at 3 oClock, which I since find to be a Bay on Timor opposite to Pula Samou in the South Entrance, the Island Ratty being in sight to the SWBS.

            Saw some Malays on the Shore sent two Men after them, and they brought several Men to me, One of them agreed to be my Pilot and I agreed to give Ten half Ducatoons to conduct me to the Governor.

            This being settled we rowed along shore conducted by him, and on the Morning at Dawn of day. I Anchored off Coupang, and waited for leave to come on shore, At Sun rise I was desired by a Soldier to come on shore, and I was conducted to a Gentlemans House. (Captn. Spykerman) who upon my Application Orderd Breakfast and Victuals for all hands, The Governor from severe indispostion not being able to see me just at that time. The Surgeon a Mr. Max gave us every kind Assistance in dressing our sores, and all who saw us were ready to contribute to the comfort of such poor distress'd creatures, One half of whom could not have Survived a Week longer, and some perhaps not a few days.

            The Governor with much goodness became anxious about us and although his illness was very Severe, I had it in my power to see him by 11 Oclock and was received in a most affectionate and peculiar manner of Kindness which will ever endear him to my memory.

            Orders were instantly given for our accomodation and Supplies, and I had full power to see my people taken care of.

            Thus happily ended through the blessing of divine providence, without Accident a Voyage of the most extraordinary Nature that ever happend in the World, let it be taken either in its extent, duration, or so much wantof the Necessaries of life.

            I remained at Coupang untill the. 20th. August 1789 during which time I had the misfortune to lose. Mr David Nelson (Botanist) whose good conduct in the Course of the whole Voyage, and manly fortitude in our late disastrous Circumstances deserves this tribute to his memory. He died of a Fever on the 20th of July.

            I have not given so full an account to the Admiralty you will please therefore to attend to it in that particular.

            Company of the Bounty & Their Various Fates

              Adams, John (aka Alexander Smith)
              20, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Lived on Pitcairn Island, as the last surving mutineer, until his death in 1829.

              Bligh, William
              33, Commander, Loyalist, of course
              Survived ordeals at sea to return to England and continue his career in the British navy.  Died in 1817.

              Brown, William
              27, Asst. Gardener, Mutineer
              Charges against him found to be proved and sentenced to death in 1792.  Executed on the _Brunswick_with Milward and Ellison on 29 October, and left to hang for two hours.

              Burkett, Thomas,  
              25, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Charges of mutiny found to be proved and sentenced to death in 1792.  Executed on the _Brunswick_on 29 October, and left to hang for two hours.

              Byrn, Michael
              28, Able Seaman, Detained Loyalist
              Acquitted of mutiny in 1792.  Served with Bligh's nephew on the Prompte.  Became a pensioner of Greenwich Hospital and vanished into obscurity.

              Christian, Fletcher
              23, Master's Mate, Chief Mutineer
              After instigating and leading the mutiny, eventually took the Bounty to Pitcairn Island, where he remained until his death several years later.  Died, along with others, after being massacred by Tahitian servants.

              Churchill, Charles
              28, Master-at-Arms, Died before mutiny
              Murdered while in Tahiti by Matthew Thompson, his mess mate.

              Cole, William
              Boatswain, Loyalist
              Died in 1833 after a long retirement.

              Coleman, Joseph
              36, Armorer, Detained Loyalist
              Acquitted of mutiny in 1792.  Frequently admitted to the hospital after the court-martial.  Subsequently served with Bligh on two other ships.

              Ellison, Thomas
              17, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Charges against him found to be proved and sentenced to death in 1792.  Executed on the Brunswick 29 October, and left to hang for two hours.

              Elphinstone, William
              36, Master's Mate, Loyalist

              Fryer, John
              33, Master,  Loyalist
              Served on eleven ships until his retirement.  After retirement, lived in relative wealth and comfort until about age 60.

              Hall, Thomas
              38
              Cook
              Loyalist

              Hallett, John
              15, Midshipman, Loyalist
              Died at age 22 in Bedford in 1794.

              Hayward, Thomas
              20, Midshipman, Loyalist
              Returned to the South Pacific on the Pandora, and helped to track down mutineers. Testified for prosecution at the court-martial of the mutineers.

              Heywood, Peter
              15, Midshipman, Mutineer
              Found guilty of mutiny and sentenced to death in 1792.  Received His Majesty the King's unconditional pardon.  Served as a successful and distinguished naval officer until his retirement in 1816. Died on February 10, 1831, at age 58.

              Hilbrandt, Henry
              24, Cooper, Mutineer
              Died in the Pandora shipwreck in 1791 while still in his irons.  He never escaped Pandora's box.

              Huggan, John

              Surgeon, Died before mutiny
              Died in Tahiti of failed health.

              Lamb, Robert
              21, Butcher, Loyalist

              LeBogue, Lawrence
              39, Sailmaker, Loyalist
              Died on board the Jason at age 48.

              Ledward, Thomas
              Surgeon's Ass't, Loyalist
              Died in England.

              Linklater, Peter
              30, Quartermaster, Loyalist

              Martin, Isaac
              30, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Died on Pitcairn Island.

              McCoy, William
              25, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Died after falling off a cliff in 1798.

              McIntosh, Thomas
              28, Carpenter's Mate,
              Detained LoyalistAcquitted of mutiny in 1792.  Subsequently entered merchant service.

              Mills, John
              38, Gunner's Mate, Mutineer
              Killed in a slaughter on Pitcairn.

              Millward, John
              21, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Found guilty of mutiny and sentenced to death in 1792.  Executed on the _Brunswick_with Burkett and Ellison on 29 October, and left to hang for two hours.

              Morrison, James
              27, Boatswain's Mate
              Mutineer

              Muspratt, William
              27, Cook's Assistant,
              Mutineer
              Found guilty of mutiny and sentenced to death in 1792.  Received pardon nearly 5 months later.  Was rumored never to have spoken a word since witnessing the executions of Burkett,

              Nelson, David
              Botanist, Loyalist

              Norman, Charles
              26, Carpenter's Mate, Detained Loyalist
              Released after his acquittal in the court-martial.  Died in December 1793.

              Norton, John
              34, Quartermaster, Loyalist
              Died on the island of Tofua in 1790, stoned and beaten to death by islanders while the launch of the Bounty was trying to make its escape.

              Peckover, William
              40, Gunner, Loyalist
              Served a long naval career after returning to England.

              Purcell, William
              Carpenter, Loyalist
              Served on fourteen more ships until his retirement.  Died in 1834, as the last surviving officer of the Bounty.

              Quintal, Matthew
              21, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Hatcheted to death in 1799 by fellow mutineers Adams in Young, who feared for their own safety.

              Samuel, John
              26, Captain's Clerk, Loyalist
              Fate unreported.

              Simpson, George
              27, Q'termaster's Mate, Loyalist
              Died in 1801 of unknown causes.

              Skinner, Richard
              22, Able Seaman,
              MutineerDied in his irons in the Pandora shipwreck in 1791.

              Smith, John
              36, Captain's Servant, Loyalist
              After returning to England, stayed with the Blighs until 1801.

              Stewart, George
              21, Midshipman, Mutineer
              Struck and killed by a falling gangway during the Pandora shipwreck in 1791.

              Sumner, John
              22, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Struck and killed by a falling gangway during the Pandora shipwreck in 1791.

              Thompson, Matthew
              37, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Murdered by Tahitians in revenge for Churchill's death.  Was subsequently offered as a sacrifice to their gods.

              Tinkler, Robert
              15, Midshipman, Loyalist
              Served as a naval commander after returning to England.  Died in 1820, in Norwich.

              Valentine, James
              28, Able Seaman, Died before mutiny.
              Died on the voyage to Tahiti of an infection while being treated for another ailment..

              Williams, John
              26, Able Seaman, Mutineer
              Killed by Tahitians on Pitcairn.

              Edward, Young
              21, Midshipman, Mutineer
              Died of asthma in 1800.

              <div>* Age at time Bounty left England
              <div>
              <div>
              <div>Description of the Pirates remaining on Board his Majesty's armed Vessel, Bounty, on the 28th April, 1789\. Drawn up at Timor. Copies of this List were forwarded from Batavia to Lord Cornwallis, then Governor-General of India, at Calcutta; to Governor Philips, at New South Wales; and one was left at Batavia, with the Governor-General of the Dutch Possessions in India: </div>

              Fletcher Christian, master's mate, aged 24 years, five feet nine inches high, blackish, or very dark brown complexion, dark brown hair, strong made; a star tatowed on his left breast, tatowed on his backside; his knees stand a little out, and he may be called rather bow legged. He is subject to violent perspirations, and particularly in his hands, so that he soils any thing he handles.

              George Stewart, midshipman, aged 23 years, five feet seven inches high, good complexion, dark hair, slender made, narrow chested, and long neck, small face, and black eyes; tatowed on the left breast with a star, and on the left arm with a heart and darts, is also tatowed on the backside.

              Peter Heywood, midshipman, aged 17 years, five feet seven inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, well proportioned; very much tatowed; and on the right leg is tatowed the three legs of Man, as it is upon that coin. At this time he has not done growing; and speaks with the Manks, or Isle of Man accent.

              Edward Young, midshipman, aged 22 years, five feet eight inches high, dark complexion, and rather a bad look; dark brown hair, strong made, has lost several of his fore teeth, and those that remain are all rotten; a small mole on the left side of the throat, and on the right arm is tatowed a heart and dart through it, with E. Y. underneath, and the date of the year 1788 or 1789.

              Charles Churchill, ship's corporal, aged 30 years, five feet ten inches high, fair complexion, short light brown hair, top of the head bald, strong made; the fore-finger of his left hand crooked, and his hand shews the marks of a severe scald; tatowed in several places of his body, legs, and arms.

              James Morrison, boatswain's mate, aged 28 years, five feet eight inches high, sallow complexion, long black hair, slender made; has lost the use of the upper joint of the fore-finger of the right hand; tatowed with a star under his left breast, and a garter round his left leg, with the motto of Honi soit qui mal y pense; and has been wounded in one of his arms with a musket ball.

              John Mills, gunner's mate, aged 40 years, five feet ten inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, strong made, and raw boned; a scar in his right arm-pit, occasioned by an abscess.

              John Millward, seaman, aged 22 years, five feet five inches high, brown complexion, dark hair, strong made; very much tatowed in different parts of the body, and under the pit of the stomach, with a taoomy of Otaheite.

              Matthew Thompson, seaman, aged 40 years, five feet eight inches high, very dark complexion, short black hair, slender made, and has lost the joint of the great toe of his right foot; and is tatowed in several places of his body.

              William Mickoy, seaman, aged 25 years, five feet six inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, strong made; a scar where he has been stabbed in the belly, and a small scar under his chin; is tatowed in different parts of his body.

              Matthew Quintal, seaman, aged 21 years, five feet five inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, strong made; very much tatowed on the backside, and several other places.

              John Sumner, seaman, aged 24 years, five feet eight inches high, fair complexion, brown hair; a scar on the left cheek, and tatowed in several places.

              Thomas Burket, seaman, aged 26 years, five feet nine inches high, fair complexion, very much pitted with the small-pox, brown hair, slender made, and very much tatowed.

              Isaac Martin, seaman, aged 30 years, five feet eleven inches high, sallow complexion, short brown hair, raw boned; tatowed with a star on his left breast.

              William Musprat, seaman, aged 30 years, five feet six inches high, dark complexion, brown hair, slender made, a very strong black beard, with scars under his chin; is tatowed in several places of his body.

              Henry Hilbrant, seaman, aged 25 years, five feet seven inches high, fair complexion, sandy hair, strong made; his left arm shorter than the other, having been broke; is an Hanoverian born, and speaks bad English; tatowed in several places.

              Alexander Smith, seaman, aged 22 years, five feet five inches high, brown complexion, brown hair, strong made; very much pitted with the small-pox, and very much tatowed on his body, legs, arms, and feet. He has a scar on his right foot, where it has been cut with a wood axe.

              John Williams, seaman, aged 25 years, five feet five inches high, dark complexion, black hair, slender made; has a scar on the back part of his head; is tatowed, and a native of Guernsey; speaks French. Richard Skinner, seaman, aged 22 years, five feet eight inches high, fair complexion, very well made, and has scars on both ankles, and on his right shin; is very much tatowed.

              Thomas Ellison, seaman, aged 17 years, five feet three inches high, fair complexion, dark hair, strong made; has got his name tatowed on his right arm, and dated October 25th, 1788.

              William Brown, assistant botanist, aged 27 years, five feet eight inches high, fair complexion, dark brown hair, slender made; a remarkable scar on one of his cheeks, which contracts the eye-lid, and runs down to his throat, occasioned by the king's evil; is tatowed.

              Michael Byrne, seaman, aged 28 years, five feet six inches high, fair complexion, short fair hair, slender made: is almost blind, and has the mark of an issue on the back of his neck; plays the violin.

              Joseph Coleman, armourer, aged 40 years, five feet six inches high, fair complexion, grey hair, strong made; a heart tatowed on one of his arms.

              Charles Norman, carpenter's mate, aged 26 years, five feet nine inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, slender made, is pitted with the small-pox; and has a remarkable motion with his head and eyes.

              Thomas McIntosh, carpenter's crew, aged 28 years, five feet six inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, slender made; is pitted with the small-pox, and is tatowed.

              The four last are deserving of mercy, being detained against their inclinations.

              WM. BLIGH.
              Note. This description was made out from the recollection of the persons with me, who were best acquainted with their private marks.</div>

              </div>
              </div>

              The Bounty

                Sketch

                William Bligh's Narrative of the Mutiny on the Bounty

                  I SAILED FROM OTAHEITE on the 4th of April 1789, having on board 1015 fine bread-fruit plants, besides many other valuable fruits of that country, which, with unremitting attention, we had been collecting for three and twenty weeks, and which were now in the highest state of perfection.

                  On the 11th of April, I discovered an island in latitude 18° 52' S. and longitude 200° 19' E. by the natives called Whytootackee. On the 24th we anchored at Annamooka, one of the Friendly Islands; from which, after completing our wood and water, I sailed on the 27th, having every reason to expect, from the fine condition of the plants, that they would continue healthy.

                  On the evening of the 28th, owing to light winds, we were not clear of the islands, and at night I directed my course towards Tofoa. The master had the first watch; the gunner the middle watch; and Mr. Christian, one of the mates, the morning watch. This was the turn of duty for the night.

                  Just before sun-rising, Mr. Christian, with the master at arms, gunner's mate, and Thomas Burket, seaman, came into my cabin while I was asleep, and seizing me, tied my hands with a cord behind my back, and threatened me with instant death, if I spoke or made the least noise: I, however, called so loud as to alarm everyone; but they had already secured the officers who were not of their party, by placing centinels at their doors. There were three men at my cabin door, besides the four within; Christian had only a cutlass in his hand, the others had muskets and bayonets. I was hauled out of bed, and forced on deck in my shirt, suffering great pain from the tightness with which they had tied my hands. I demanded the reason of such violence, but received no other answer than threats of instant death, if I did not hold my tongue. Mr. Elphinston, the master's mate, was kept in his birth; Mr. Nelson, botanist, Mr. Peckover, gunner, Mr. Ledward, surgeon, and the master, were confined to their cabins; and also the clerk, Mr. Samuel, but he soon obtained leave to come on deck. The fore hatchway was guarded by centinels; the boatswain and carpenter were, however, allowed to come on deck, where they saw me standing abaft the mizen-mast, with my hands tied behind my back, under a guard, with Christian at their head.

                  The boatswain was now ordered to hoist the launch out, with a threat, if he did not do it instantly, to take care of himself. The boat being out, Mr. Hayward and Mr. Hallet, midshipmen, and Mr. Samuel, were ordered into it; upon which I demanded the cause of such an order, and endeavoured to persuade some one to a sense of duty; but it was to no effect: "Hold your tongue, Sir, or you are dead this instant," was constantly repeated to me.The master, by this time, had sent to be allowed to come on deck, which was permitted; but he was soon ordered back again to his cabin.

                  I continued my endeavours to turn the tide of affairs, when Christian changed the cutlass he had in his hand for a bayonet, that was brought to him, and, holding me with a strong gripe by the cord that tied my hands, he with many oaths threatened to kill me immediately if I would not be quiet: the villains round me had their pieces cocked and bayonets fixed. Particular people were now called on to go into the boat, and were hurried over the side: whence I concluded that with these people I was to be set adrift. I therefore made another effort to bring about a change, but with no other effect than to be threatened with having my brains blown out.

                  The boatswain and seamen, who were to go in the boat, were allowed to collect twine, canvas, lines, sails, cordage, an eight and twenty gallon cask of water, and the carpenter to take his tool chest. Mr. Samuel got 150 lbs of bread, with a small quantity of rum and wine. He also got a quadrant and compass into the boat; but was forbidden, on pain of death, to touch either map, ephemeris, book of astronomical observations, sextant, time-keeper, or any of my surveys or drawings.

                  The mutineers now hurried those they meant to get rid of into the boat. When most of them were in, Christian directed a dram to be served to each of his. own crew. I now unhappily saw that nothing could be done to effect the recovery of the ship: there was no one to assist me, and every endeavour on my part was answered with threats of death.

                  The officers were called, and forced over the side into the boat, while I was kept apart from everyone, abaft the mizen-mast; Christian, armed with a bayonet, holding me by the bandage that secured my hands. The guard round me had their pieces cocked, but, on my daring the ungrateful wretches to fire, they uncocked them.

                  Isaac Martin, one of the guard over me, I saw, had an inclination to assist me, and, as he fed me with shaddock, (my lips being quite parched with my endeavours to bring about a change) we explained our wishes to each other by our looks; but this being observed, Martin was instantly removed from me; his inclination then was to leave the ship, for which purpose he got into the boat; but with many threats they obliged him to return.

                  The armourer, Joseph Coleman, and the two carpenters, McIntosh and Norman, were also kept contrary to their inclination; and they begged of me, after I was astern in the boat, to remember that they declared they had no hand in the transaction. Michael Byrne, I am told, likewise wanted to leave the ship.

                  It is of no moment for me to recount my endeavours to bring back the offenders to a sense of their duty: all I could do was by speaking to them in general; but my endeavours were of no avail, for I was kept securely bound, and no one but the guard suffered to come near me.

                  To Mr. Samuel I am indebted for securing my journals and commission, with some material ship papers. Without these I had nothing to certify what I had done, and my honour and character might have been suspected, without my possessing a proper document to have defended them. All this he did with great resolution, though guarded and strictly watched. He attempted to save the time-keeper, and a box with all my surveys, drawings, and remarks for fifteen years past, which were numerous; when he was hurried away, with "Damn your eyes, you are well off to get what you have."

                  It appeared to me that Christian was some time in doubt whether he should keep the carpenter, or his mates; at length he determined on the latter, and the carpenter was ordered into the boat. He was permitted, but not without some opposition, to take his tool chest. Much altercation took place among the mutinous crew during the whole business: some swore "I'll be damned if he does not find his way home, if he gets any thing with him," (meaning me); others, when the carpenter's chest was carrying away, "Damn my eyes, he will have a vessel built in a month." While others laughed at the helpless situation of the boat, being very deep, and so little room for those who were in her. As for Christian, he seemed meditating instant destruction on himself and every one.

                  I asked for arms, but they laughed at me, and said I was well acquainted with the people where I was going, and therefore did not want them; four cutlasses, however, were thrown into the boat, after we were veered astern.

                  When the officers and men, with whom I was suffered to have no communication, were put into the boat, they only waited for me, and the master at arms informed Christian of it; who then said-"Come, captain Bligh, your officers and men are now in the boat, and you must go with them; if you attempt to make the least resistance you will instantly be put to death"; and, without any farther ceremony, holding me by the cord that tied my hands, with a tribe of armed ruffians about me, I was forced over the side, where they untied my hands. Being in the boat we were veered astern by a rope. A few pieces of pork were then thrown to us, and some cloaths, also the cutlasses I have already mentioned; and it was now that the armourer and carpenters called out to me to remember that they had no hand in the transaction. After having undergone a great deal of ridicule, and been kept some time to make sport for these unfeeling wretches, we were at length cast adrift in the open ocean. I had with me the following persons:

                  Names                                                                                                 Stations

                  JOHN FRYER.................................................................................... Master

                  THOMAS LEDWARD....................................................................... Acting Surgeon

                  DAVID NELSON.............................................................................. Botantist

                  WILLIAM PECKOVER.................................................................... Gunner

                  WILLIAM COLE............................................................................... Boatswain

                  WILLIAM PURCELL........................................................................ Carpenter

                  WILLIAM ELPHINSTON................................................................. Master’s Mate

                  THOMAS HAYWARD...................................................................... Midshipmen

                  JOHN HALLET................................................................................. Midshipmen

                  JOHN NORTON............................................................................... Quarter Masters

                  PETER LINKLETTER....................................................................... Quarter Masters

                  LAWRENCE LEBOGUE................................................................... Sailmaker

                  JOHN SMITH.................................................................................... Cooks

                  THOMAS HALL................................................................................ Cooks

                  GEORGE SIMPSON......................................................................... Quarter Master’s Mate

                  ROBET TINKLER............................................................................. A boy

                  ROBERT LAMB................................................................................ Butcher

                  MR. SAMUEL................................................................................... Clerk

                  There remained on board the Bounty, as pirates,

                  FLETCHER CHRISTIAN.................................................................. Master’s Mate

                  PETER HAYWOOD.......................................................................... Midshipmen

                  EDWARD YOUNG........................................................................... Midshipman

                  GEORGE STEWART......................................................................... Midshipman

                  CHARLES CHURCHILL................................................................... Master at Arms

                  JOHN MILLS.................................................................................... Gunner’s Mate

                  JAMES MORRISON......................................................................... Boatswain’s Mate

                  THOMAS BURKITT......................................................................... Able Seaman

                  MATTHEW QUINTAL..................................................................... Ditto

                  JOHN SUMNER................................................................................ Ditto

                  JOHN MILLWARD........................................................................... Ditto

                  WILLIAM MCKOY.......................................................................... Ditto

                  HENRY HILLBRANDT..................................................................... Ditto

                  MICHAEL BYRNE............................................................................ Ditto

                  WILLIAM MUSPRAT....................................................................... Ditto

                  ALEXANDER SMITH....................................................................... Ditto

                  JOHN WILLIAMS............................................................................. Ditto

                  THOMAS ELLISON......................................................................... Ditto

                  ISAAC MARTIN............................................................................... Ditto

                  RICHARD SKINNER........................................................................ Ditto

                  MATTHEW THOMPSON................................................................. Ditto

                  WILLIAM BROWN...................................... ................................... Gardinerr

                  JOSEPH COLEMAN......................................................................... Armourer

                  CHARLES NORMAN....................................................................... Carpenter’s Mate

                  THOMAS MCINTOSH..................................................................... Carpenter’s Crew

                  In all 25 hands, and the most able men of the Ship’s company.

                  Having little or no wind, we rowed pretty fast towards Tofoa, which bore NE about 10 leagues from us. While the ship was in sight she steered to the WNW, but I considered this only as a feint; for when we were sent away-"Huzza for Otaheite," was frequently heard among the mutineers.

                  Christian, the captain of the gang, is of a respectable family in the north of England. This was the third voyage he had made with me; and, as I found it necessary to keep my ship's company at three watches, I gave him an order to take charge of the third, his abilities being thoroughly equal to the task; and by this means my master and gunner were not at watch and watch.

                  Haywood is also of a respectable family in the north of England, and a young man of abilities, as well as Christian. These two were objects of my particular regard and attention, and I took great pains to instruct them, for they really promised, as professional men, to be a credit to their country. Young was well recommended, and appeared to me an able stout seaman; therefore I was glad to take him: he, however, fell short of what his appearance promised.

                  Stewart was a young man of creditable parents, in the Orkneys; at which place, on the return of the Resolution from the South Seas, in 1780, we received so many civilities, that, on that account only, I should gladly have taken him with me: but, independent of this recommendation, he was a seaman, and had always borne a good character.

                  Notwithstanding the roughness with which I was treated, the remembrance of past kindnesses produced some signs of remorse in Christian. When they were forcing me out of the ship, I asked him, if this treatment was a proper return for the many instances he had received of my friendship? he appeared disturbed at my question, and answered, with much emotion, "That,-captain Bligh,-that is the thing;-I am in hell-I am in hell."

                  As soon as I had time to reflect, I felt an inward satisfaction, which prevented any depression of my spirits: conscious of my integrity, and anxious solicitude for the good of the service in which I was engaged, I found my mind wonderfully supported, and I began to conceive hopes, notwithstanding so heavy a calamity, that I should one day be able to account to my King and country for the misfortune. A few hours before, my situation had been peculiarly flattering. I had a ship in the most perfect order, and well stored with every necessary both for service and health: by early attention to those particulars I had, as much as lay in my power, provided against any accident, in case I could not get through Endeavour Straits, as well as against what might befal me in them; add to this, the plants had been successfully preserved in the most flourishing state: so that, upon the whole, the voyage was two thirds completed, and the remaining part in a very promising way; every person on board being in perfect health, to establish which was ever amongst the principal objects of my attention.

                  It will very naturally be asked, what could be the reason for such a revolt? in answer to which, I can only conjecture that the mutineers had assured themselves of a more happy life among the Otaheiteans, than they could possibly have in England; which, joined to some female connections, have most probably been the principal cause of the whole transaction.

                  The women at Otaheite are handsome, mild and chearful in their manners and conversation, possessed of great sensibility, and have sufficient delicacy to make them admired and beloved. The chiefs were so much attached to our people, that they rather encouraged their stay among them than otherwise, and even made them promises of large possessions. Under these, and many other attendant circumstances, equally desirable, it is now perhaps not so much to be wondered at, though scarcely possible to have been foreseen, that a set of sailors, most of them void of connections, should be led away; especially when, in addition to such powerful inducements, they imagined it in their power to fix themselves in the midst of plenty, on the finest island in the world, where they need not labour, and where the allurements of dissipation are beyond any thing that can be conceived. The utmost, however, that any commander could have supposed to have happened is, that some of the people would have been tempted to desert. But if it should be asserted, that a commander is to guard against an act of mutiny and piracy in his own ship, more than by the common rules of service, it is as much as to say that he must sleep locked up, and when awake, be girded with pistols.

                  Desertions have happened, more or less, from many of the ships that have been at the Society Islands; but it ever has been in the commanders power to make the chiefs return their people: the knowledge, therefore, that it was unsafe to desert, perhaps, first led mine to consider with what ease so small a ship might be surprized, and that so favourable an opportunity would never offer to them again.

                  The secrecy of this mutiny is beyond all conception. Thirteen of the party, who were with me, had always lived forward among the people; yet neither they, nor the mess-mates of Christian, Stewart, Haywood, and Young, had ever observed any circumstance to give them suspicion of what was going on. With such close-planned acts of villainy, and my mind free from any suspicion, it is not wonderful that I have been got the better of. Perhaps, if I had had marines, a centinel at my cabin-door might have prevented it; for I slept with the door always open, that the officer of the watch might have access to me on all occasions. The possibility of such a conspiracy was ever the farthest from my thoughts. Had their mutiny been occasioned by any grievances, either real or imaginary, I must have discovered symptoms of their discontent, which would have put me on my guard: but the case was far otherwise. Christian, in particular, I was on the most friendly terms with; that very day he was engaged to have dined with me; and the preceding night he excused himself from supping with me, on pretence of being unwell; for which I felt concerned, having no suspicions of his integrity and honour.

                  It now remained with me to consider what was best to be done. My first determination was to seek a supply of bread-fruit and water at Tofoa, and afterwards to sail for Tongataboo, and there risk a solicitation to Poulaho, the king, to equip my boat, and grant a supply of water and provisions, so as to enable us to reach the East Indies.

                  The quantity of provisions I found in the boat was 150 lb. Of bread, 16 pieces of pork, each piece weighing 2 lb. 6 quarts of rum, 6 bottles of wine, with 28 gallons of water, and four empty barrecoes.

                  continued......

                  Page 2

                    Wednesday, April 29th.':- Happily the afternoon kept calm, until about 4 o'clock, when we were so far to windward, that, with a moderate easterly breeze which sprung up, we were able to sail. It was nevertheless dark when we got to Tofoa, where I expected to land; but the shore proved to be so steep and rocky, that I was obliged to give up all thoughts of it, and keep the boat under the lee of the island with two oars; for there was no anchorage. Having fixed on this mode of proceeding for the night, I served to every person half a pint of grog, and each took to his rest as well as our unhappy situation would allow.

                    In the morning, at dawn of day, we set off along shore in search of landing, and about ten o'clock we discovered a stony cove at the NW part of the island, where I dropt the grapnel within 20 yards of the rocks. A great deal of surf ran on the shore; but, as I was unwilling to diminish our stock of provisions, I landed Mr. Samuel, and some others, who climbed the cliffs, and got into the country to search for supplies. The rest of us remained at the cove, not discovering any way to get into the country, but that by which Mr. Samuel had proceeded. It was great consolation to me to find, that the spirits of my people did not sink, notwithstanding our miserable and almost hopeless situation. Towards noon Mr. Samuel returned, with a few quarts of water, which he had found in holes; but he had met with no spring, or any prospect of a sufficient supply in that particular, and had only seen signs of inhabitants. As it was impossible to know how much we might be in want, I only issued a morsel of bread, and a glass of wine, to each person for dinner I observed the latitude of this cove to be 19° 41' S This is the NW part of Tofoa, the north-westernmost of the Friendly Islands.

                    Thursday, April 30th. Fair weather, but the wind blew so violently from the ESE that I could not venture to sea. Our detention therefore made it absolutely necessary to see what we could do more for our support; for I determined, if possible, to keep my first stock entire: I therefore weighed, and rowed along shore, to see if any thing could be got; and at last discovered some cocoa-nut trees, but they were on the top of high precipices, and the surf made it dangerous landing; both one and the other we, however, got the better of. Some, with much difficulty, climbed the cliffs, and got about 20 cocoa-nuts, and others slung them to ropes, by which we hauled them through the surf into the boat. This was all that could be done here; and, as I found no place so eligible as the one we had left to spend the night at, I returned to the cove, and, having served a cocoa-nut to each person, we went to rest again in the boat.

                    At dawn of day I attempted to get to sea; but the wind and weather proved so bad, that I was glad to return to my former station; where, after issuing a morsel of bread and a spoonful of rum to each person, we landed, and I went off with Mr. Nelson, Mr. Samuel, and some others, into the country, having hauled ourselves up the precipice by long vines, which were fixed there by the natives for that purpose; this being the only way into the country.

                    We found a few deserted huts, and a small plantain walk, but little taken care of; from which we could only collect three small bunches of plantains. After passing this place, we came to a deep gully that led towards a mountain, near a volcano; and, as I conceived that in the rainy season very great torrents of water must pass through it, we hoped to find sufficient for our use remaining in some holes of the rocks; but, after all our search, the whole that we found was only nine gallons, in the course of the day. We advanced within two miles of the foot of the highest mountain in the island, on which is the volcano that is almost constantly burning. The country near it is all covered with lava, and has a most dreary appearance. As we had not been fortunate in our discoveries, and saw but little to alleviate our distresses, we filled our cocoa-nut shells with the water we found, and returned exceedingly fatigued and faint. When I came to the precipice whence we were to descend into the cove, I was seized with such a dizziness in my head, that I thought it scarce possible to effect it: however, by the assistance of Mr. Nelson and others, they at last got me down, in a weak condition. Every person being returned by noon, I gave about an ounce of pork and two plantains to each, with half a glass of wine. I again observed the latitude of this place 19° 41' south. The people who remained by the boat I had directed to look for fish, or what they could pick up about the rocks; but nothing eatable could be found: so that, upon the whole, we considered ourselves on as miserable a spot of land as could well be imagined.

                    I could not say positively, from the former knowledge I had of this island, whether it was inhabited or not; but I knew it was considered inferior to the other islands, and I was not certain but that the Indians only resorted to it at particular times. I was very anxious to ascertain this point; for, in case there had only been a few people, here, and those could have furnished us with but very moderate supplies, the remaining in this spot to have made preparations for our voyage, would have been preferable to the risk of going amongst multitudes, where perhaps we might lose every thing. A party, there fore, sufficiently strong, I determined should go another route, as soon as the sun became lower; and they cheerfully undertook it.

                    Friday, May the 1st: stormy weather, wind ESE and SE. About two o'clock in the afternoon the party set out; but, after suffering much fatigue, they returned in the evening, without any kind of success.

                    At the head of the cove, about 150 yards from the water-side, was a cave; across the stony beach was about 100 yards, and the only way from the country into the cove was that which I have already described. The situation secured us from the danger of being surprised, and I determined to remain on shore for the night, with a part of my people, that the others might have more room to rest in the boat, with the master; whom I directed to lie at a grapnel, and be watchful, in case we should be attacked. I ordered one plantain for each person to be boiled; and, having supped on this scanty allowance, with a quarter of a pint of grog, and fixed the watches for the night, those whose turn it was, laid down to sleep in the cave; before which we kept up a good fire, yet notwithstanding we were much troubled with flies and musquitoes.

                    At dawn of day the party set out again in a different route, to see what they could find; in the course of which they suffered greatly for want of water: they, however, met with two men, a woman, and a child; the men came with them to the cove, and brought two cocoanut shells of water. I immediately made friends with these people, and sent them away for bread-fruit, plantains, and water. Soon after other natives came to us; and by noon I had 30 of them about me, trading with the articles we were in want of: but I could only afford one ounce of pork, and a quarter of a bread-fruit, to each man for dinner, with half a pint of water; for I was fixed in not using any of the bread or water in the boat.

                    No particular chief was yet among the natives: they were, notwithstanding, tractable, and behaved honestly, giving the provisions they brought for a few buttons and beads. The party who had been out, informed me of having discovered several neat plantations; so that it became no longer a doubt of there being settled inhabitants on the island; and for that reason I determined to get what I could, and sail the first moment the wind and weather would allow me to put to sea.

                    Saturday, May the 2d: stormy weather, wind ESE. It had hitherto been a weighty consideration with me, how I was to account to the natives for the loss of my ship: I knew they had too much sense to be amused with a story that the ship was to join me, when she was not in sight from the hills. I was at first doubtful whether I should tell the real fact, or say that the ship had overset and sunk, and that only we were saved: the latter appeared to me to be the most proper and advantageous to us, and I accordingly instructed my people, that we might all agree in one story. As I expected, enquiries were made after the ship, and they seemed readily satisfied with our account; but there did not appear the least symptom of joy or sorrow in their faces, although I fancied I discovered some marks of surprise. Some of the natives were coming and going the whole afternoon, and we got enough of bread-fruit, plantains, and cocoa-nuts for another day; but water they only brought us about five pints. A canoe also came in with four men, and brought a few cocoa-nuts and bread-fruit, which I bought as I had done the rest. Nails were much enquired after, but I would not suffer one to be shewn, as I wanted them for the use of the boat.

                    Towards evening I had the satisfaction to find our stock of provisions somewhat increased: but the natives did not appear to have much to spare. What they brought was in such small quantities, that I had no reason to hope we should be able to procure from them sufficient to stock us for our voyage. At sunset all the natives left us in quiet possession of the cove. I thought this a good sign, and made no doubt that they would come again the next day with a larger proportion of food and water, with which I hoped to sail without farther delay: for if, in attempting to get to Tongataboo, we should be blown away from the islands altogether, there would be a larger quantity of provisions to support us against such a misfortune.

                    At night I served a quarter of a bread-fruit and a cocoa-nut to each person for supper; and, a good fire being made, all but the watch went to sleep.

                    At day-break I was happy to find every one's spirits a little revived, and that they no longer regarded me with those anxious looks, which had constantly been directed towards me since we lost sight of the ship: every countenance appeared to have a degree of cheerfulness, and they all seemed determined to do their best.

                    As I doubted of water being brought by the natives, I sent a party among the gullies in the mountains, with empty shells, to see what they could get. In their absence the natives came about us, as I expected, but more numerous; also two canoes came in from round the north side of the island. In one of them was an elderly chief, called Maccaackavow. Soon after some of our foraging party returned, and with them came a good-looking chief, called Eegijeefow, or perhaps more properly Eefow, Egij or Eghee, signifying a chief. To both these men I made a present of an old shirt and a knife, and I soon found they either had seen me, or had heard of my being at Annamooka. They knew I had been with captain Cook, who they enquired after, and also captain Clerk. They were very inquisitive to know in what manner I had lost my ship. During this conversation a young man appeared, whom I remembered to have seen at Annamooka, called Nageete: he expressed much pleasure at seeing me. I now enquired after Poulaho and Feenow, who, they said, were at

                    Tongataboo; and Eefow agreed to accompany me thither, if I would wait till the weather moderated. The readiness and affability of this man gave me much satisfaction.

                    This, however, was but of short duration, for the natives began to increase in number, and I observed some symptoms of a design against us; soon after they attempted to haul the boat on shore, when I threatened Eefow with a cutlass, to induce him to make them desist; which they did, and every thing became quiet again. My people, who had been in the mountains, now returned with about three gallons of water. I kept buying up the little bread-fruit that was brought to us, and likewise some spears to arm my men with, having only four cutlasses, two of which were in the boat. As we had no means of improving our situation, I told our people I would wait until sun-set, by which time, perhaps, something might happen in our favour: that if we attempted to go at present, we must fight our way through, which we could do more advantageously at night; and that in the mean time we would endeavour to get off to the boat what we had bought. The beach was now lined with the natives, and we heard nothing but the knocking of stones together, which they had in each hand. I knew very well this was the sign of an attack. It being now noon, I served a cocoa-nut and a bread-fruit to each person for dinner, and gave some to the chiefs, with whom I continued to appear intimate and friendly. They frequently importuned me to sit down, but I as constantly refused; for it occurred both to Mr. Nelson and myself, that they intended to seize hold of me, if I gave them such an opportunity. Keeping, therefore, constantly on our guard, we were suffered to eat our uncomfortable meal in some quietness.

                    Sunday, 3d May. Fresh gales at SE and ESE, varying to the NE in the latter part, with a storm of wind.

                    After dinner we began by little and little to get our things into the boat, which was a troublesome business, on account of the surf. I carefully watched the motions of the natives, who still increased in number, and found that, instead of their intention being to leave us, fires were made, and places fixed on for their stay during the night. Consultations were also held among them, and every thing assured me we should be attacked. I sent orders to the master, that when he saw us coming down, he should keep the boat close to the shore, that we might the more readily embark.

                    I had my journal on shore with me, writing the occurrences in the cave, and in sending it down to the boat it was nearly snatched away, but for the timely assistance of the gunner.

                    The sun was near setting when I gave the word, on which every person, who was on shore with me, boldly took up his proportion of things, and carried them to the boat. The chiefs asked me if I would not stay with them all night, I said, "No, I never sleep out of my boat; but in the morning we will again trade with you, and I shall remain until the weather is moderate, that we may go, as we have agreed, to see Poulaho, at Tongataboo. Maccaackavow then got up, and said, "You will not sleep on shore? then Mattie," (which directly signifies we will kill you) and he left me. The onset was now preparing; everyone, as I have described before, kept knocking stones together, and Eefow quitted me. We had now all but two or three things in the boat, when I took Nageete by the hand, and we walked down the beach, every one in a silent kind of horror.

                    When I came to the boat, and was seeing the people embark, Nageete wanted me to stay to speak to Eefow; but I found he was encouraging them to the attack, and I determined, had it then begun, to have killed him for his treacherous behaviour. I ordered the carpenter not to quit me until the other people were in the boat. Nageete, finding I would not stay, loosed himself from my hold and went off, and we all got into the boat except one man, who, while I was getting on board, quitted it, and ran up the beach to cast the stern fast off, notwithstanding the master and others called to him to return, while they were hauling me out of the water.

                    I was no sooner in the boat than the attack began by about 200 men; the unfortunate poor man who had run up the beach was knocked down, and the stones flew like a shower of shot. Many Indians got hold of the stern rope, and were near hauling us on shore, and would certainly have done it if I had not had a knife in my pocket, with which I cut the rope. We then hauled off to the grapnel, every one being more or less hurt. At this time I saw five of the natives about the poor man they had killed, and two of them were beating him about the head with stones in their hands.

                    We had no time to reflect, before, to my surprise, they filled their canoes with stones, and twelve men came off after us to renew the attack, which they did so effectually as nearly to disable all of us. Our grapnel was foul, but Providence here assisted us; the fluke broke, and we got to our oars, and pulled to sea. They, however, could paddle round us, so that we were obliged to sustain the attack without being able to return it, except with such stones as lodged in the boat, and in this I found we were very inferior to them. We could not close, because our boat was lumbered and heavy, and that they knew very well: I therefore adopted the expedient of throwing overboard some cloaths, which they lost time in picking up; and, as it was now almost dark, they gave over the attack, and returned towards the shore, leaving us to reflect on our unhappy situation.

                    The poor man I lost was John Norton: this was his second voyage with me as a quarter-master, and his worthy character made me lament his loss very much. He has left an aged parent, I am told, whom he supported.

                    I once before sustained an attack of a similar nature, with a smaller number of Europeans, against a multitude of Indians; it was after the death of captain Cook, on the Morai at Owhyhee, where I was left by lieutenant King: yet, notwithstanding, I did not conceive that the power of a man's arm could throw stones, from two to eight pounds weight, with such force and exactness as these people did. Here unhappily I was without arms, and the Indians knew it; but it was a fortunate circumstance that they did not begin to attack us in the cave: in that case our destruction must have been inevitable, and we should have had nothing left for it but to die as bravely as we could, fighting close together; in which I found every one cheerfully disposed to join me. This appearance of resolution deterred them, supposing they could effect their purpose without risk after we were in the boat.

                    Taking this as a sample of the dispositions of the Indians, there was little reason to expect much benefit if I persevered in my intention of visiting Poulaho; for I considered their good behaviour hitherto to proceed from a dread of our fire-arms, which, now knowing us destitute of, would cease; and, even supposing our lives not in danger, the boat and every thing we had would most probably be taken from us, and thereby all hopes precluded of ever being able to return to our native country.

                    We were now sailing along the west side of the island Tofoa, and my mind was employed in considering what was best to be done, when I was solicited by all hands to take them towards home: and, when I told them no hopes of relief for us remained, but what I might find at New Holland, until I came to Timor, a distance of full 1200 leagues, there was a Dutch settlement, but in what part of the island I knew not, they all agreed to live on one ounce of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, per day. Therefore, after examining our stock of provisions, and recommending this as a sacred promise for ever to their memory, we bore away across a sea, where the navigation is but little known, in a small boat, twenty-three feet long from stem to stern, deep laden with eighteen men; without a chart, and nothing but my own recollection and general knowledge of the situation of places, assisted by a book of latitudes and longitudes, to guide us. I was happy, however, to see every one better satisfied with our situation in this particular than myself.

                    Our stock of provisions consisted of about one hundred and fifty pounds of bread, twenty-eight gallons of water, twenty pounds of pork, three bottles of wine, and five quarts of rum. The difference between this and the quantity we had on leaving the ship, was principally owing to loss in the bustle and confusion of the attack. A few cocoa-nuts were in the boat, and some bread-fruit, but the latter was trampled to pieces.

                    It was about eight o'clock at night when I bore away under a reefed lug fore-sail: and, having divided the people into watches, and got the boat in a little order, we returned God thanks for our miraculous preservation, and, fully confident of his gracious support, I found my mind more at ease than for some time past.

                    At day-break the gale increased; the sun rose very fiery and red, a sure indication of a severe gale of wind. At eight it blew a violent storm, and the sea ran very high, so that between the seas the sail was becalmed, and when on the top of the sea it was too much to have set: but I was obliged to carry to it, for we were now in very imminent danger and distress, the sea curling over the stern of the boat, which obliged us to bale with all our might. A situation more distressing has, perhaps, seldom been experienced.

                    Our bread was in bags, and in danger of being spoiled by the wet: to be starved to death was inevitable, if this could not be prevented: I therefore began to examine what cloaths there were in the boat, and what other things could be spared; and, having determined that only two suits should be kept for each person, the rest was thrown overboard, with some rope and spare sails, which lightened the boat considerably, and we had more room to bale the water out. Fortunately the carpenter had a good chest in the boat, into which I put the bread the first favourable moment. His tool chest also was cleared, and the tools stowed in the bottom of the boat, so that this became a second convenience.

                    I now served a tea-spoonful of rum to each person, (for we were very wet and cold) with a quarter of a bread-fruit, which was scarce eatable, for dinner; but our engagement was now strictly to be carried into execution, and I was fully determined to make what provisions I had last eight weeks, let the daily proportion be ever so small.

                    Page 3

                      At noon I considered my course and distance from Tofoa to be WNW 3/4W. 86 miles, my latitude 19° 27' S. I directed my course to the WNW, that I might get a sight of the islands called Feejee, if they laid in the direction the natives had pointed out to me.

                      Monday, 4th May. This day the weather was very severe, it blew a storm from NE to ESE. The sea ran higher than yesterday, and the fatigue of baling, to keep the boat from filling, was exceedingly great. We could do nothing more than keep before the sea; in the course of which the boat performed so wonderfully well, that I no longer dreaded any danger in that respect. But among the hardships we were to undergo, that of being constantly wet was not the least: the nights were very cold, and at day-light our limbs were so benumbed, that we could scarce find the use of them. At this time I served a teaspoonful of rum to each person, which we all found great benefit from.

                      As I have mentioned before, I determined to keep to the WNW, until I got more to the northward, for I not only expected to have better weather, but to see the Feejee Islands, as I have often understood, from the natives of Annamooka, that they lie in that direction; Captain Cook likewise considers them to be NW by W from Tongataboo. Just before noon we discovered a small flat island of a moderate height, bearing WSW, 4 or 5 leagues. I observed in latitude 18° 58' S; our longitude, by account, 3° 4' W from the island Tofoa, having made a N 72° W course, distance 95 miles, since yesterday noon. I divided five small cocoa-nuts for our dinner, and every one was satisfied.

                      Tuesday, 5th May. Towards the evening the gale considerably abated. Wind SE.

                      A little after noon, other islands appeared, and at a quarter past three o'clock we could count eight, bearing from S round by the west to NW by N; those to the south, which were the nearest, being four leagues distant from us.

                      I kept my course to the NW by W, between the islands, and at six o'clock discovered three other small islands to the NW, the westernmost of them bore NW1/2W 7 leagues. I steered to the southward of these islands, a WNW course for the night, under a reefed sail. Served a few broken pieces of bread-fruit for supper, and performed prayers.

                      The night turned out fair, and, having had tolerable rest, everyone seemed considerably better in the morning, and contentedly breakfasted on a few pieces of yams that were found in the boat. After breakfast we prepared a chest for our bread, and got it secured: but unfortunately a great deal was damaged and rotten; this nevertheless we were glad to keep for use.

                      I had hitherto been scarcely able to keep any account of our run; but we now equipped ourselves a little better, by getting a log-line marked, and, having practiced at counting seconds, several could do it with some degree of exactness.

                      The islands I have passed lie between the latitude of 19° 5' Sand 18° 19' S, and, according to my reckoning, from 3° 17' to 3° 46' W longitude from the island Tofoa: the largest may be about six leagues in circuit; but it is impossible for me to be very exact. To show where they are to be found again is the most my situation enabled me to do. The sketch I have made, will give a comparative view of their extent. I believe all the larger islands are inhabited, as they appeared very fertile.

                      At noon I observed, in latitude 18° 10' S, and considered my course and distance from yesterday noon, NW by W1/2W, 94 miles; longitude, by account, from Tofoa 4° 29' W.

                      For dinner, I served some of the damaged bread, and a quarter of a pint of water. Wednesday, 6th May. Fresh breezes ENE, and fair weather, but very hazy.

                      About six o'clock this afternoon I discovered two islands, one
                      bearing W by S 6 leagues, and the other NW by N 8 leagues; I kept to windward of the northernmost, and passing it by 10 o'clock, I resumed my course to the NW and WNW. At day-light in the morning I discovered a number of other islands from SSE to the W, and round to NE by E; between those in the NW I determined to pass. At noon a small sandy island or key, 2 miles distant from me, bore from E to S3/4W. I had passed ten islands, the largest, Of which may be 6 or 8 leagues in circuit. Much larger lands appeared in the SW and N by W, between which I directed my course. Latitude observed 17° 17' S; course since yesterday noon N 50° W; distance 84 miles; longitude made, by account, 5° 37' W.

                      Our supper, breakfast, and dinner, consisted of a quarter of a pint of cocoa-nut milk, and the meat, which did not exceed two ounces to each person: it was received very contentedly, but we suffered great drought. I dared not to land, as we had no arms, and were less capable to defend ourselves than we were at Tofoa.

                      To keep an account of the boat's run was rendered difficult, from being constantly wet with the sea breaking over us; but, as we advanced towards the land, the sea became smoother, and I was enabled to form a sketch of the islands, which will serve to give a general knowledge of their extent. Those I have been near are fruitful and hilly, some very mountainous, and all of a good height. To our great joy we hooked a fish, but we were miserably disappointed by its being lost in getting into the boat.

                      Thursday, 7th May. Variable weather and cloudy, wind north-easterly, and calms. I continued my course to the NW, between the islands, which, by the evening, appeared of considerable extent, woody, and mountainous. At sun-set the southernmost bore from S to SW by W, and the northernmost from N by W1/2W to NE1/2E. At six o'clock I was nearly mid-way between them, and about 6 leagues distant from each shore, when I fell in with a coral bank, where I had only four feet water, without the least break on it, or ruffle of the sea to give us warning. I could only see that it extended about a mile on each side of us; but, as it is probable that it extends much farther, I have laid it down so in my sketch. I now directed my course W by N for the night, and served to each person an ounce of the damaged bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, for supper.

                      It may readily be supposed, that our lodgings were very miserable and confined, and I had only in my power to remedy the latter defect by putting ourselves at watch and watch; so that one half always sat up while the other lay down on the boat's bottom, or upon a chest, with nothing to cover us but the heavens. Our limbs were dreadfully cramped, for we could not stretch them out, and the nights were so cold, and we so constantly wet, that after a few hours sleep we could scarce move.

                      At dawn of day we again discovered land from WSW to WNW, and another island NNW, the latter a high round lump of but little extent; and I could see the southern land that I had passed in the night. Being very wet and cold, I served a spoonful of rum and a morsel of bread for breakfast.

                      As I advanced towards the land in the west, it appeared in a variety of forms; some extraordinary high rocks, and the country agreeably interspersed with high and low land, covered in some places with wood. Off the NE part lay two small rocky islands, between which and the island to the NE, 4 leagues apart, I directed my course; but a lee current very unexpectedly set us very near to the shore, and I could only get clear of it by rowing, passing close to the reef that surrounded the rocky isles. We now observed two large sailing canoes coming swiftly after us along shore, and, being apprehensive of their intentions, we rowed with some anxiety, being sensible of our weak and defenceless state. It was now noon, calm and cloudy weather, my latitude is therefore doubtful to 3 or 4 miles; my course since yesterday noon N 56 W, distance 79 miles; latitude by account, 16° 29' S, and longitude by account, from Tofoa, 6° 46' W. Being constantly wet, it was with the utmost difficulty I could open a book to write, and I am sensible that what I have done can only serve to point out where these lands are to be found again, and give an idea of their extent. Friday, 8th May. All the afternoon the weather was very rainy, attended with thunder and lightning. Wind NNE.

                      Only one of the canoes gained upon us, and by three o'clock in the afternoon was not more than two miles off, when she gave over chase.

                      If I may judge from the sail of the vessels, they are the same as at the Friendly Islands, and the nearness of their situation leaves little room to doubt of their being the same kind of people. Whether these canoes had any hostile intention against us is a matter of doubt; perhaps we might have benefited by an intercourse with them, but in our defenceless situation it would have been risking too much to make the experiment..

                      I imagine these to be the islands called Feejee, as their extent, direction, and distance from the Friendly Islands, answers to the description given of them by those Islanders. Heavy rain came on at our o'clock, when every person did their utmost to catch some water, and we increased our stock to 34 gallons, besides quenching our thirst for the first time since we had been at sea; but an attendant consequence made us pass the night very miserably, for, being extremely wet, and no dry things to shift or cover us, we experienced cold and shiverings scarce to be conceived. Most fortunately for us, the forenoon turned out fair, and we stripped and dried our cloaths. The allowance I issued to-day, was an ounce and a half of pork, a teaspoonful of rum, half a pint of cocoa-nut milk, and an ounce of bread. The rum, though so small in quantity, was of the greatest service. A fishing-line was generally towing, and we saw great numbers of fish, but could never catch one. At noon, I observed, in latitude 16° 4' S, and found I had made a course, from yesterday noon, N 62° W, distance 62 miles; longitude, by account, from Tofoa, 7° 42' W.

                      The land I passed yesterday, and the day before, is a group of islands, 14 or 16 in number, lying between the latitude of 16° 26' S and1 57' S, and in longitude, by my account, 4° 47' to 7° 17' W from Tofoa; three of these islands are very large, having from 30 to 40 leagues of sea-coast.

                      Saturday, 9th May. Fine weather, and light winds from the NE to E by S.

                      This afternoon we cleaned out the boat, and it employed us till sun-set to get every thing dry and in order. Hitherto I had issued the allowance by guess, but I now got a pair of scales, made with two cocoa-nut shells; and, having accidentally some pistol-balls in the boat, 25': of which weighed one pound, or 16 ounces, I adopted one, as the proportion of weight that each person should receive of bread at the times I served it. I also amused all hands, with describing the situation of New Guinea and New Holland, and gave them every information in my power, that in case any accident happened to me, those who survived might have some idea of what they were about, and be able to find their way to Timor, which at present they knew nothing of, more than the name, and some not that.

                      At night I served a quarter of a pint of water, and half an ounce of bread, for supper. In the morning, a quarter of a pint of cocoa-nut milk, and some of the decayed bread, for breakfast; and for dinner, I divided the meat of four cocoa-nuts, with the remainder of the rotten bread, which was only eatable by such distressed people. At noon, I observed the latitude to be 15° 47' S; course since yesterday N 75° W; distant 64 miles; longitude made, by account, 8° 45' W.

                      Sunday, May the 10th. The first part of this day fine weather; but after sun-set it became squally, with hard rain, thunder, and lightning, and a fresh gale; wind E by S, SE, and SSE.

                      In the afternoon I got fitted a pair of shrouds for each mast and contrived a canvass weather cloth round the boat, and raised the quarters about nine inches, by nailing on the seats of the stern sheets, which proved of great benefit to us.

                      About nine o'clock in the evening, the clouds began to gather, and we had a prodigious fall of rain, with severe thunder and lightning. By midnight we had caught about twenty gallons of water. Being miserably wet and cold, I served to each person a tea-spoonful of rum, to enable them to bear with their distressed situation. The weather continued extremely bad, and the wind increased; we spent a very miserable night, without sleep, but such as could be got in the midst of rain. The day brought us no relief but its' light. The sea was constantly breaking over us, which kept two persons baling; and we had no choice how to steer, for we were obliged to keep before the waves to avoid filling the boat.

                      The allowance which I now regularly served to each person was one 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, at sun-set, eight in the morning, and at noon. To-day I gave about half an ounce of pork for dinner, which, though any moderate person would have considered but a mouthful, was divided into three or four. The rain abated towards noon, and I observed the latitude to be 15° 17' S; course N 6r W; distance 78 miles; longitude made 10° W. Monday, May the 11th. Strong gales from SSE to SE, and very squally weather, with a high breaking sea, so that we were miserably wet, and suffered great cold in the night. In the morning at day-break I served to every person a tea-spoonful of rum, our limbs being so cramped that we could scarce feel the use of them. Our situation was now extremely dangerous, the sea frequently running over our stern, which kept us baling with all our strength.

                      At noon the sun appeared, which gave us as much pleasure as in a winter's day in England. I issued the 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, as yesterday. Latitude observed 14° 50' S; course N 71 ° W; distance 102 miles; and longitude, by account, 11 ° 39' W. from Tofoa.

                      Tuesday, May the 12th. Strong gales at SE, with much rain and dark dismal weather, moderating towards noon, and wind varying to the NE.

                      Having again experienced a dreadful night, the day showed to me a poor miserable set of beings full of wants, without any thing to relieve them. Some complained of a great pain in their bowels, and all of having but very little use of their limbs. What sleep we got was scarce refreshing, we being covered with sea and rain. Two persons were obliged to be always baling the water out of the boat. I served a spoonful of rum at day-dawn, and the usual allowance of bread and water, for supper, breakfast, and dinner.

                      At noon it was almost calm, no sun to be seen, and some of us shivering with cold. Course since yesterday W by N; distance 89 miles; latitude, by account, 14° 33' S; longitude made 13° 9' W. The direction of my course is to pass to the northward of the New Hebrides.

                      Wednesday, May the 13th. Very squally weather, wind southerly. As I saw no prospect of getting our cloaths dried, I recommended it to everyone to strip, and wring them through the salt water, by which means they received a warmth, that, while wet with rain, they could not have, and we were less liable to suffer from colds or rheumatic complaints.

                      In the afternoon we saw a kind of fruit on the water, which Mr. Nelson knew to be the Barringtonia of Forster, and, as I saw the same again in the morning, and some men of war birds, I was led to believe we were not far from land.

                      We continued constantly shipping seas, and baling, and were very wet and cold in the night; but I could not afford the allowance of rum at day-break. The twenty-fifth of a pound of bread, and water I served as usual. At noon I had a sight of the sun, latitude 14° 17' S; course W by N 79 miles; longitude made 14° 28' W.

                      Thursday, May the 14th. Fresh breezes and cloudy weather, wind southerly. Constantly shipping water, and very wet, suffering much cold and shiverings in the night. Served the usual allowance of bread and water, three times a day.

                      At six in the morning, we saw land, from SW by S eight leagues, to NW by W3/4W six leagues, which I soon after found to be four islands, all of them high -and remarkable. At noon discovered a rocky island NW by N four leagues, and another island Weight leagues, so that the whole were six in number; the four I had first seen bearing from S1/2E to SW by S; our distance three leagues from the nearest island. My latitude observed was 13° 29' S, and longitude, by account, from Tofoa, 15° 49' W; course since yesterday noon N 63° W; distance 89 miles.

                      Friday, May the 15th. Fresh gales at SE, and gloomy weather with rain, and a very high sea; two people constantly employed baling.

                      At four in the afternoon I passed the westernmost island. At one in the morning I discovered another, bearing WNW, five leagues distance, and at eight o'clock I saw it for the last time, bearing NE seven leagues. A number of gannets, boobies, and men of war birds were seen.

                      These islands lie between the latitude of 13° 16' Sand 14° 10' S: their longitude, according to my reckoning, 15° 51' to 17° 6' W from the island Tofoa. The largest island may be twenty leagues in circuit, the others five or six. The easternmost is the smallest island, and most remarkable, having a high sugar-loaf hill.

                      The sight of these islands served but to increase the misery of our situation. We were very little better than starving, with plenty in view; yet to attempt procuring any relief was attended with so much danger, that prolonging of life, even in the midst of misery, was thought preferable, while there remained hopes of being able to surmount our hardships. For my own part, I consider the general run of cloudy and wet weather to be a blessing of Providence. Hot weather would have caused us to have died with thirst; and perhaps being so constantly covered with rain or sea protected us from that dreadful calamity.

                      As I had nothing to assist my memory, I could not determine whether these islands were a part of the New Hebrides or not: I believed them perfectly a new discovery, which I have since found to be the case; but, though they were not seen either by Monsieur Bougainville or Captain Cook, they are so nearly in the neighbourhood of the New Hebrides, that they must be considered as part of the same group. They are fertile, and inhabited, as I saw smoke in several places.

                      Saturday, May the 16th. Fresh gales from the SE, and rainy weather. The night was very dark, not a star to be seen to steer by, and the sea breaking constantly over us. I found it necessary to act as much as possible against the southerly winds, to prevent being driven too near New Guinea; for in general we were forced to keep so much before the sea, that if we had not, at intervals of moderate weather, steered a more southerly course, we should inevitably, from a continuance of the gales, have been thrown in sight of that coast: in which case there would most probably have been an end to our voyage.

                      In addition to our miserable allowance of one 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, I issued for dinner about an ounce of salt pork to each person. I was often solicited for this pork, but I considered it better to give it in small quantities than to use all at once or twice, which would have been done if I had allowed it.

                      At noon I observed, in 13° 33' S; longitude made from Tofoa, 19° 27' W; course N 82° W; distance 101 miles. The sun gave us hopes of drying our wet cloaths.

                      Sunday, May the 17th. The sunshine was but of short duration. We had strong breezes at SE by S, and dark gloomy weather, with storms of thunder, lightning, and rain. The night was truly horrible, and not a star to be seen; so that our steerage was uncertain. At dawn f day I found every person complaining, and some of them soliciting extra allowance; but I positively refused it. Our situation was extremely miserable; always wet, and suffering extreme cold in the night, without the least shelter from the weather. Being constantly obliged to bale, to keep the boat from filling, was, perhaps, not to be reckoned an evil, as it gave us exercise.

                      The little rum I had was of great service to us; when our nights were particularly distressing, I generally served a tea-spoonful or two to each person: and it was always joyful tidings when they heard of my intentions.

                      At noon a water-spout was very near on board of us. I issued an ounce of pork, in addition to the allowance of bread and water; but before we began to eat, every person stript and wrung their cloaths through the sea-water, which we found warm and refreshing. Course since yesterday noon WSW; distance 100 miles; latitude, by account, 14° 11' S, and longitude made 21 ° 3' W..

                      Monday, May the 18th. Fresh gales with rain, and a dark dismal night, wind SE; the sea constantly breaking over us, and nothing but the wind and sea to direct our steerage. I now fully determined to make New Holland, to the southward of Endeavour straits, sensible that it was necessary to preserve such a situation as would make a southerly wind a fair one; that I might range the reefs until an opening should be found into smooth water, and we the sooner be able to pick up some refreshments. In the morning the rain abated, when we stripped, and wrung our cloaths through the sea-water, as usual, which refreshed us wonderfully. Every person complained of violent pain in their bones: I was only surprised that no one was yet laid up. Served one 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, at supper, breakfast, and dinner, as customary.

                      At noon I deduced my situation, by account, for we had no glimpse of the sun, to be in latitude 14° 52' S; course since yesterday noon WSW 106 miles; longitude made from Tofoa 22° 45' W. Saw many boobies and noddies, a sign of being in the neighbourhood of land.

                      Page 4

                        Tuesday, May the 19th. Fresh gales at ENE, with heavy rain, and dark gloomy weather, and no sight of the sun. We past this day miserably wet and cold, covered with rain and sea, from which we had no relief, but at intervals by pulling off our cloaths and wringing them through the sea water. In the night we had very severe lightning, but otherwise it was so dark that we could not see each other.

                        The morning produced many complaints on the severity of the weather, and I would gladly have issued my allowance of rum, if it had not appeared to me that we were to suffer much more, and that it was necessary to preserve the little I had, to give relief at a time we might be less able to bear such hardships; but, to make up for it, I served out about half an ounce of pork to each person, with the common allowance of bread and water, for dinner. All night and day we were obliged to bale without intermission.

                        At noon it was very bad weather and constant rain; latitude, by account, 14° 37' S; course since yesterday N 81 ° W; distance 100 miles; longitude made 24° 30' W. '

                        Wednesday, May the 20th. Fresh breezes ENE with constant rain; at times a deluge. Always baling. At dawn of day, some of my people seemed half dead: our appearances were horrible; and I could look no way, but I caught the eye of some one in distress. Extreme hunger was now too evident, but no one suffered from thirst, nor had we much inclination to drink, that desire, perhaps, being satisfied through the skin. The little sleep we got was in the midst of water, and we constantly awoke with severe cramps and pains in our bones. This morning I served about two teaspoonfuls of rum to each person, and the allowance of bread and water, as usual. At noon the sun broke out, and revived everyone. I found we were in latitude 14° 49' S; longitude made 25° 46' W; course S 88° W; distance 75 miles.

                        Thursday, May the 21st. Fresh gales, and heavy showers of rain. Wind ENE.. Our distresses were now very great, and we were so covered with rain and salt water, that we could scarcely see. Sleep, though we longed for it, afforded no comfort: for my own part, I almost lived without it: we suffered extreme cold, and every one dreaded the approach of night. About two o'clock in the morning we were overwhelmed with a deluge of rain. It fell so heavy that we were afraid it would fill the boat, and were obliged to bale with all our might. At dawn of day, I served a large allowance of rum. Towards noon the rain abated and the sun shone, but we were miserably cold and wet, the sea breaking so constantly over us, that, notwithstanding the heavy rain, we had not been able to add to our stock of fresh water. The usual allowance of one 25th of a pound of bread and water was served at evening, morning, and noon. Latitude, by observation, 14° 29' S, and longitude made, by account, from Tofoa, 27° 25' W; course, since yesterday noon, N 78°W, 99 miles. I now considered myself on a meridian with the east part of New Guinea, and about 65 leagues distant from the coast of New Holland.

                        Friday, May the 22d. Strong gales from ESE to SSE, a high sea, and dark dismal night. Our situation this day was extremely calamitous. We were obliged to take the course of the sea, running right before it, and watching with the utmost care, as the least error in the helm would in a moment have been our destruction. The sea was continually breaking all over us; but, as we suffered not such cold as when wet with the rain, I only served the common allowance of bread and water. At noon it blew very hard, and the foam of the sea kept running over our stern and quarters; I however got propped up, and made an observation of the latitude, in 14° 17' S; course N 85° W; distance 130 miles; longitude made 29° 38' west..

                        Saturday, May the 23d. Strong gales with very hard squalls, and rain; wind SE, and SSE.  The misery we suffered this day exceeded the preceding. The night was dreadful. The sea flew over us with great force, and kept us baling with horror and anxiety. At dawnofday I found every one in a most distressed condition, and I now began to fear that another such a night would put an end to the lives of several who seemed no longer able to support such sufferings. Everyone complained of severe pains in their bones; but these were alleviated, in some degree, by an allowance of two tea-spoonfuls of rum; after drinking which, having wrung our cloaths, and taken our breakfast of bread and water, we became a little refreshed.

                        Towards noon it became fair weather; but with very little abatement of the gale, and the sea remained equally high. With great difficulty I observed the latitude to be 13° 44' S; course N 74° W; distance 116 miles since yesterday; longitude made 31 ° 32' W from Tofoa.

                        Sunday, May the 24th. Fresh gales and fine weather; wind SSE and S. Towards the evening the weather looked much better, which rejoiced all hands, so that they eat their scanty allowance with more satisfaction than for some time past. The night also was fair; but, being always wet with the sea, we suffered much from the cold. A fine morning, I had the pleasure to see, produce some chearful countenances. Towards noon the weather improved, and, the first time for 15 days past, we found a little warmth from the sun. We stripped, and hung our cloaths up to dry, which were by this time become so thread-bare, that they would not keep out either wet or cold. At noon I observed in latitude 13° 33' S; longitude, by account, from Tofoa 33° 28' W; course N 84° W; distance 114 miles. With the usual allowance of bread and water for dinner, I served an ounce of pork to each person.

                        Monday, May the 25th. Fresh gales and fair weather. Wind SSE. This afternoon we had many birds about us, which are never seen far from land, such as boobies and noddies. About three o'clock the sea began to run fair, and we shipped but little water, I therefore determined to know the exact quantity of bread I had left; and on examining found, according to my present issues, sufficient for 29 days allowance. In the course of this time I hoped to be at Timor; but, as that was very uncertain, and perhaps after all we might be obliged to go to Java, I determined to proportion my issues to six weeks. I was apprehensive that this would be ill received, and that it would require my utmost resolution to enforce it; for, small as the quantity was which I intended to take away, for our future good, yet it might appear to my people like robbing them of life, and some, who were less patient than their companions, I expected would very ill brook it. I however represented it so essentially necessary to guard against delays in our voyage by contrary winds, or other causes, promising to enlarge upon the allowance as we got on, that it was readily agreed to. I therefore fixed, that every person should receive one 25th of a pound of bread for breakfast, and one 25th of a pound for dinner; so that by omitting the proportion for supper, I had 43 days allowance.

                        At noon some noddies came so near to us, that one of them was caught by hand. This bird is about the size of a small pigeon. I divided it, with its entrails, into 18 portions, and by the method of, Who shall have this ? it was distributed with the allowance of bread and water for dinner, and eat up bones and all, with salt water for sauce. I observed the latitude 13° 32' S; longitude made 35° 19' W; and course N 89° W; distance 108 miles.

                        Tuesday, May the 26th. Fresh gales at SSE, and fine weather. In the evening we saw several boobies flying so near to us, that we caught one of them by hand. This bird is as large as a good duck; like the noddy, it has received its name from seamen, for suffering itself to be caught on the masts and yards of ships. They are the most presumptive proofs of being in the neighbourhood of land of any seafowl we are acquainted with. I directed the bird to be killed for supper, and the blood to be given to three of the people who were the most distressed for want of food. the body, with the entrails, beak, and feet, I divided into 18 shares, and with an allowance of bread, which I made a merit of granting, we made a good supper, compared with our usual fare.

                        In the morning we caught another booby, so that Providence seemed to be relieving our wants in a very extraordinary manner. Towards noon we passed a great many pieces of the branches of trees, some of which appeared to have been no long time in the water. I had a good observation for the latitude, and found my situation to be in 13° 41' S; my longitude, by account, from Tofoa, 37° 13' W; course S 85° W, 112 miles. Every person was now overjoyed at the addition to their dinner, which I distributed as I had done in the evening; giving the blood to those who were the most in want of food.

                        To make our bread a little savoury we frequently dipped it in salt water; but for my own part I generally broke mine into small pieces, and eat it in my allowance of water, out of a cocoa-nut shell, with a spoon, economically avoiding to take too large a piece at a time, so that I was as long at dinner as if it had been a much more plentiful meal.

                        Wednesday, May the 27th. Fresh breezes south-easterly, and fine weather.

                        The weather was now serene, but unhappily we found ourselves unable to bear the sun's heat; many of us suffering a languor and faintness, which made life indifferent We were, however, so fortunate as to catch two boobies to-day; their stomachs contained several flying-fish and small cuttlefish, all of which I saved to be divided for dinner.

                        We passed much drift wood, and saw many birds; I therefore did not hesitate to pronounce that we were near the reefs of New Holland, and assured everyone I would make the coast without delay, in the parallel we were in, and range the reef till I found an opening, through which we might get into smooth water, and pick up some supplies. From my recollection of captain Cook's survey of this coast, I considered the direction of it to be NW, and I was therefore satisfied that, with the wind to the southward of E, I could always clear any dangers.

                        At noon I observed in latitude 13° 26' S; course since yesterday N 82° W; distance 109 miles; longitude made 39° 4' W. After writing my account, I divided the two birds with their entrails, and the contents of their maws, into 18 portions, and, as the prize was a very valuable one, it was divided as before, by calling out Who shall have this? so that to-day, with the allowance of a 25th of a pound of bread at breakfast, and another at dinner, with the proportion of water, I was happy to see that every person thought he had feasted.

                        Thursday, May the 28th. Fresh breezes and fair weather; wind ESE and E. In the evening we saw a gannet; and the clouds remained so fixed in the west, that I had little doubt of our being near to New Holland; and every person, after taking his allowance of water for supper, began to divert himself with conversing on the probability of what we should find.

                        At one in the morning the person at the helm heard the sound of breakers, and I no sooner lifted up my head, than I saw them close under our lee, not more than a quarter of a mile distant from us. I immediately hauled on a wind to the NNE, and in ten minutes time we could neither see nor hear them.

                        I have already mentioned my reason for making New Holland so far to the southward; for I never doubted of numerous openings in the reef, through which I could have access to the shore: and, knowing the inclination of the coast to be to the NW, and the wind mostly to the southward of E, I could with ease range such a barrier of reefs till I should find a passage, which now became absolutely necessary, without a moment's loss of time. The idea of getting into smooth water, and finding refreshments, kept my people's spirits up: their joy was very great after we had got clear of the breakers, to which we had been much nearer than I thought was possible to be before we saw them.

                        In the morning, at day-light, I bore away again for the reefs, and saw them by nine o'clock. The sea broke furiously over every part, and I had no sooner got near to them, than the wind came at E, so that we could only lie along the line of the breakers, within which we saw the water so smooth, that every person already anticipated the heart-felt satisfaction he would receive, as soon as we could get within them. But I now found we were embayed, for I could not lie clear with my sails, the wind having backed against us, and the sea set in so heavy towards the reef that our situation was become dangerous. We could effect but little with the oars, having scarce strength to pull them; and it was becoming every minute more and more probable that we should be obliged to attempt pushing over the reef, in case we could not pull off. Even this I did not despair of effecting with success, when happily we discovered a break in the reef, about one mile from us, and at the same time an island of a moderate height within it, nearly in the same direction, bearing W ½ N. I entered the passage with a strong stream running to the westward, and found it about a quarter of a mile broad, with every appearance of deep water.

                        On the outside, the reef inclined to the NE for a few miles, and from thence to the NW; on the south side of the entrance, it inclined to the SSW as far as I could see it; and I conjecture that a similar passage to this which we now entered, may be found near the breakers that I first discovered, which are 23 miles S of this channel.  I did not recollect what latitude providential channel" lies in, but I considered it to be within a few miles of this, which is situated in 12° 51' S latitude.

                        Being now happily within the reefs, and in smooth water, I endeavored to keep near them to try for fish; but the tide set us to the NW; I therefore bore away in that direction, and, having promised to land on the first convenient spot we could find, all our past hardships seemed already to be forgotten.

                        At noon I had a good observation, by which our latitude was 12° 46 S, whence the foregoing situations may be considered as determined with some exactness. The island first seen bore WSW five leagues. This, which I have called the island Direction, will in fair weather always shew the channel, from which it bears due W, and ay be seen as soon as the reefs, from a ship's mast-head: it lies in the altitude of 12° 51' S. There, however, are marks too small for a ship to hit, unless it can hereafter be ascertained that passages through the reef are numerous along the coast, which I am inclined to think they are, and then there would be little risk if the wind was not directly on the shore.

                        My longitude, made by dead reckoning, from the island Tofoa to our passage through the reef, is 40° 10' W. Providential channel, I imagine, must lie very nearly under the same meridian with our passage; by which it appears we had out-run our reckoning 1°9'.

                        We now returned God thanks for his gracious protection, and with much content took our miserable allowance of a 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water, for dinner.

                        Friday, May the 29th. Moderate breezes and fine weather, wind ESE. As we advanced within the reefs, the coast began to shew itself very distinctly, with a variety of high and low land; some parts of which were covered with wood. In our way towards the shore we fell in with a point of a reef, which is connected with that towards the sea, and here I came to a grapnel, and tried to catch fish, but had no success. The island Direction now bore S three or four leagues. Two islands lay about four miles to the W by N, and appeared eligible for a resting-place, if nothing more; but on my approach to the first I found it only a heap of stones, and its size too inconsiderable to shelter the boat. I therefore proceeded to the next, which was close to it and towards the main, where, on the NW side, I found a bay and a fine sandy point to land at. Our distance was about a quarter of a mile from a projecting part of the main, bearing from SW by S, to NNW ¾ W. I now landed to examine if there were any signs of the natives being near us; but though I discovered some old fireplaces, I saw nothing to alarm me for our situation during the night. Every one was anxious to find something to eat, and I soon heard that there were oysters on the rocks, for the tide was out; but it was nearly dark, and only a few could be gathered. I determined therefore to wait till the morning, to know how to proceed, and I consented that one half of us should sleep on shore, and the other in the boat. We would gladly have made a fire, but, as we could not accomplish it, we took our rest for the night, which happily was calm and undisturbed.

                        The dawn of day brought greater strength and spirits to us than I expected; for, notwithstanding every one was very weak, there appeared strength sufficient remaining to make me conceive the most favorable hopes of our being able to surmount the difficulties we might yet have to encounter.

                        As soon as I saw that there were not any natives immediately near us, I sent out parties in search of supplies, while others were putting the boat in order, that I might be ready to go to sea in case any unforeseen cause might make it necessary. The first object of this work, that demanded our attention, was the rudder: one of the gudgeons had come out, in the course of the night, and was lost. This, if it had happened at sea, would probably have been the cause of our perishing, as the management of the boat could not have been so nicely preserved as these very heavy seas required. I had often expressed my fears of this accident, and, that we might be prepared for it, had taken the precaution to have grummets fixed on each quarter of the boat for oars; but even our utmost readiness in using them, I fear, would not have saved us. It appears, therefore, a providential circumstance, that it happened at this place, and was in our power to remedy the defect; for by great good luck we found a large staple in the boat that answered the purpose.

                        Page 5

                          The parties were now returned, highly rejoiced at having found plenty of oysters and fresh water. I also had made a fire, by help of a small magnifying glass, that I always carried about me, to read off the divisions of my sextants; and, what was still more fortunate, among the few things which had been thrown into the boat and saved, was a piece of brimstone and a tinder-box, so that I secured fire for the future.

                          One of my people had been so provident as to bring away with him a copper pot: it was by being in possession of this article that I was enabled to make a proper use of the supply we found, for, with a mixture of bread and a little pork, I made a stew that might have been relished by people of more delicate appetites, of which each person received a full pint.

                          The general complaints of disease among us, were a dizziness in the head, great weakness of the joints, and violent tenesmus, most of us having had no evacuation by stool since we left the ship. I had constantly a severe pain at my stomach; but none of our complaints were alarming; on the contrary, everyone retained marks of strength, that, with a mind possessed of any fortitude, could bear more fatigue than I hoped we had to undergo in our voyage to Timor. As I would not allow the people to expose themselves to the heat of the sun, it being near noon, everyone took his allotment of earth, shaded by the bushes, for a short sleep. The oysters we found grew so fast to the rocks that it was with difficulty they could be broke off, and at last we discovered it to be the most expeditious way to open them where they were found. They were very sizeable, and well tasted, and gave us great relief. To add to this happy circumstance, in the hollow of the land there grew some wiregrass, which indicated a moist situation. On forcing a stick, about three feet long, into the ground, we found water, and with little trouble dug a well, which produced as much as we were in need of. It was very good, but I could not determine if it was a spring or not. Our wants made it not necessary to make the well deep, for it flowed as fast as we emptied it; which, as the soil was apparently too loose to retain water from the rains, renders it probable to be a spring. It lies about 200 yards to the SE of a point in the SW part of the island.

                          I found evident signs of the natives resorting to this island; for, besides fire-places, I saw two miserable wig-warns, having only one side loosely covered. We found a pointed stick, about three feet long, with a slit in the end of it, to sling stones with, the same as the natives of Van Diemen's land use. The track of some animal was very discernible, and Mr. Nelson agreed with me that it was the Kanguroo; but how these animals can get from the main I know not, unless brought over by the natives to breed, that they may take them with more ease, and render a supply of food certain to them; as on the continent the catching of them may be precarious, or attended with great trouble, in so large an extent of country.

                          The island may be about two miles in circuit; it is a high lump of rocks and stones covered with wood; but the trees are small, the soil, which is very indifferent and sandy, being barely sufficient to produce them. The trees that came within our knowledge were the manchineal and a species of purow: also some palm-trees, the tops of which we cut down, and the soft interior part or heart of them was so palatable that it made a good addition to our mess. Mr. Nelson discovered some fern-roots, which I thought might be good roasted, as a substitute for bread, but it proved a very poor one: it however was very good in its natural state to allay thirst, and on that account I directed a quantity to be collected to take into the boat. Many pieces of cocoanut shells and husk were found about the shore, but we could find no cocoanut trees, neither did I see any like them on the main.

                          I had cautioned everyone not to touch any kind of berry or fruit that they might find; yet they were no sooner out of my sight than they began to make free with three different kinds, that grew all over the island, eating without any reserve. The symptoms of having eaten too much, began at last to frighten some of them; but on questioning others, who had taken a more moderate allowance, their minds were a little quieted. The others, however, became equally alarmed in their turn, dreading that such symptoms would come on, and that they were all poisoned, so that they regarded each other with the strongest marks of apprehension, uncertain what would be the issue of their imprudence. Happily the fruit proved wholesome and good. One sort grew on a small delicate kind of vine; they were the size of a large gooseberry, and very like in substance, but had only a sweet taste; the skin was a pale red, streaked with yellow the long way of the fruit: it was pleasant and agreeable. Another kind grew on bushes, like that, which is called the seaside grape in the West Indies; but the fruit was very different, and more like elderberries, growing in clusters in the same manner. The third sort was a black berry, not in such plenty as the others, and resembled a bullace, or large kind of sloe, both in size and taste. Seeing these fruits eaten by the birds made me consider them fit for use, and those who had already tried the experiment, not finding any bad effect, made it a certainty that we might eat of them without danger.

                          Wild pigeons, parrots, and other birds, were about the summit of the island, but, as I had no fire-arms, relief of that kind was not to be expected, unless I met with some unfrequented spot where we might take them with our hands.

                          On the south side of the island, and about half a mile from the well, a small run of water was found; but, as its source was not traced, I know nothing more of it.

                          The shore of this island is very rocky, except the part we landed at, and here I picked up many pieces of pumice-stone. On the part of the main next to us were several sandy bays, but at low water they became an extensive rocky flat. The country had rather a barren appearance, except in a few places where it was covered with wood. A remarkable range of rocks lay a few miles to the SW, or a high peaked hill terminated the coast towards the sea, with other high lands and islands to the southward. A high fair cape showed the direction of the coast to the NW, about seven leagues, and two small isles lay three or four leagues to the northward. I saw a few bees or wasps, several lizards, and the blackberry bushes were full of ants nests, webbed as a spider's, but so close and compact as not to admit the rain. A trunk of a tree, about 50 feet long, lay on the beach; from whence I conclude a heavy sea runs in here with the northerly winds.

                          This being the day of the restoration of king Charles the Second, and the name not being inapplicable to our present situation (for we were restored to fresh life and strength), I named this Restoration Island; for I thought it probable that captain Cook might not have taken notice of it. The other names I have presumed to give the different parts of the coast will be only to show my route a little more distinctly.

                          At noon I found the latitude of the island to be 12° 39' S; our course having been N 66° W; distance 18 miles from yesterday noon.

                          Saturday, May the 30th. Very fine weather, and ESE winds. This afternoon I sent parties out again to gather oysters, with which and some of the inner part of the palm-top, we made another good stew for supper, each person receiving a full pint and a half; but I refused bread to this meal, for I considered our wants might yet be very great, and as such I represented the necessity of saving our principal support whenever it was in our power. At night we again divided, and one half of us slept on shore by a good fire. In the morning I discovered a visible alteration in every one for the better, and I sent them away again to gather oysters. I had now only two pounds of pork left.  This article, which I could not keep under lock and key as I did the bread, had been pilfered by some inconsiderate person, but everyone most solemnly denied it; I therefore resolved to put it out of their power for the future, by sharing what remained for our dinner. While the party was out getting oysters, I got the boat in readiness for sea, and filled all our water vessels, which amounted to nearly 60 gallons.

                          The party being returned, dinner was soon ready, and every one had as good an allowance as they had for supper; for with the pork I gave an allowance of bread; and I was determined forthwith to push on. As it was not yet noon, I told everyone that an exertion should be made to gather as many oysters as possible for a sea store, as I was determined to sail in the afternoon. At noon I again observed the latitude 12° 39' S; it was then high-water, the tide had risen three feet, but I could not be certain which way the flood came from. I deduce the time of high water at full and change to be ten minutes past seven in the morning.

                          Sunday, May the 31st.  Early in the afternoon, the people returned with the few oysters they had time to pick up, and every thing was put into the boat. I then examined the quantity of bread remaining, and found 38 days allowance, a<:;cording to the last mode of issuing a 25th of a pound at breakfast and at dinner. Fair weather, and moderate breezes at ESE and SE.

                          Being all ready for sea, I directed every person to attend prayers, and by four o'clock we were preparing to embark; when twenty natives appeared, running and holloaing to us, on the opposite shore. They were armed with a spear or lance, and a short weapon which they carried in their left hand: they made signs for us to come to them. On the top of the hills we saw the heads of many more; whether these were their wives and children, or others who waited for our landing, until which they meant not to show themselves, lest we might be intimidated, I cannot say; but, as I found we were discovered to be on the coast, I thought it prudent to make the best of my way, for fear of canoes; though, from the accounts of captain Cook, the chance was that there were very few or none of any consequence. I passed these people as near as I could, which was within a quarter of a mile; they were naked, and apparently black, and their hair or wool bushy and short.

                          I directed my course within two small islands that lie to the north of Restoration Island, passing between them and the main land, towards Fair Cape, with a strong tide in my favor; so that I was abreast of it by eight o'clock. The coast I had passed was high and woody. As I could see no land without Fair Cape, I concluded that the coast inclined to the NW and WNW, which was agreeable to my recollection of Captain Cook's survey. I therefore steered more towards the W; but by eleven o'clock at night I found myself mistaken: for we met with low land, which inclined to the NE; so that at three 0' clock in the morning I found we were embayed, which obliged us to stand back to the southward.

                          At day-break I was exceedingly surprised to find the appearance of the country all changed, as if in the course of the night I had been transported to another part of the world; for we had now a miserable low sandy coast in view, with very little verdure, or any thing to indicate that it was at all habitable to a human being, if I except some patches of small trees or brush-wood.

                          I had many small islands in view to the NE, about six miles distant. The E part of the main bore N four miles, and Fair Cape SSE five or six leagues. I took the channel between the nearest island and the main land, about one mile apart, leaving all the islands on the starboard side. Some of these were very pretty spots, covered with wood, and well situated for fishing: large shoals of fish were about us, but we could not catch any.- As I was passing this strait we saw another party of Indians, seven in number, running towards us, shouting and making signs for us to land. Some of them waved green branches of the bushes, which were near them, as a sign of friendship; but there were some of their other motions less friendly. A larger party we saw a little farther off, and coming towards us. I therefore determined not to land, though I wished much to have had some intercourse with these people; for which purpose I beckoned to them to come near to me, and laid the boat close to the rocks; but not one would come within 200 yards of us. They were armed in the same manner as those I had seen from Restoration Island, were stark naked, and appeared to be jet black, with short bushy hair or wool, and in every respect the same people. An island of good height now bore N ½ W, four miles from us, at which I resolved to see what could be got, and from thence to take a look at the coast. At this isle I landed about eight o'clock in the morning. The shore was rocky, with some sandy beaches within the rocks: the water, however, was smooth, and I landed without difficulty. I sent two parties out, one to the northward, and the other to the southward, to seek for supplies, and others I ordered to stay by the boat. On this occasion their fatigue and weakness so far got the better of their sense of duty, that some of them began to mutter who had done most, and declared they would rather be without their dinner than go in search of it. One person, in particular, went so far as to tell me, with a mutinous look, he was as good a man as myself. It was not possible for me to judge where this might have an end, if not stopped in time; I therefore determined to strike a final blow at it, and either to preserve my command, or die in the attempt: and, seizing a cutlass, I ordered him to take hold of another and defend himself; on which he called out I was going to kill him, and began to make concessions. I did not allow this to interfere further with the harmony of the boat's crew, and every thing soon became quiet.

                          The parties continued collecting what could be found, which consisted of some fine oysters and clams, and a few small dogfish that were caught in the holes of the rocks. We also found about two tons of rainwater in the hollow of the rocks, on the north part of the island, so that of this essential article we were again so happy as not to be in want.

                          After regulating the mode of proceeding, I set off for the highest part of the island, to see and consider of my route for the night. To my surprise I could see no more of the main than I did from below, it extending only from S ½ E, four miles, to W by N, about three leagues, full of sand-hills. Besides the isles to the ESE and south, that I had seen before, I could only discover a small key NW by N. As this was considerably farther from the main than where I was at present, I resolved to get there by night, it being a more secure resting place; for I was here open to an attack, if the Indians had canoes, as they undoubtedly observed my landing. My mind being made up on this point, I returned, taking a particular look at the spot I was on, which I found only to produce a few bushes and coarse grass, and the extent of the whole not two miles in circuit. On the north side, in a sandy bay, I saw an old canoe, about 33 feet long, lying bottom upwards, and half buried in the beach. It was made of three pieces, the bottom entire, to which the sides were sewed in the common way. It had a sharp projecting prow rudely carved, in resemblance of the head of a fish; the extreme breadth was about three feet, and I imagine it was capable of carrying 20 men.

                          At noon the parties were all returned, but had found difficulty in gathering the oysters, from their close adherence to the rocks, and the clams were scarce: I therefore saw, that it would be of little use to remain longer in this place, as we should not be able to collect more than we could eat; nor could any tolerable sea-store be expected, unless we fell in with a greater plenty. I named this Sunday Island: it lies N by W ¾ W from Restoration Island; the latitude, by a good observation, 11° 58' S.

                          Monday, June the 1st.  Fresh breezes and fair weather, ending with a fresh gale. Wind SE by S. At two o'clock in the afternoon, we dined; each person having a full pint and a half of stewed oysters and clams, thickened with small beans, which Mr. Nelson informed us were a species of Dolichos. Having eaten heartily, and taken the water we were in want of, I only waited to determine the time of high-water, which I found to be at three o'clock, and the rise of the tide about five feet. According to this it is high water on the full and change at 19 minutes past 9 in the morning; but here I observed the flood to come from the southward, though at Restoration Island, I thought it came from the northward.  I think Captain Cook mentions that he found great irregularity in the set of the flood on this coast. I now sailed for the key which I had seen in the NW by N, giving the name of Sunday Island to the place I left; we arrived just at dark, but found it so surrounded by a reef of rocks, that I could not land without danger of staving the boat; and on that account I came to a grapnel for the night.

                          Page 6

                            At dawn of day we got on shore, and tracked the boat into shelter; for the wind blowing fresh without, and the ground being rocky, I was afraid to trust her at a grapnel, lest she might be blown to sea: I was, therefore, obliged to let her ground in the course of the ebb. From appearances, I expected that if we remained till night we should meet with turtle, as we had already discovered recent tracks of them. Innumerable birds of the noddy kind made this island their resting-place; so that I had reason to flatter myself with hopes of getting supplies in greater abundance than it had hitherto been in my power. The situation was at least four leagues distant from the main.  We were on the north-westernmost of four small keys, which were surrounded by a reef of rocks connected by sand-banks, except between the two northernmost; and there likewise it was dry at low water; the whole forming a lagoon island, into which the tide flowed: at this entrance I kept the boat.

                            As usual, I sent parties away in search of supplies, but, to our great disappointment, we could only get a few clams and some dolichos: with these, and the oysters we had brought from Sunday Island, I made up a mess for dinner, with an addition of a small quantity of bread.

                            Towards noon, Mr. Nelson, and his party, who had been to the easternmost key, returned; but himself in such a weak condition, that he was obliged to be supported by two men. His complaint was a violent heat in his bowels, a loss of sight, much drought, and an inability to walk. This I found was occasioned by his being unable to support the heat of the sun, and that, when he was fatigued and faint, instead of retiring into the shade to rest, he had continued to do more than his strength was equal to. It was a great satisfaction to me to find, that he had no fever; and it was now that the little wine, which I had so carefully saved, became of real use. I gave it in very small quantities, with some small pieces of bread soaked in it; and, having pulled off his clothes, and laid him under some shady bushes, he began to recover. The boatswain and carpenter also were ill, and complained of head-ach, and sickness of the stomach; others, who had not had any evacuation by stool, became shockingly distressed with the tenesmus; so that there were but few without complaints. An idea now prevailed, that their illness was occasioned by eating the dolichos, and some were so much alarmed that they thought themselves poisoned. Myself, however, and some others, who had eaten of them, were yet very well; but the truth was, that all those who were complaining, except Mr. Nelson, had gorged themselves with a large quantity of raw beans, and Mr. Nelson informed me, that they were constantly teasing him, whenever a berry was found, to know if it was good to eat; so that it would not have been surprising if many of them had been really poisoned.

                            Our dinner was not so well relished as at Sunday Island, because we had mixed the dolichos with our stew. The oysters and soup, however, were eaten by everyone, except Mr. Nelson, whom I fed with a few small pieces of bread soaked in half a glass of wine, and he continued to mend. In my walk round the island, I found several cocoa-nut shells, the remains of an old wigwam, and the backs of two turtle, but no sign of any quadruped. One of my people found three seafowl's eggs.

                            As is common on such spots, the soil is little other than sand, yet it produced small toa-trees, and some others, that we were not acquainted with. There were fish in the lagoon, but we could not catch any. As our wants, therefore, were not likely to be supplied here, not even with water for our daily expense, I determined to sail in the morning, after trying our success in the night for turtle and birds. A quiet night's rest also, I conceived, would be of essential service to those who were unwell.

                            From the wigwam and turtle-shell being found, it is certain that the natives sometimes resort to this place, and have canoes: but I did not apprehend that we ran any risk by remaining here. I directed our fire, however, to be made in the thicket, that we might not be discovered in the night. At noon, I observed the latitude of this island to be 11° 47' S. The main land extended towards the NW, and was full of white sand hills: another small island lay within us, bearing W by N ¼ N, three leagues distant. My situation being very low, I could see nothing of the reef towards the sea.

                            Tuesday, June the 2d. The first part of this day we had some light showers of rain; the latter part was fair, wind from the SE, blowing fresh.

                            Rest was now so much wanted, that the afternoon was advantageously spent in sleep. There were, however, a few not disposed to it, and those I employed in dressing some clams to take with us for the next day's dinner; others we cut up in slices to dry, which I knew was the most valuable supply we could find here. But, contrary to our expectation, they were very scarce. Towards evening, I cautioned everyone against making too large a fire, or suffering it after dark to blaze up. Mr. Samuel and Mr. Peckover had the superintendence of this business, while I was strolling about the beach to observe if I thought it could be seen from the main. I was just satisfied that it could not, when on a sudden the island appeared all in a blaze, that might have been seen at a much more considerable distance. I ran to learn the cause, and found it was occasioned by the imprudence and obstinacy of one of the party, who, in my absence, had insisted on having a fire to himself; in making which the flames caught the neighboring grass and rapidly spread. This misconduct might have produced very serious consequences, by discovering our situation to the natives; for, if they had attacked us, we must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice, as we had neither arms nor strength to oppose an enemy. Thus the relief, which I expected from a little sleep, was totally lost, and I anxiously waited for the flowing of the tide, that we might proceed to sea.

                            I found it high-water at half past five this evening, whence I deduce the time, on the full and change of the moon, to be 58' past 10 in the morning: the rise is nearly five feet. I could not observe the set of the flood; but imagine it comes from the southward, and that I have been mistaken at Restoration Island, as I find the time of high water gradually later as we advance to the northward. At Restoration Island, high water, full and change.  After eight o'clock, Mr. Samuel and Mr. Peckover went out to watch for turtle, and three men went to the east key to endeavor to catch birds. All the others complaining of being sick, took their rest, except Mr. Hayward and Mr. Elphinston, who I directed to keep watch. About midnight the bird party returned, with only twelve noddies, a bird I have already described to be about the size of a pigeon: but if it had not been for the folly and obstinacy of one of the party, who separated from the other two, and disturbed the birds, they might have caught a great number. I was so much provoked at my plans being thus defeated, that I gave the offender'_ a good beating. I now went in search of the turtling party, who had taken great pains, but without success. This, however, did not surprise me, as it was not to be expected that turtle would come near us after the noise, which was made at the beginning of the evening in extinguishing the fire. I therefore desired them to come back, but they requested to stay a little longer, as they still hoped to find some before day-light: they, however, returned by three o'clock, without any reward for their labour.

                            The birds we half dressed, which, with a few clams, made the whole of the supply procured here. I tied up a few gilt buttons and some pieces of iron to a tree, for any of the natives that might come after us; and, happily finding my invalids much better for their night's rest, I got every one into the boat, and departed by dawn of day. Wind at SE; course to the N by W.

                            We had scarcely ran two leagues to the northward, when the sea suddenly became rough, which not having experienced since we were within the reefs, I concluded to be occasioned by an open channel to the ocean. Soon afterwards we met with a large shoal, on which were two sandy keys; between these and two others, four miles to the west, I passed on to the northward, the sea still continuing to be rough. Towards noon, I fell in with six other keys, most of which produced some small trees and brushwood. These formed a pleasing contrast with the main land we had passed, which was full of sand hills. The country continued hilly, and the northernmost land, the same which we saw from the lagoon island, appeared like downs, sloping towards the sea. To the southward of this is a flat-topped hill, which, on account of its shape, I called Pudding-pan hill, and a little to the northward two other hills, which we called the Paps; and here was a small tract of country without sand, the eastern par_ of which forms a cape, whence the coast inclines to the NW by N.

                            At noon I observed in the latitude of 11° 18' S, the cape bearing W, distant ten miles. Five small keys bore from NE to SE, the nearest of them about two miles distant, and a low sandy key between us and the cape bore W, distant four miles. My course from the Lagoon Island N ½ W, distant 30 miles.

                            I am sorry it was not in my power to obtain a sufficient knowledge of the depth of water; for in our situation nothing could beundertaken that might have occasioned delay. It may however be understood, that, to the best of my judgment, from appearances, a ship may pass wherever I have omitted to represent danger. I divided six birds, and issued one 25th of a pound of bread, with half a pint of water, to each person for dinner, and I gave half a glass of wine to Mr. Nelson, who was now so far recovered as to require no other indulgence.

                            The gunner, when he left the ship, brought his watch with him, by which we had regulated our time till to-day, when unfortunately it stopped; so that noon, sun-rise, and sun-set, are the only parts of the 24 hours of which I can speak with certainty, as to time.

                            Wednesday, June the 3d. Fresh gales SSE and SE, and fair weather. As we stood to the N by W this afternoon, we found more sea, which I attributed to our receiving less shelter from the reefs to the eastward: it is probable they do not extend so far to the N as this; at least, it may be concluded that there is not a continued barrier to prevent shipping having access to the shore. I observed that the stream set to the NW, which I considered to be the flood; in some places along the coast, we saw patches of wood. At five o'clock, steering to the NW, we passed a large and fair inlet, into which, I imagine, is a safe and commodious entrance; it lies in latitude 11° S: about three leagues to the northward of this is an island, at which we arrived about sun-set, and took shelter for the night under a sandy point, which was the only part we could land at: I was therefore under the necessity to put up with rather a wild situation, and slept in the boat.  Nevertheless I sent a party away to see what could be got, but they returned without any success. They saw a great number of turtle bones and shells, where the natives had been feasting, and their last visit seemed to be of late date. The island was covered with wood, but in other respects a lump of rocks. We lay at a grapnel until daylight, with a very fresh gale and cloudy weather. The main bore from SE by S to NNW ½ W, three leagues; and a mountainous island, with a flat top, N by W, four or five leagues: several others were between it and the main. The spot we were on, which I call Turtle Island, lies in latitude, by account, 10° 52' S, and 42 miles W from Restoration Island. Abreast of it the coast has the appearance of a sandy desert, but improves about three leagues farther to the northward, where it terminates in a point, near to which is a number of small islands. I sailed between these islands, where I found no bottom at twelve fathoms; the high mountainous island with a flat top, and four rocks to the SE of it, that I call the Brothers, being on my starboard hand. Soon after, an extensive opening appeared in the main land, with a number of high islands in it. I called this the Bay of Islands. We continued steering to the NW. Several islands and keys lay to the northward. The most northerly island was mountainous, having on it a very high round hill; and a smaller was remarkable for a single peaked hill.

                            The coast to the northward and westward of the Bay of Islands had a very different appearance from that to the southward. It was high and woody, with many islands close to it, and had a very broken appearance. Among these islands are fine bays, and convenient places for shipping. The northernmost I call Wednesday Island: to the NW of this we fell in with a large reef, which I believe joins a number of keys that were in sight from the NW to the ENE. We now stood to the SW half a league, when it was noon, and I had a good observation of the latitude in 10° 31' S. Wednesday Island bore E by S five miles; the westernmost land SW two or three leagues; the islands to the northward, from NW by W four or five leagues, to NE six leagues; and the reef from W to NE, distant one mile. I now assured every one that we should be clear of New Holland in the afternoon.

                            It is impossible for me to say how far this reef may extend. It may be a continuation, or a detached part of the range of shoals that surround the coast: but be that as it may, I consider the mountainous islands as separate from the shoals; and have no doubt that near them may be found good passages for ships. But I rather recommend to those who are to pass this strait from the eastward, to take their direction from the coast of New Guinea: yet, I likewise think that a ship coming from the southward, will find a fair strait in the latitude of 10° S. I much wished to have ascertained this point; but in our distressful situation, any increase of fatigue, or loss of time, might have been attended with the most fatal consequences. I therefore determined to pass on without delay.

                            As an addition to our dinner of bread and water, I served to each person six oysters.

                            Thursday, June the 4th. A fresh gale at SE, and fair weather. At two o'clock, as we were steering to the SW, towards the westernmost part of the land in sight, we fell in with some large sandbanks that run off from the coast. We were therefore obliged to steer to the northward again, and, having got round them, I directed my course to the W. At four o'clock, the westernmost of the islands to the northward bore N four leagues; Wednesday island E by N five leagues; and Shoal Cape SE by E two leagues. A small island was now seen bearing W, at which I arrived before dark, and found that it was only a rock, where boobies resort, for which reason I called it Booby Island.  A small key also lies close to the W part of the coast, which I have called Shoal Cape. Here terminated the rocks and shoals of the N part of New Holland, for, except Booby Island, we could see no land to the westward of S, after three o'clock this afternoon.

                            I find that Booby Island was seen by Captain Cook, and, by a remarkable coincidence of ideas, received from him the same name; but I cannot with certainty reconcile the situation of many parts of the coast that I have seen, to his survey. I ascribe this to the very different form in which land appears, when seen from the unequal heights of a ship and a boat. The chart I have given, is by no means meant to supersede that made by Captain Cook, who had better opportunities than I had, and was in every respect properly provided for surveying.  The intention of mine is chiefly to render the narrative more intelligible, and to shew in what manner the coast appeared to me from an open boat. I have little doubt that the opening, which I named the Bay of Islands, is Endeavour Straits; and that our track was to the northward of Prince of Wales's Isles. Perhaps, by those who shall hereafter navigate these seas, more advantage may be derived from the possession of both our charts, than from either singly.

                            At eight o'clock in the evening, we once more launched into the open ocean. Miserable as our situation was in every respect, I was secretly surprised to see that it did not appear to affect anyone so strongly as myself; on the contrary, it seemed as if they had embarked on a voyage to Timor, in a vessel sufficiently calculated for safety and convenience. So much confidence gave me great pleasure, and I may assert that to this cause their preservation is chiefly to be attributed; for if anyone of them had despaired, he would most probably have died before we reached New Holland.

                            I now gave everyone hopes that eight or ten days might bring us to a land of safety; and, after praying to God for a continuance of his most gracious protection, I served an allowance of water for supper, and kept my course to the WSW, to counteract the southerly winds, in case they should blow strong.

                            We had been just six days on the coast of New Holland, in the course of which we found oysters, a few clams, some birds, and water. But perhaps a benefit nearly equal to this we received from not having fatigue in the boat, and enjoying good rest at night. These advantages certainly preserved our lives; for, small as the supply was, I am very sensible how much it relieved our distresses. About this time nature would have sunk under the extremes of hunger and fatigue. Some would have ceased to struggle for a life that only promised wretchedness and misery; while others, though possessed of more bodily strength, must soon have followed their unfortunate companions. Even in our present situation, we were most wretched spectacles; yet our fortitude and spirit remained; everyone being encouraged by the hopes of a speedy termination to his misery. For my own part, wonderful as it may appear, I felt neither extreme hunger nor thirst. My allowance contented me, knowing I could have no more.

                            I served one 25th of a pound of bread, and an allowance of water, for breakfast, and the same for dinner, with an addition of six oysters to each person. At noon, latitude observed 10° 48' S; course since yesterday noon S 81 W; distance 111 miles; longitude, by account, from Shoal Cape 1° 45' W.

                            Friday, June the 5th. Fair weather with some showers, and a strong trade wind at ESE. This day we saw a number of water snakes, that were ringed yellow and black, and towards noon we passed a great deal of rockweed. Though the weather was fair, we were constantly shipping water, and two men always employed to bale the boat. At noon I observed in latitude 10° 45' S; our course since yesterday W_N, 108 miles; longitude made 3° 35' W. Served one 25th of a pound of bread, and a quarter of a pint of water for breakfast; the same for dinner, with an addit_on of six oysters; for supper water only.

                            Saturday, June the 6th. Fair weather, with some showers, and a fresh gale at SE and ESE. Constantly shipping water and baling. In the evening a few boobies came about us, one of which I caught with my hand. The blood was divided among three of the men who were weakest, but the bird I ordered to be kept for our dinner the next day. Served a quarter of a pint of water for supper, and to some, who were most in need, half a pint. In the course of the night we suffered much cold and shiverings. At daylight, I found that some of the clams, which had been hung up to dry for sea-store, were stolen; but everyone most solemnly denied having any knowledge of it. This forenoon we saw a gannet, a sand-lark, and some water snakes, which in general were from two to three feet long.

                            Served the usual allowance of bread and water for breakfast, and the same for dinner, with the bird, which I distributed in the usual way, of Who shall have this? I determined to make Timor about the latitude of 9° 30' S, or 10° S. At noon I observed the latitude to be 10° 19' S; course N 77° W; distance 117 miles; longitude made from the Shoal Cape, the north part of New Holland, 5° 31' W.

                            Sunday, June the 7th. Fresh gales and fair weather till eight in the evening. The remaining part of the 24 hours squally, with much wind at SSE and ESE, and a high sea, so that we were constantly wet and baling. In the afternoon, I took an opportunity of examining again into our store of bread, and found remaining 19 days allowance, at my former rate of serving one 25th of a pound three times a day: therefore, as I saw every prospect of a quick passage, I again ventured to grant an allowance for supper, agreeable to my promise at the time it was discontinued.

                            We passed the night miserably wet and cold, and in the morning I heard heavy complaints of our deplorable situation. The sea was high and breaking over us. I could only afford the allowance of bread and water for breakfast; but for dinner I gave out an ounce of dried clams to each person, which was all that remained.

                            Page 7

                              At noon I altered the course to the WNW, to keep more from the sea while it blew so strong. Latitude observed 9° 31' S; course N 57° W; distance 88 miles; longitude made 6° 46' W.

                              Monday, June the 8th. Fresh gales and squally weather, with some showers of rain. Wind E and ESE. This day the sea ran very high, and we were continually wet, suffering much cold in the night. I now remarked that Mr. Ledward, the surgeon, and Lawrence Lebogue, an old hardy seaman, were giving way very fast. I could only assist them by a teaspoonful or two of wine, which I had carefully saved, expecting such a melancholy necessity. Among most of the others I observed more than a common inclination to sleep, which seemed to indicate that nature was almost exhausted. Served the usual allowance of bread and water at supper, breakfast, and dinner. Saw several gannets.  At noon I observed in 8° 45' S; course WNW_W, 106 miles; longitude made 8° 23' W.

                              Tuesday, June the 9th. Wind SE. The weather being moderate, I steered W by S.  At four in the afternoon we caught a small dolphin, the first relief of the kind we obtained. I issued about two ounces to each person, including the offals, and saved the remainder for dinner the next day.  Towards evening the wind freshened, and it blew strong all night, so that we shipped much water, and suffered greatly from the wet and cold. At daylight, as usual, I heard much complaining, which my own feelings convinced me was too well founded. I gave the surgeon and Lebogue a little wine, but I could give no farther relief, than assurances that a very few days longer, at our present fine rate of sailing, would bring us to Timor.

                              Gannets, boobies, men of war and tropic birds, were constantly about us. Served the usual allowance of bread and water, and at noon dined on the remains of the dolphin, which amounted to about an ounce per man. I observed the latitude to be 9° 9' S; longitude made 1O° 8' W; course since yesterday noon S 76° W; distance 107 miles.

                              Wednesday, June the 10th. Wind ESE. Fresh gales and fair weather, but a continuance of much sea, which, by breaking almost constantly over the boat, made us miserably wet, and we had much cold to endure in the night. This afternoon I suffered great sickness from the oily nature of part of the stomach of the fish, which had fallen to my share at dinner. At sun-set I served an allowance of bread and water for supper.  In the morning, after a very bad night, I could see an alteration for the worse in more than half my people. The usual allowance was served for breakfast and dinner. At noon I found our situation to be in latitude 9° 16' S; longitude from the north part of New Holland 12° l' W; course since yesterday noon W ½ S, distance 111 miles.

                              Thursday, June the 11th. Fresh gales and fair weather. Wind SE and SSE. Birds and rockweed showed that we were not far from land; but I expected such signs must be here, as there are many islands between the east part of Timor and New Guinea. I however hoped to fall in with Timor every hour, for I had great apprehensions that some of my people could not hold out. An extreme weakness, swelled legs, hollow and ghastly countenances, great propensity to sleep, with an apparent debility of understanding, seemed to me melancholy presages of their approaching dissolution. The surgeon and Lebogue, in particular, were most miserable objects. I occasionally gave them a few teaspoonfuls of wine; out of the little I had saved for this dreadful stage, which no doubt greatly helped to support them.

                              For my own part, a great share of spirits, with the hopes of being able to accomplish the voyage, seemed to be my principal support; but the boatswain very innocently told me, that he really thought I looked worse than anyone in the boat. The simplicity with which he uttered such an opinion diverted me, and I had good humor enough to return him a better compliment.  Every one received his 25th of a pound of bread, and quarter of a pint of water, at evening, morning, and noon, and an extra allowance of water was given to those who desired it. At noon I observed in latitude 9° 41' S; course S 77° W; distance 109 miles; longitude made 13° 49' W. I had little doubt of having now passed the meridian of the eastern part of Timor, which is laid down in 128° E. This diffused universal joy and satisfaction.

                              Friday, June the 12th. Fresh breezes and fine weather, but very hazy. Wind from E to SE. All the afternoon we had several gannets, and many other birds, about us, that indicated we were near land, and at sun-set we kept a very anxious look-out. In the evening we caught a booby, which I reserved for our dinner the next day. At three in the morning, with an excess of joy, we discovered Timor bearing from WSW to WNW, and I hauled on a wind to the NNE till day-light, when the land bore from SW by S about two leagues to NE by N seven leagues. It is not possible for me to describe the pleasure, which the blessing of the sight of land diffused among us. It appeared scarce credible, that in an open boat, and so poorly provided, we should have been able to reach the coast of Timor in forty-one days after leaving Tofoa, having in that time run, by our log, a distance of 3618 miles, and that, notwithstanding our extreme distress, no one should have perished in the voyage.

                              I have already mentioned, that I knew not where the Dutch settlement was situated; but I had a faint idea that it was at the SW part of the island. I therefore, after daylight, bore away along shore to the SSW, and the more readily as the wind would not suffer us to go towards the NE without great loss of time.

                              The day gave us a most agreeable prospect of the land, which was interspersed with woods and lawns; the interior part mountainous, but the shore low. Towards noon the coast became higher, with some remarkable headlands. We were greatly delighted with the general look of the country, which exhibited many cultivated spots and beautiful situations; but we could only see a few small huts, whence I concluded no European resided in this part of the island. Much sea ran on the shore, so that landing with a boat was impracticable. At noon I was abreast of a very high head-land; the extremes of the land bore SW ½ W, and NNE ½ E; our distance off shore being three miles; latitude, by observation, 9° 59' S; and my longitude, by dead reckoning, from the north part of New Holland, 15° 6' W. With the usual allowance of bread and water for dinner, I divided the bird we had caught the night before, and to the surgeon and Lebogue I gave a little wine.

                              Saturday, June the 13th. Fresh gales at E, and ESE, with very hazy weather. During the afternoon, we continued our course along a low woody shore, with innumerable palm-trees, called the Fan Palm from the leaf spreading like a fan; but we had now lost all signs of cultivation, and the country had not so fine an appearance as it had to the eastward. This, however, was only a small tract, for by sunset it improved again, and I saw several great smokes where the inhabitants were clearing and cultivating their grounds. We had now ran 25 miles to the WSW since noon, and were W five miles from a low point, which in the afternoon I imagined had been the southernmost land, and here the coast formed a deep bend, with low land in the bight that appeared like islands. The west shore was high; but from this part of the coast to the high cape, which we were abreast of yesterday noon, the shore is low, and I believe shoal. I particularly remark this situation, because here the very high ridge of mountains that run from the east end of the island, terminate, and the appearance of the country suddenly changes for the worse, as if it was not the same island in any respect.

                              That we might not run past any settlement in the night, I determined to preserve my station till the morning, and therefore hove to under a close-reefed foresail, with which the boat lay very quiet. We were here in shoal water, our distance from the shore being half a league, the westernmost land in sight bearing WSW ½ W. Served bread and water for supper, and the boat lying too very well, all but the officer of the watch endeavored to get a little sleep. At two in the morning, we wore, and stood in shore till daylight, when I found we had drifted, during the night, about three leagues to the WSW, the southernmost land in sight bearing W. On examining the coast, and not seeing any sign of a settlement, we bore away to the westward, having a strong gale, against a weather current, which occasioned much sea. The shore was high and covered with wood, but we did not run far before low land again formed the coast, the points of which opening at west, I once more fancied we were on the south part of the island; but at ten o'clock we found the coast again inclining towards the south, part of it bearing WSW ½ W. At the same time high land appeared from SW to SW by W ½ W; but the weather was so hazy, that it was doubtful whether the two lands were separated, the opening only extending one point of the compass. I, for this reason, stood towards the outer land, and found it to be the island Roti.

                              I returned to the shore I had left, and in a sandy bay I brought to a grapnel, that I might more conveniently calculate my situation. In this place we saw several smokes, where the natives were clearing their grounds. During the little time we remained here, the master and carpenter very much importuned me to let them go in search of supplies; to which, at length, I assented; but, finding no one willing to be of their party, they did not choose to quit the boat. I stopped here no longer than for the purpose just mentioned, and we continued steering along shore. We had a view of a beautiful-looking country, as if formed by art into lawns and parks. The coast is low, and covered with woods, in which are innumerable fan palm-trees, that look like cocoanut walks. The interior part is high land, but very different from the more eastern parts of the island, where it is exceedingly mountainous, and to appearance the soil better. At noon, the island Roti bore SW by W seven leagues. I had no observation for the latitude, but, by account, we were in 10° 12' S, our course since yesterday noon being S 77 W, 54 miles. The usual allowance of bread and water was served for breakfast and dinner, and to the surgeon and Lebogue, I gave a little wine.

                              Sunday, June the 14th. A strong gale at ESE, with hazy weather, all the afternoon; after which the wind became moderate. At two o'clock this afternoon, having run through a very dangerous breaking sea, the cause of which I attributed to a strong tide setting to windward, and shoal water, we discovered a spacious bay or sound, with a fair entrance about two or three miles wide. I now conceived hopes that our voyage was nearly at an end, as no place could appear more eligible for shipping, or more likely to be chosen for an European settlement: I therefore came to a grapnel near the east side of the entrance, in a small sandy bay, where we saw a hut, a dog, and some cattle; and I immediately sent the boatswain and gunner away to the hut, to discover the inhabitants. The SW point of the entrance bore W ½ S three miles; the SE point S by W three quarters of a mile; and the island Roti from S by W ½ W to SW ¼ W, about five leagues.

                              While we lay here I found the ebb came from the northward, and before our departure the falling of the tide discovered to us a reef of rocks, about two cables length from the shore; the whole being covered at high-water, renders it dangerous. On the opposite shore also appeared very high breakers; but there is nevertheless plenty of room, and certainly a safe channel for a first-rate man of war. The bay or sound within seemed to be of a considerable extent; the northern part, which I had now in view, being about five leagues distant. Here the land made in moderate risings joined by lower grounds. But the island Roti, which lies to the southward, is the best mark to know this place.

                              I had just time to make these remarks, when I saw the boatswain and gunner returning with some of the natives: I therefore no longer doubted of our success, and that our most sanguine expectations would be fully gratified. They brought five Indians, and informed me that they had found two families, where the women treated them with European politeness. From these people I learned, that the governor resided at a place called Coupang, which was some distance to the NE. I made signs for one of them to go in the boat, and show me Coupang, intimating that I would pay him for his trouble; the man readily complied, and came into the boat.

                              These people were of a dark tawny color, and had long black hair; they chewed a great deal of beetle, and wore a square piece of cloth round their hips, in the folds of which was stuck a large knife. They had a handkerchief wrapped round their heads, and at their shoulders hung another tied by the four corners, which served as a bag for their beetle equipage.

                              They brought us a few pieces of dried turtle, and some ears of Indian corn. This last was most welcome to us; for the turtle was so hard, that it could not be eaten without being first soaked in hot water. Had I staid they would have brought us something more; but, as the pilot was willing, I was determined to push on. It was about half an hour past four when we sailed.

                              By direction of the pilot we kept close to the east shore under all our sail; but as night came on, the wind died away, and we were obliged to try at the oars, which I was surprised to see we could use with some effect. However, at ten o'clock, as I found we got but little ahead, I came to a grapnel, and for the first time I issued double allowance of bread and a little wine to each person.

                              At one o'clock in the morning, after the most happy and sweet sleep that ever men had, we weighed, and continued to keep the east shore on board, in very smooth water; when at last I found we were again open to the sea, the whole of the land to the westward, that we had passed, being an island, which the pilot called Pulo Samow. The northern entrance of this channel is about a mile and a half or two miles wide, and I had no ground at ten fathoms.

                              Hearing the report of two cannon that were fired, gave new life to everyone; and soon after we discovered two square-rigged vessels and a cutter at anchor to the eastward. I endeavored to work to windward, but we were obliged to take to our oars again, having lost ground on each tack. We kept close to the shore, and continued rowing till four o'clock, when I brought to a grapnel, and gave another allowance of bread and wine to all hands. As soon as we had rested a little, we weighed again, and rowed till near day-light, when I came to a grapnel, off a small fort and town, which the pilot told me was Coupang.

                              Among the things which the boatswain had thrown into the boat before we left the ship, was a bundle of signal flags that had been made for the boats to show the depth of water in sounding; with these I had, in the course of the passage, made a small jack, which I now hoisted in the main shrouds, as a signal of distress; for I did not choose to land without leave.

                              Soon after day-break a soldier hailed me to land, which I instantly did, among a crowd of Indians, and was agreeably surprised to meet with an English sailor, who belonged to one of the vessels in the road. His captain, he told me, was the second person in the town; I therefore desired to be conducted to him, as I was informed the governor was ill, and could not then be spoken with.

                              Captain Spikerman received me with great humanity. I informed him of our miserable situation; and requested that care might be taken of those who were with me, without delay. On which he gave directions for their immediate reception at his own house, and went himself to the governor, to know at what time I could be permitted to see him; which was fixed to be at eleven o'clock.  I now desired every one to come on shore, which was as much as some of them could do, being scarce able to walk: they, however, got at last to the house, and found tea with bread and butter provided for their breakfast.

                              The abilities of a painter, perhaps, could never have been displayed to more advantage than in the delineation of the two groups of figures, which at this time presented themselves.  An indifferent spectator would have been at a loss which most to admire; the eyes of famine sparkling at immediate relief, or the horror of their preservers at the sight of so many spectres, whose ghastly countenances, if the cause had been unknown, would rather have excited terror than pity. Our bodies were nothing but skin and bones, our limbs were full of sores, and we were clothed in rags; in this condition, with the tears of joy and gratitude flowing down our cheeks, the people of Timor beheld us with a mixture of horror, surprise, and pity.

                              The governor, Mr. William Adrian Van Este, notwithstanding his extreme ill health, became so anxious about us, that I saw him before the appointed time. He received me with great affection, and gave me the fullest proofs that he was possessed of every feeling of a humane and good man. Sorry as he was, he said, that such a calamity could ever have happened to us, yet he considered it as the greatest blessing of his life that we had fallen under his protection; and, though his infirmity was so great that he could not do the office of a friend himself, he would give such orders as I might be certain would procure me every supply I wanted. In the mean time a house was hired for me, and, till matters could be properly regulated, victuals for every one were ordered to be dressed at his own house. With respect to my people, he said I might have room for them either at the hospital or on board of Captain Spikerman's ship, which lay in the road; and he expressed much uneasiness that Coupang could not afford them better accommodations, the house assigned to me being the only one uninhabited, and the situation of the few families such, that they could not accommodate anyone. After this conversation an elegant repast was set before me, more according to the custom of the country, than with design to alleviate my hunger: so that in this instance he happily blended, with common politeness, the greatest favor I could receive.

                              On returning to my people, I found every kind relief had been given to them. The surgeon had dressed their sores, and the cleaning of their persons had not been less attended to, besides several friendly gifts of apparel.

                              I now desired to be shewn to the house that was intended for me, and I found it ready, with servants to attend, and a particular one, which the governor had directed to be always about my person. The house consisted of a hall, with a room at each end, and a loft overhead; and was surrounded by a piazza, with an outer apartment in one corner, and a communication from the back part of the house to the street. I therefore determined, instead of separating from my people, to lodge them all with me; and I divided the house as follows: One room I took to myself, the other I allotted to the master, surgeon, Mr. Nelson, and the gunner; the loft to the other officers; and the outer apartment to the men. The hall was common to the officers, and the men had the back piazza. Of this I informed the governor, and he sent down chairs, tables, and benches, with bedding and other necessaries for the use of everyone.

                              The governor, when I took my leave, had desired me to acquaint him with every thing of which I stood in need; but I was now informed it was only at particular times that he had a few moments of ease, or could attend to any thing; being in a dying state, with an incurable disease. On this account, whatever business I had to transact would be with Mr. Timotheus Wanjon, the second of this place, and the governor's son-in-law; who now also was contributing every thing in his power to make our situation comfortable. I had been therefore, misinformed by the seaman, who told me that Captain Spikerman was the next person to the governor.

                              At noon a very handsome dinner was brought to the house, which was sufficient to make persons, more accustomed to plenty, eat too much. Cautions, therefore, might be supposed to have had little effect; but I believe few people in such a situation would have observed more moderation. My greatest apprehension was, that they would eat too much fruit. Having seen everyone enjoy this meal of plenty, I dined with Mr. Wanjon but I found no extraordinary inclination to eat or drink. Rest and quiet, I considered, as more necessary to my doing well, and therefore retired to my room, which I found furnished with every convenience. But, instead of rest, my mind was disposed to reflect on our late sufferings, and on the failure of the expedition; but, above all, on the thanks due to Almighty God, who had given us power to support and bear such heavy calamities, and had enabled me at last to be the means of saving eighteen lives.

                              In times of difficulty there will generally arise circumstances that bear more particularly hard on a commander. In our late situation, it was not the least of my distresses, to be constantly assailed with the melancholy demands of my people for an increase of allowance, which it grieved me to refuse. The necessity of observing the most rigid economy in the distribution of our provisions was so evident, that I resisted their solicitations, and never deviated from the agreement we made at setting out. The consequence of this care was, that at our arrival we had still remaining sufficient for eleven days, at our scanty allowance: and if we had been so unfortunate as to have missed the Dutch settlement at Timor, we could have proceeded to Java, where I was certain every supply we wanted could be procured.

                              Another disagreeable circumstance, to which my situation exposed me, was the caprice of ignorant people. Had I been incapable of acting, they would have carried the boat on shore as soon as we made the island of Timor, without considering that landing among the natives, at a distance from the European settlement, might have been as dangerous as among any other Indians.

                              The quantity of provisions with which we left the ship, was not more than we should have consumed in five days, had there been no necessity for husbanding our stock. The mutineers must naturally have concluded that we could have no other place of refuge than the Friendly Islands; for it was not likely they should imagine, that, so poorly equipped as we were in every respect, there could have been a possibility of our attempting to return homewards: much less will they suspect that the account of their villany has already reached their native country.

                              When I reflect how providentially our lives were saved at Tofoa, by the Indians delaying their attack, and that, with scarce any thing to support life, we crossed a sea of more than 1200 leagues, without shelter from the inclemency of the weather; when I reflect that in an open boat, with so much stormy weather, we escaped foundering, that not any of us were taken off by disease, that we had the great good fortune to pass the unfriendly natives of other countries without accident, and at last happily to meet with the most friendly and best of people to relieve our distresses; I say, when I reflect on all these wonderful escapes, the remembrance of such great mercies enables me to bear, with resignation and cheerfulness, the failure of an expedition, the success of which I had so much at heart, and which was frustrated at a time when I was congratulating myself on the fairest prospect of being able to complete it in a manner that would fully have answered the intention of his Majesty, and the honorable promoters of so benevolent a plan. With respect to the preservation of our health, during a course of 16 days of heavy and almost continual rain, I would recommend to everyone in a similar situation the method we practiced, which is to dip their clothes in the salt-water, and wring them out, as often as they become filled with rain; it was the only resource we had, and I believe was of the greatest service to us, for it felt more like a change of dry clothes than could well be imagined. We had occasion to do this so often, that at length all our clothes were wrung to pieces: for, except the few days we passed on the coast of New Holland, we were continually wet either with rain or sea.

                              Thus, through the assistance of Divine Providence, we surmounted the difficulties and distresses of a most perilous voyage, and arrived safe in an hospitable port, where every necessary and comfort were administered to us with a most liberal hand. As, from the great humanity and attention of the governor, and the gentlemen, at Coupang, we received every kind of assistance, we were not long without evident signs of returning health: therefore, to secure my arrival at Batavia, before the October fleet sailed for Europe, on the first of July, I purchased a small schooner, 34 feet long, for which I gave 1000 rix-dollars, and fitted her for sea, under the name of His Majesty's schooner Resource.

                              On the 20th of July, I had the misfortune to lose Mr. David Nelson: he died of an inflammatory fever. The loss of this honest man I very much lamented: he had accomplished, with great care and diligence, the object for which he was sent, and was always ready to forward every plan I proposed, for the good of the service we were on.  He was equally useful in our voyage hither, in the course of which he gave me great satisfaction, by the patience and fortitude with which he conducted himself.

                              July 21st. This day I was employed attending the funeral of Mr. Nelson. The corpse was carried by twelve soldiers drest in black, preceded by the minister; next followed myself and second governor; then ten gentlemen of the town and the officers of the ships in the harbor; and after them my own officers and people.

                              After reading our burial-service, the body was interred behind the chapel, in the burying-ground appropriated to the Europeans of the town. I was sorry I could get no tombstone to place over his remains.

                              This was the second voyage Mr. Nelson had undertaken to the South Seas, having been sent out by Sir Joseph Banks, to collect plants; seeds, &c. in Captain Cook's last voyage. And now, after surmounting so many difficulties, and in the midst of thankfulness for his deliverance, he was called upon to pay the debt of nature, at a time least expected.

                              August the 20th. After taking an affectionate leave of the hospitable and friendly inhabitants, I embarked, and we sailed from Coupang, exchanging salutes with the fort and shipping as we ran out of the harbor.

                              I left the governor, Mr. Van Este, at the point of death. To this gentleman our most grateful thanks are due, for the humane and friendly treatment that we have received from him. His ill state of health only prevented him from showing us more particular marks of attention. Unhappily, it is to his memory only that I now pay this tribute. It was a fortunate circumstance for us, that Mr. Wanjon, the next in place to the governor, was equally humane and ready to relieve us. His attention was unremitting, and, when there was a doubt about supplying me with money, on government account, to enable me to purchase a vessel, he cheerfully took it upon himself; without which, it was evident, I should have been too late at Batavia to have sailed for Europe with the October fleet. I can only return such services by ever retaining a grateful remembrance of them.

                              Mr. Max, the town surgeon, likewise behaved to us with the most disinterested humanity: he attended everyone with the utmost care; for which I could not prevail on him to receive any payment, or to render me any account, or other answer, than that it was his duty.

                              Coupang is situated in 10° 12' S latitude, and 124° 41' E longitude.

                              On the 29th of August, I passed by the west end of the Island Flores, through a dangerous strait full of islands and rocks; and, having got into the latitude of 8° S, I steered to the west, passing the islands Sumbawa, Lombock, and Bali, towards Java, which I saw on the 6th of September. I continued my course to the west, through the Straits of Madura.

                              On the 10th of September, I anchored off Passourwang, in latitude 7° 36' S, and 1 ° 44' W of Cape Sandana, the NE end of Java.

                              On the 11th I sailed, and on the 13th arrived at Sourabya, latitude 7° 11' S, 1° 52' west.

                              On the 17th of September, sailed from Sourabya, and the same day anchored at Crissey, for about two hours, and from thence I proceeded to Samarang, Latitude of Crissey 7° 9' S, 1° 55' west.

                              On the 22nd of September, anchored at Samarang; latitude 6° 54' S, 4° 7' W. And on the 26th I sailed for Batavia, where I arrived on the 1st of October, Latitude 6° 10' S; 8° 12' W from the east end of Java.

                              On the day after my arrival, having gone through some fatigue in adjusting matters to get my people out of the schooner, as she lay in the river, and in an unhealthy situation, I was seized with a violent fever.

                              On the 7th, I was carried into the country, to the physician-general's house, where, the governor-general informed me, I should be accommodated with every attendance and convenience; and to this only can I attribute my recovery. It was, however, necessary for me to quit Batavia without delay; and the governor, on that account, gave me leave, with two others, to go in a packet that was to sail before the fleet; and assured me, that those who remained should be sent after me by the fleet, which was to sail before the end of the month: that if I remained, which would be highly hazardous, he could not send us all in one ship. My sailing, therefore, was eligible, even if it had not been necessary for my health; and for that reason I
                              embarked in the Vlydt packet, which sailed on the 16th of October.

                              On the 16th of December, I arrived at the Cape of Good Hope, where I first observed that my usual health was returning; but for a long time I continued very weak and infirm.

                              I received the greatest attention and politeness from the governor-general, and all the residents on the coast of Java; and particular marks of friendship and regard from the governor, M. Van de Graaf, at the Cape of Good Hope.

                              On the 2d of January 1790, we sailed for Europe, and on the 14th of March, I was landed at Portsmouth by an Isle of Wight boat.

                              -F I N I S-

                              Verdict and Sentence

                                Tuesday, 18th September, 1782

                                The Prisoners brought in and Audience admitted.

                                The President having asked the Prisoners if they, or any of them, had anything more to offer to the Court in their Defences, Mr. Haywood produced a Certificate of his Birth which is hereto annexed, and the others not having anything more to offer, the Court was cleared and agreed:

                                That the Charges had been proved against the said Peter Heywood, James Morrison, Thomas Ellison, Thomas Burkitt, John Mill–each of them to suffer Death by being hanged by the Neck, on board such of His Majesty’s Ship or Ships of War, at such Time or Times and at such Place or Places, as the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland etc. or any three of them, for the Time being, should in Writing, under their Hands direct; but the Court, in Consideration of various Circumstances, did humbly and most earnestly recommend the said Peter Heywood and James Morrison to His Majesty’s Royal Mercy–and the Court further agreed That the Charges had not been proved against the said Charles Norman, Joseph Coleman, Thomas McIntosh and Michael Byrn, and did adjudge them and each of them to be acquitted.

                                The Court was opened and Audience admitted and Sentence passed accordingly, after which William Muspratt delivered to the Court, a paper Writing, which was read by the Judge Advocate as follows:

                                To the Right Honble. Samuel Lord Hood, President, and the Members of the Court Martial Assembled on board His Majesty’s Ship the “Duke” for the Trial of William Muspratt and others for the Mutiny and Desertion.

                                My Lord and Gentlemen,

                                By the King’s Command I have been tried by the Honorable Court and stand convicted of Mutiny and Desertion.

                                I haven not the most distant Idea of arraigning the Justice of the Court, but I have to lament that the Practice and usage of a Court Martial, should be so different from the Practice of all Criminal Courts of Justice on Shore, as that, by the one I have deen debarred calling Witnesses whose Evidence I have Reason to believe, would have tended to have proved my Innocence, whereas by the other I should have been permitted to call those very Witnesses on my behalf.  This Difference, my Lord, is dreadful to the Subject and fatal to me.

                                BLIGH'S ORDERS: GATHER BREADFRUIT FOR LATER TRANSPLANTING

                                  From William Bligh's A Voyage to the South Sea Undertaken by Command of His Majesty for the Purpose of Conveying the Bread-Fruit Tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty's Ship the Bounty, Commanded by Lieutenant William Bligh (1792).

                                  The object of all the former voyages to the South Seas, undertaken by the command of his present majesty, has been the advancement of science, and the increase of knowledge. This voyage may be reckoned the first, the intention of which has been to derive benefit from those distant discoveries. For the more fully comprehending the nature and plan of the expedition, and that the reader may be possessed of every information necessary for entering on the following sheets, I shall here lay before him a copy of the instructions I received from the admiralty, and likewise a short description of the bread-fruit.

                                  By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral
                                  of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

                                  WHEREAS the king, upon a representation from the merchants and planters interested in his majesty's West India possessions that the introduction of the bread-fruit tree into the islands of those seas, to constitute an article of food, would be of very essential benefit to the inhabitants, hath, in order to promote the interests of so respectable a body of his subjects (especially in an instance which promises general advantage) thought fit that measures should be taken for the procuring some of those trees, and conveying them to the said West India islands: And whereas the vessel under your command hath, in consequence thereof, been stored and victualled for that service, and fitted with proper conveniences and necessaries for the preservation of as many of the said trees as, from her size, can be taken on board her; and you have been directed to receive on board her the two gardeners named in the margin [David Nelson, William Brown.], who, from their knowledge of trees and plants, have been hired for the purpose of selecting such as shall appear to be of a proper species and size:

                                  You are, therefore, in pursuance of his majesty's pleasure, signified to us by Lord Sydney, one of his principal secretaries of state, hereby required and directed to put to sea in the vessel you command, the first favourable opportunity of wind and weather, and proceed with her, as expeditiously as possible, round Cape Horn, to the Society Islands, situate in the Southern ocean, in the latitude of about eighteen degrees South, and longitude of about two hundred and ten degrees East from Greenwich, where, according to the accounts given by the late Capt. Cook, and persons who accompanied him during his voyages, the bread-fruit tree is to be found in the most luxuriant state.

                                  Having arrived at the above-mentioned islands, and taken on board as many trees and plants as may be thought necessary (the better to enable you to do which, you have already been furnished with such articles of merchandize and trinkets as it is supposed will be wanted to satisfy the natives) you are to proceed from thence through Endeavour Streights (which separate New Holland from New Guinea) to Prince's Island, in the Streights of Sunda, or, if it should happen to be more convenient, to pass on the eastern side of Java to some port on the north side of that island, where any breadfruit trees which may have been injured, or have died, may be replaced by mangos teens, duriens, jacks, nancas, lansas, and other fine fruit trees of that quarter, as well as the rice plant which grows upon dry land; all of which species (or such of them as shall be judged most eligible) you are to purchase on the best terms you can from the inhabitants of that island, with the ducats with which you have also been furnished for that purpose; taking care, however, if the rice plants above-mentioned cannot be procured at Java, to touch at Prince's Island for them, where they are regularly cultivated.

                                  From Prince's Island, or the Island of Java, you are to proceed round the Cape of Good Hope to the West Indies (calling on your way thither at any places which may be thought necessary) and deposit one half of such of the above-mentioned trees and plants as may be then alive at his majesty's botanical garden at St. Vincent, for the benefit of the Windward Islands, and then go on to Jamaica: and, having delivered the remainder to Mr. East, or such person or persons as may be authorized by the governor and council of that island to receive them; refreshed your people, and received on board such provisions and stores as may be necessary for the voyage, make the best of your way back to England; repairing to Spithead, and sending to our secretary an account of your arrival and proceedings.

                                  And whereas you will receive herewith a copy of the instructions which have been given to the above-mentioned gardeners for their guidance, as well in procuring the said trees and plants, and the management of them after they shall be put on board, as for bringing to England a small sample of each species, and such others as may be prepared by the superintendant of the botanical garden at St. Vincent's, and by the said Mr. East, or others, for his majesty's garden at Kew; you are hereby required and directed to afford, and to give directions to your officers and company to afford, the said gardeners every possible aid and assistance, not only in the collecting of the said trees and plants at the places before-mentioned, but for their preservation during their conveyance to the places of their destination.

                                  Given under our hands the 20th November 1787.

                                  HOWE,
                                  CHAS BRETT,
                                  RD HOPKINS,
                                  J. LEVESON GOWER.

                                  To Lieut. Wm Bligh, commanding
                                  his majesty's armed vessel the
                                  Bounty, at Spithead.

                                  By command of their Lordships,
                                  P. STEPHENS.

                                  In the foregoing orders it is to be observed, that I was particularly directed to proceed round Cape Horn; but, as the season was so far advanced, and we were so long detained by contrary winds, I made application to the Admiralty for discretional orders on that point; to which I received the following answer:

                                  By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral
                                  of Great Britain and Ireland, &c. &c.

                                  THE season of the year being now so far advanced as to render it probable, that your arrival, with the vessel you command, on the

                                  <div>sourthern coast of America, will be too late for your passing round Cape Horn without much difficulty and hazard; you are, in that case, at liberty (notwithstanding former orders) to proceed in her to Otaheite, round the Cape of Good Hope. </div>

                                  Given under our hands the 18th December 1787.
                                  HOWE,
                                  CHAS BRETT
                                  BAYHAM.

                                  To Lieut. Wm Bligh, commanding
                                  his majesty's armed vessel
                                  Bounty, Spithead.

                                  By command of their Lordships,
                                  P. STEPHENS.

                                  THE BREAD-FRUIT is so well known and described, that to attempt a new account of it would be unnecessary and useless. However, as it may contribute to the convenience of the reader, I have given the following extracts respecting it, with the plate annexed.

                                  Extract from the account of Dampier's Voyage round the world, performed in 1688.

                                  THE bread-fruit (as we call it) grows on a large tree, as big and high as our largest apple-trees: It hath a spreading head, full of branches and dark leaves. The fruit grows on the boughs like apples; it is as big as a penny-loaf when wheat is at five shillings the bushel; it is of a round shape, and hath a thick tough rind. When the fruit is ripe, it is yellow and soft, and the taste is sweet and pleasant. The natives of Guam use it for bread. They gather it, when full-grown, while it is green and hard; then they bake it in an oven, which scorcheth the rind and makes it black; but they scrape off the outside black crust, and there remains a tender thin crust; and the inside is soft, tender, and white like the crumb of a penny-loaf. There is neither seed nor stone in the inside, but all is of a pure substance, like bread. It must be eaten new; for, if it is kept above twenty-four hours, it grows harsh and choaky; but it is very pleasant before it is too stale. This fruit lasts in season eight months in the year, during which the natives eat no other sort of food of bread kind. I did never see of this fruit any where but here. The natives told us, that there is plenty of this fruit growing on the rest of the Ladrone islands: and I did never hear of it any where else.

                                  Extract from the account of Lord Anson's Voyage,
                                  published by Mr. Walter.

                                  THERE was, at Tinian, a kind of fruit, peculiar to these (Ladrone) is lands, called by the Indians rhymay, but by us the bread-fruit; for it was constantly eaten by us, during our stay upon the island,':- instead of bread; and so universally preferred, that no ship's bread was expended in that whole interval. It grew upon a tree which is somewhat lofty, and which towards the top divides into large and spreading branches. The leaves of this tree are of a remarkable deep green, are notched about the edges, and are generally from a foot to eighteen inches in length. The fruit itself is found indifferently on all parts of the branches; it is, in shape, rather elliptical than round; it is covered with a tough rind, and is usually seven or eight inches long; each of them grows singly, and not in clusters. This fruit is fittest to be used when it is full-grown, but still green; in which state, after it is properly prepared by being roasted in the embers, its taste has some distant resemblance to that of an artichoke's bottom, and its texture is not very different, for it is soft and spungy.

                                  Extracts from the account of the first Voyage of Captain Cook.
                                  Hawkesworth, Vol. II.

                                  IN THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.

                                  THE bread-fruit grows on a tree that is about the size of a middling oak; its leaves are frequently a foot and a half long, of an oblong shape, deeply sinuated like those of the fig-tree, which they resemble in consistence and colour, and in the exuding of a white milky juice upon being broken. The fruit is about the size and shape of a child's head, and the surface is reticulated not much unlike a truffle: it is covered with a thin skin, and has a core about as big as the handle of a small knife. The eatable part lies between the skin and the core; it is as white as snow, and somewhat of the consistence of new bread: it must be roasted before it is eaten, being first divided into three or four parts. Its taste is insipid, with a slight sweetness somewhat resembling that of the crumb of wheaten bread mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke.

                                  OF the many vegetables that have been mentioned already as serving them for food, the principal is the bread-fruit, to procure which costs them no trouble or labour but climbing a tree. The tree which produces it does not indeed shoot up spontaneously; but, if a man plants ten of them in his life-time, which he may do in about an hour, he will as completely fulfil his duty to his own and future generations as the native of our less temperate climate can do by ploughing in the cold winter, and reaping in the summer's heat, as often as these seasons return; even if, after he has procured bread for his present household, he should convert a surplus into money, and lay it up for his children.

                                  It is true, indeed, that the bread-fruit is not always in season; but cocoa-nuts, bananas, plantains, and a great variety of other fruits, supply the deficiency.

                                  Extract from the account of Captain Cook's last Voyage.

                                  IN THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.

                                  I (Captain Cook) have inquired very carefully into their manner of cultivating the bread-fruit tree at Otaheite; but was always answered, that they never planted it. This, indeed, must be evident to everyone who will examine the places where the young trees come up. It will be always observed, that they spring from the roots of the old ones, which run along near the surface of the ground. So that the bread fruit trees may be reckoned those that would naturally cover the plains, even supposing that the island was not inhabited; in the same manner that the white-barked trees, found at Van Diemen's Land, constitute the forests there. And from this we may observe, that the inhabitant of Otaheite, instead of being obliged to plant his bread, will rather be under the necessity of preventing its progress; which, I suppose, is sometimes done, to give room for trees of another sort, to afford him some variety in his food.

                                  <div>_IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS._</div>

                                  THE bread-fruit trees are planted, and flourish with great luxuriance, on rising grounds.-Where the hills rise almost perpendicularly in a great variety of peaked forms, their steep sides and the deep chasms between them are covered with trees, amongst which those of the bread-fruit were observed particularly to abound. Vol. III. p. 105 and 114, containing Captain King's Narrative.

                                  THE climate of the Sandwich Islands differs very little from that of the West India Islands, which lie in the same latitude. Upon the whole, perhaps, it may be rather more temperate.

                                  THE bread-fruit trees thrive in these islands, not in such abundance, but produce double the quantity of fruit they do on the rich plains of Otaheite. The trees are nearly of the same height, but the branches begin to strike out from the trunk much lower, and with greater luxuriance.

                                  The natives reckon eight kinds of the bread-fruit tree, each of which they distinguish by a different name. 1. Patteah. 2. Eroroo. 3. Awanna. 4. Mi-re. 5. Oree. 6. Powerro. 7. Appeere. 8. Rowdeeah. In the first, fourth, and eighth class, the leaf differs from the rest; the fourth is more sinuated; the eighth has a large broad leaf, not at all sinuated. The difference of the fruit is principally in the first and eighth class. In the first, the fruit is rather larger and more of an oblong form: in the eighth, it is round and not above half the size of the others. I enquired if plants could be produced from the seed, and was told they could not, but that they must be taken from the root. The plants are best collected after wet weather, at which time the earth balls round the roots, and they are not liable to suffer by being moved.