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The Battle of Little Bighorn


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Custer's Battle-Field

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Custer's Battle-Field

(June 25th 1876), Surveyed and drawn under the personel supervision of Lieut. Edward Maguire, Corps of Engineers U.S.A. by Sergeant Charles Becker Co. "D" Battalion of Engineers.

In 1873, the War Department issued instructions that an engineer was to map every reconnaissance. Thus, a topographic engineer was included within each of the three main columns converging on northern Wyoming and southern Montana. Lt. Maguire was included in Terry's column, but accompanied Col. Gibbon after Terry and Gibbon separated. The  map was drawn on June 27, while others buried the bodies of Custer's units. The map was then included in an appendix to Maquire's annual report and was later published in Mercator's World Magazine. The bodies of officers were marked by upright stakes or boards reflected in the above map.

Grave of Unknown, 1877, photo by Stanley J. Morrow.

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From photo taken one year after the Battle

Photo~George A. Custer and Elizabeth B. Custer

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On June 25, while unbeknowst to them the battle was ensuing, wives of many of the officers gathered in the Custer quarters. Mrs. Custer later wrote:

On Sunday afternoon, the 25th of June, our little group of saddened women, borne down with one common weight of anxiety, sought solace in gathering together in our house. We tried to find some slight surcease from trouble in the old hymns: some of them dated back to our childhood's days, when our mothers rocked us to sleep to their soothing strains. I remember the grief with which one fair young wife threw herself on the carpet and pillowed her head in the lap of a tender friend. Another sat dejected at the piano, and struck soft chords that melted into the notes of the voices. All were absorbed in the same thoughts, and their eyes were filled with far-away visions and longings. Indescribable yearning for the absent, and untold terror for their safety, engrossed each heart. The words of the hymn,


"E'en though a cross it be,
Nearer, my God, to Thee,"


came forth with almost a sob from every throat.

At that very hour the fears that our tortured minds had portrayed in imagination were realities, and the souls of those we thought upon were ascending to meet their Maker.


Photo~Officers & Wives

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Officers and wives at Ft. Lincoln, 1873. Custer standing, without hat, Mrs. Custer standing on bottom step on left. Photo by Orlando Scott Goff.

Orlando Scott Goff (1843-1916) in the 1860's maintained a photography studio in Yankton, Dakota Territory. In the early 1870's he was the post photographer at Fort Abraham Lincoln. Later he worked as a traveling photographer across Dakota, Montana, and Idaho Territories.


Mrs. Custer's premonition was not the only one.

Sitting Bull had a dream in which he observed soldiers falling upside-down fron the sky. He took it as a favorable omen. And on the same afternoon as the wives were singing Nearer, My God, To Thee, General George Crook and his officers, having retreated from the Rosebud, were enjoying an afternoon of hunting in the foothills of the Bighorns near present day Sheridan.

One of their scouts, Frank Grouard known to the Brulé as "One-Who-Catches" and to the Lakota as "Standing Bear, acted as guide. There, in the distance, he later wrote, Grouard saw the smoke from signal fires indicating that Custer's command was then engaged, outnumbered, and being badly pressed. The officers using their field glasses made no import from the smoke and laughed at the idea that a half-Indian could have such knowledge. But Grouard was not the only one who sensed something was amiss. Gen. Crook's mess cook, George H. Boswell, in 1924 related to Thomas Julian Bryant that on the afternoon of June 25, the sound of gunfire could be distinctly heard in the distance. See Annals of Wyoming, 3:3 at pp 184-185.

Rocky Bear and Frank Grouard, 1891

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Grouard at age 19 was captured by Sioux and spent the next 6 or 7 years in the camps of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.

He was adopted as a brother by Sitting Bull. Grouard was instrumental in the surrender of Crazy Horse and has been blamed by some as being instrumental in the subsequent death of Crazy Horse.

Some question exists as to Grouard's ancestry. Many writers claim that he was African-American, the son of the early Black American Fur Company mountainman John Brazeau. By 1833, Brazeau operated a trading post on the Yellowstone known as "Braseau's Houses" and married a Sioux. Grouard, himself, claimed to be partial Hawaiian, a claim which at the time was greated with considerable skepticism. Truth, however, can sometimes be stranger than fiction.

In 1846, Benjamin P. Grouard went on Mission to the Tuamotu Islands, today a part of French Oceana and remembered as the landing site for Thor Heyerdahl's Kon Tiki. After several years, the elder Grouard returned to California bringing with him a Polynesian wife and three children. Interestingly, 30 years later more missionaries arrived in the Tuamotu Islands and discovered that some of the natives still remembered Grouard and his teachings relating to the Prophet Joseph.

After a year in California, Grouard's wife returned to the South Pacific with two of the children, leaving Benjamin with the middle child Frank. Benjamin then turned the child over to fellow Mormon missionaries, Addison Pratt and Louisa Pratt, for care.

Grouard was excommunicated from the Church as a result of doctrinal differences. The Pratt's emigrated to Utah, taking with them the young Grouard. Grouard ran away. The elder Grouard ultimately remarried and started another family. He, however, despaired of ever seeing Frank again.

In 1893, Frank Grouard had become famous, and the elder Grouard read of the publication of a biography of the scout. Benjamin then travelled to Sheridan where Benjamin immediately recognized his son, notwithstanding a forty-year separation.]

Birth:   1850   

Indian Scout. Grouard was instrumental in the surrender of Lakoda Chief Crazy Horse in March 1877. Many blamed Grouard for the subsequent death of Crazy Horse. At about age 19, Grouard was captured by Crow Indians, taken prisoner, stripped of all possessions and left in the forrest. Sioux Indians found him and Chief Sitting Bull adopted him as a brother. Grouard married an indian woman and learned to speak the Sioux language fluently. For seven to eight years Grouard lived in the camps of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. Around age 26, he eventually escapes from his Indian captors. Grouard then becomes a Chief Indian Scout in the American Army under General George Crook, fighting Sioux Indians. By February 1876 many indians were leaving the reservations in search for food, believing it was in peace. Orders had been given by the American government to return but they did not take it seriously. General Crook began his winter march from Fort Fetterman, March 1, 1876 with many companies of troops. Colonel Reynolds was his second-in-command. General Crooks Chief Indian scout was Grouard. When Sioux Chief, Sitting Bull learns that Girouard will be the scout for General Crook, he sees this as a chance to kill Grouard in battle. By March 17th, Grouard located Crazy Horses villiage on powder river in Montana. Crazy Horse and his entire village were captured. General Crook in his May report stated that invaluable service was rendered by Frank Grouard and his assistants in this capture. In September 1877 Chief Crazy Horse left the reservation and General Crook had him arrested. When Crazy Horse saw he was being led to a guard house, he resisted and was stabbed to death by a guard. Grouard served as a U.S. marshal in Fort McKinney, Buffalo, Wyoming area and worked in the Johnson County War of 1892.  (bio by: Tom Denardo)

 Died: 1905

Buried: Ashland Cemetery
Saint Joseph
Buchanan County
Missouri, USA



Horse Soldier Letter

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Historical Timeline

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1868 - Fort Laramie Treaty signed. This accord created the Great Sioux Reservation in present-day western South Dakota, eastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana.

1874 - An influx of miners moves into the Black Hills after Custer leads a scientific expedition into the Black Hills and discovers gold.

1876 - All Indians not on reservations after January 31, 1876 are considered hostile.

1876 - March to May: Military operations are carried out to move Indians onto reservations.

1876, June 25-26 - Lt. Col. George A. Custer and 262 soldiers, scouts, and civilians attached to the 7th US Cavalry are defeated by Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho warriors . Custer and all his men die.

1876 - General Crook destroys a large Cheyenne village under Dull Knife.

1877, January - Miles fights Crazy Horse at Wolf Mountains.

1877, May - Crazy Horse reports to Fort Robinson, Neb., where he is killed after being arrested.

1879 - The Little Bighorn Battlefield is designated a national cemetery administered by the War Department.

1881 - A monument for the Cavalry is built on Last Stand Hill. The U.S. Army takes custody of the site and controls access and historical interpretation
for decades.

1925 - Mrs. Thomas Beaverheart, Cheyenne, writes the battlefield custodian and the U.S. Army requesting markers be placed on graves where known warriors fell. She doesn't receive a response.

1926 - The Army and Indians meet at the battlefield to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the battle. The Northern Cheyenne are unsuccessful in their effort to have an additional memorial erected.

1940 - Jurisdiction of the battlefield is transferred to the National Park Service.

1946 - The battlefield is designated a National Monument.

1988, June 25 - The American Indian Movement cements a metal plaque into the grassy base of the memorial that marks the mass grave of the 7th U.S. Cavalry.

1991, December 10 - President George Bush signs papers changing the name from Custer Battlefield National Monument to Little Bighorn National Monuments. He also orders construction of a memorial for the Indians under Public Law 102-201. The creation of the Indian Memorial itself is commissioned by an act of Congress in 1991.

1996 - After a national designed competition is announced, 554 entries are received and juried by aboriginal artists, art historians, historians, architects, scholars and spiritual advisors.

1997 - John and Alison Collins, landscape architects from Pennsylvania, are announced as winners of the design concept for the aboriginal memorial.

1997 - National Park Service Foundation announces campaign to raise funds for the Indian Memorial and establishes the theme, "Peace Through Unity."

2002 - The National Park Service mails out requests for proposal/contract tenders to create and install the aboriginal memorial and the Spirit Warriors sculpture. An NPS in-house jury reviews and awards contracts to a design team and a general contractor.

2002, June - Colleen Cutschall, an Oglala-Sicangu Lakota artist/professor, is awarded the contract for the Spirit Warriors sculpture project.

2003, April - The earthwork memorial is completed and Spirit Warriors sculpture installed.

Kuhlman on Custer's Last Message

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In a letter to journalist E.A. Brininstool in 1939, historian Charles Kuhlman outlined his interpretation of the intent of Custer's last message, an interpretation that appeared in his book Legend into History. He had also corresponded with Battlefield Supt. Edward S. Luce and noted Custer scholar Col. William A. Graham on this subject. What follows are excerpts from this important letter, a copy of which was provided by Associate Jim Donovan. Ed.

Custer meant, in that order, that he wanted the ammunition taken from the [pack] train and rushed ahead as fast as possible. I am sure myself that that is what he wanted done because otherwise the order made no sense.

Here is a short analysis of the situation as I see it. Custer had already sent [Sgt. Daniel] Kanipe to hurry along the packtrain%u2014and note that Kanipe's order said "If any packs come loose, cut them." That means that Custer was prepared to sacrifice property in the interest of speed. This suggests something in regard to the second order carried by Martin.

Note that if Benteen was hogtied to the packtrain he was out of the fight. In thinking about the speed of the packtrain[,] it covered the distance from the divide to Reno hill, less than 15 miles in a little less than 5 hours. They therefore travelled [sic] at the rate of about 3 miles an hour. It is absurd to imagine that Custer did not know in a general way what time the train could make. To order Benteen to escort the packtrain was sheer opera bouffe in view of the fact that when he went down stream after seeing Reno go into action Custer staked everything on the effectiveness of his demonstration at the lower end of the village. My point is that as far as the packs are concerned, Custer saw that they could not be defended while on the march if attacked by any considerable number of warriors. He must do something to prevent the Indians in large numbers from going to attack the train%u2014give them something to worry about elsewhere. But he wanted to make absolutely sure about the reserve ammunition, in case his guess did not work out with complete success.

Note that if Benteen [had] escorted the packtrain only about half of the regiment could get into the fight until hours after it began.

Benteen tacitly admits [at the Reno Court of Inquiry] that the order required him to bring the packtrain and in part gives the same reason for not going after it that Edgerly gives, namely that McDougall was there and would bring it. Edgerly says: "Custer could not possibly want us to go for the packs as Captain McDougall was there and would bring them up." Was the fact that McDougall "was there" the real reason for their not going after the packs? This kind of answer was made because it was the only one that would sound plausible to the court, but that the real reason was that when the order was received it did not make sense. They did not know what Custer wanted, but they saw that if Benteen escorted the packtrain nearly half the regiment would be there and the other half fighting. The order sounded as if things were extremely hot down the trail, and no one would imagine that the packs were wanted just then. If the packs were wanted as badly as the order seemed to say it must be for the ammunition. That was an easy deduction, though the order did not specifically say "bring ammunition packs."

And there they were. It did not make sense to tie Benteen to the packtrain though that is what the order seemed to command. And now it did not seem to make sense to think Custer wanted or needed the ammunition for his own immediate use or he would have thought of Reno also which he clearly had not in this order.

Benteen, then, tacitly admitted that the order was for him to bring up the packs, Edgerly saying the order could not possibly have meant that. Then notice the queer way in which Benteen tries to justify his failure to go for the packs. Martin told him, he says, that the Indians were "skedaddling" and that therefore there was less need of haste! By this time [1879] Benteen knew exactly what Custer had wanted, namely for
him to bring up the ammunition without bothering with the train, and that there had been a slip somewhere making the order obscure in its meaning. The scouting order he had received had shown him a good example of such obscurity in orders on that day.

Martin has told several different stories [as to how he received the order]. One is that Custer bawled out the order to Martin direct and that Martin turned to go when Cooke halted him and said he would give him a message. There is a chance that in the noise of the galloping column Cooke did not get it all if Custer did not repeat it to him in case he gave it direct to Martin. The most careful person sometimes makes a mistake especially in moments of excitement and haste.

Source: Brininstool Collection, Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

Indian Warriors

Modern research has shown that there were nowhere near the huge numbers of Indian warriors protecting their families and homes as has been popularized since the battle concluded.

Most modern scholars believe, for example, that there were about 90 some Northern Cheyenne warriors in the battles with Reno, Benteen, and Custer. Granted, numbers as high as 3000 have been given for the Northern Cheyennes but census records, testimony, and other records all indicate that this high a number was impossible for the 1876 period of time.

The most often cited study, particularly about the Cheyennes, is that by Harry Anderson published in the North Dakota Historical Quarterly in 1960 entitled Cheyennes at the Little Bighorn %u201A A Study in Statistics.

The Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger edited by Thomas R. Buecker and R. Eli Paul and published in 1994 by the Nebraska State Historical Society identifies by name the 899 men, women, and children who rode with Crazy Horse. There 217 men, 312 women, 186 boys, and 184 girls. This reference also provides a detailed discussion of census records, etc. both before and after the 1876 Little Big Horn battle.

The most often cited study of the Indian encampment is that of John Gray in his classic Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876 published in 1976 by the University of Oklahoma Press.

Two recent studies build on Gray's analysis and that of some earlier students such as Dr. Robert Marquis. Richard Fox's Archaeology, History, and Custer's Last Battle published in 1993 by the University of Oklahoma Press and Greg Michno's Lakota Noon: The Indian Narrative of Custer's Defeat published by Mountain Press Publishing Company in 1997 all define the village more realistically than the popular histories of the battle.

U.S. Participants of the 1876 Campaign

Department of Dakota
Dakota Column
Headquarters Staff:
Brig. General Alfred Howe Terry, USA (Brevet Maj. Gen USA)
AAAG Capt. Edward Worthington Smith, Co. G, 18th Infantry (Brvt. Lt.Col. USA)
AAQM 1st Lt. Henry James Nowlan, RQM, 7th Cavalry
ACS 2nd Lt. Richard Edward Thompson, Co. K, 6th Infantry
EO 1st Lt. Edward Maguire, Engineers
OO Capt. Otho Ernest Michaelis, Ordnance
CMO Capt. John Winfield Williams, Assistant Surgeon (Brvt. Major USA)
ADC Capt. Robert Hughes, CO. E, 3rd Infantry (Brvt. Major USA)
ADC 1st Lt. Eugene Beauharnais Gibbs, Co. C, 6th Infantry

6th United States Infantry Regiment
Major Orlando Hurley Moore, 6th Infantry, Commanding

Company C, 6th Infantry
Capt. James W. Powell (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Bernard A. Byrne (Bn. ACS, AAQM)
1st Sgt. Edward B. Hanson
John Scott (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Michael Morris
James Dooley
Frederick Seaver
Charles Randolph
Charles Muessigbrodt
William S. Doyle (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
George W. Crans
Michael Foley
Hans Storm
Emanuel L. Hoffman
James Armstrong (At Ft. Buford, for duty)
Robert D. Atcheson
James Bisbing
Joseph Broderick
William H. Brown
John H. Cassidy (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
William H. Cecil
Warner Colwell
Daniel Corcoran
William W. Feaha
Edward Felber (On steamer3⁄4Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
William A. Hall
Henry Hamilton
Leslie Haven (E.D. as hospital steward since 14 May 1876)
Joseph Jacobs
John Kenny
Jeremiah Kieley (Confined in the field 28 June 1876)
Louis Kamer (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Daniel Maloney
Thomas Mathews
Joseph McElevey
George Monach
Patrick Murphy
Albert Phelps (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
August Reis
William F. Sagle
Charles Schwab (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
John J. Shaw ( At Ft. Buford, for duty)
Charles Simon
Julius Simonson (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Frederick W. Smith
Henry J. Smith
Henry C. Soltneidel
George W. Stephens (Deserted 18 May 1876)
Richard Thornton
William H. Wiggins

Company D, 6th Infantry
Capt. Daniel H. Murdock (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Frederick W. Thibuat (Bn. Adjutant, escort on steamer „Josephine3⁄4)
1st Sgt. John J. Bowman
Alexander Wyley (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
William G. Gayle
Joseph Fox
Henry Fox (Drowned while ferrying mail 12 June 1876)
Samuel McLaughlin
James P. Foreaker
James W. Rodgers
Charles F. Lawson
William Copestick
Garrison Redd (Discharged in the field 24 May 1876)
Elmore Bradley
Jenson Campbell (At Ft. Buford, for duty)
Thomas Clark
Michael Connell
George Cook (Confined Newport, KY 27 Oct. 1875)
James Costigan (Confined in the field)
James Daly (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Daniel Deegan
Thomas Gibney (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
William Gibson (At Ft. Buford, sick)
Ole Halverson
Angelo Howard
George Howard
Henry Howard
Frank Hughes
Albert A. Hummell
Alexander Kinman (At Ft. Buford, discharged 17 May 1876)
John Maley
Martin McGowan
John W. Michley
William J. Mulhern (On steamer, Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
William M. Palmer (On steamer, Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Jacob Pippher
Martin Ramey
Webster Rednor
David Robinson
Wilmot P. Sanford
Thomas R. Smiley
Levi A. Stone
Samuel E. Teeters
Aaron T. Weierbach
James Winn

Company I, 6th Infantry
2nd Lt. George B. Walker (Commanding Company)
1st Sgt. Oscar W. Litchfield
George H. Love
Dennis Donavan
George Walker (Acting Sgt. Maj. of Bn. in the field)
Charles Roberts
Samuel L. Middaugh
Liemon P. Lyon (On leave 19 June 1876)
George McKee
Charles H. Adams
Louis Wahler
William S. Beaver
Patrick Boyle
Michael Buggle
Peter F. Clarison
John Craig
John H. Drusselmeir
John Dunlap (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Thomas Enright
Sylvester Fitzpatrick
John F. Frank
Henry Hammond (Deserted 20 June 1876)
Charles Johnson
Griffith Jones
Charles Kulp ( At Ft. Buford, for duty)
John Leonard
Amos W. Littlejohn (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
William Magee
Hugh McLaughlin
Anton Muller (Confined Stillwater, MN)
Thomas Murphy (At Ft. Buford, died 23 May 1876)
Peter O1⁄4Donnell
James E. Redd
Dennis Ring
Thomas Sanders
William A. Sartain (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
August Schomberg
Benjamin F. Shortis
Jacob Smith
John Smith
Charlie Stierle
John J. Sttuka (On steamer „Josephine3⁄4 for duty)
Joseph Thalon
John Walsh
John C. Warner (Returned from leave 24 June 1876)

Gatling Gun Battery, 20th Infantry Detachment
2nd Lt. William Hale Low, Jr. (Co. C)
2nd Lt. Frank Xavier Kinzie, (CO. F)
Hugh Hynds (Co. B)
Jacob W. Crawford (Co. B)
Patrick Collins (Co. B, sick at Ft. Lincoln)
Phillip W. Devereaux (Co. B, detached service with Co. B, 6th Inf.)
Rufus Henderson (Co. B)
Lafayette Davis (Co. C)
Thomas F. Boen (Co. C)
William A. Ellis (Co. C)
John McCormack (Co. C)
Edward McDonald (Co. C)
Edward Lowell (Co. D)
George Rivers (Co. D)
Peter G. Burdeff (Co. F)
Neal Devlin (Co. F)
James Gordon (Co. F)
Thomas Powers (Co. F)
William Robinson (Co. F)
William G. Smith (Co. F)
Thomas Tully (Co. G, D.S.W/Co. B, 6th Inf.)
James J. McGirr (Co. G, D.S.W/Co. B, 6th Inf.)
Thomas F. Oldsworth (Co. H)
James Gomely (Co. H)
Napoleon Miller (Co. H)
John Pangburn (Co. H)
James Shields (Co. H)
Peter E. Monaghan (Co. I, detached service with Co. B, 6th Inf.)
Edward Alezander (Co. I)
Charles Birns (Co. I, detached service with Co. B, 6th Inf.)
William Kelly (Co. I)
John Mains (Co. I, D.S.W/Co. B, 6th Inf.)

Company B, 6th Infantry
Capt. Stephen Baker (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. John Carland
1st Sgt. Thomas Farrell
Solomon Savage (Discharged in the field 26 May 1876)
Hugh Kernan
Charlie Griswold (At Ft. Lincoln, for duty)
William Brinkman
William R. Mooney
Peter Engelhardt
James Sharlett
Daniel DeLany
James Armstrong
Charles Birach
Albert E. Brown
William Buckley
James Cameron
James Clark
William Costigan
Patrick N. Crowley
John Dark
John Duffy
Spencer Edwards
John Falardo
William Finnegan (At Powder River Camp)
Patrick Fitzsimmons
Julius B. Fleming
Isaac Hedden (At Ft. Lincoln, for duty)
Robert F. Jones
Barney Kamphouse
John Kistler
William Langton
James Martin
Michael McCarthy
Patrick F. McCarthy
Michael G. Minchin
James Murray
Thomas Nolan
John O1⁄4Conners
Charles D. Palmer (At Powder River Camp)
James Reedy (At Ft. Lincoln for duty)
John Sarratt
William Scott
Conrad Sieffert
Edward T. Spring
Thomas Whalen (Confined Fargo, D.T., 23 June 1876)
George Withrow

Temporary duty at camp on Little Missouri 29 May 1876, from 20th Inf.:
Peter E. Monahan(sic) (Co. D, ? Co. I)
Thomas Tully (Co. G)
Philip N. Devereaux (Co. D, ? Co. B)
James McGirr (Co. G)
Charles Birns (Co. G, ? Co. I)
John Mavis(Mains) (Co. G)

Company C, 17th Infantry
Capt. Malcolm McArthur (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Frank D. Garretty
2nd Lt. James D. Nickerson
1st Sgt. James Johnston (At Ft. Wadsworth, sick)
Charles Smith
Daniel O1⁄4Grady (At Ft. Wadsworth, sick)
Eugene Snow
Joseph Marchand
Patrick Mulcahy
Anton Schindler (At Ft. Abercrombie, for duty 19 Oct 1874)
James Dignon
Carl Kohlepp
Sanford F. Brown
Charles Becker
Frank F. Bang
John Curtis
John H. Cummins
William H. Crosby (Confined in the field)
Leonard Deitz
Charles Fox
Richard Fowler
Joseph Greenwald
James Gruver
Thomas W. Graham
William Harris
Joseph Heuser
John Hunter
Boward Hussey (Deserted 17 May 1876)
Andrew Johnson (E.D. as hospital attendant since 1 May 1876)
Martin Kruger
James Kelly
Fred H. Little (At St. Paul, MN, for duty 5 Oct 1875)
Louis P. Milligan
James McElroy
William McLain
George McAlvey
William Miller (At Ft. Wadsworth, sick)
Charles Odeu
John H. Perkins
Eli Prescott
John J. Phillips
Thomas Plunkett
Thomas W. Rance
Casper Strohm
Alex F. Smith
John Speirs
Robert Sproul
Frank Shepler
John E. Spalding
Charles H. Stewart
Hugh C. Thompson
Frank H. Thomas
John L. Waldo

Company G, 17th Infantry
Capt. Louis H. Sanger (Commanding Company, Brvt. Major USA)
1st Lt. Josiah Chance (Depot Quartermaster)
2nd Lt. Henry Perrine Walker
1st Sgt. William Bolton
George F. W. Miller
William Mayer
Frank E. Osgood
James Hewitt
John Stanley
David Street
John McCarthy
Thomas Parnell
Michael Crowley
James Brierly
Charles F. Almon
Darian W. Batterall
Charles Beckman
Frederick G. Bond
Herman Binkhoff
William Butler
John Casey
Charles Carlton (At Ft. Lincoln, for duty)
Samuel Cling
Albert Davis
Owen P. Duffy
Daniel Dixon (At Washington, DC, Insane Asylum 14 Sept. 1874)
George Ferrers
Martin Gannon
William Hammond (At Ft. Lincoln, sick)
Henry Keeler
George Kellerman
Charles A. Kelly (At Ft. Lincoln, sick)
Max W. Kistner (At Ft. Lincoln, for duty)
John Lyons
John D. Massingale
Eben A. Maxfield (At Ft. Lincoln, for duty)
Francis Marriaggi
Charles Muller
John McCarthy
Edward B. McCarthy
Charles Miller (1st)
Charles Miller (2nd)
William Myers
Fulton A. Nichols
Louis R. Nieschang
Terrence O1⁄4Brien
John Petit
William Ritchart
Thomas Rogers
Walter Seamon
Francis A. Steele
Philip Trotvine
Maurice Ward
John Whitford

7th United States Cavalry Regiment (see separate listing)


Steamer Far West Crew (On Missouri, Yellowstone, and Big Horn Rivers):

Grant Marsh (Captain)
David Campbell (Pilot)
Ben Thompson (First Mate)
George Foulk (Chief Engineer)
John Hardy (Second Engineer)
Walter Burleigh (Clerk)

Escort On Board Far West:
Company B, 6th Infantry (Capt. Stephen Baker, Commanding


Montana Column
Headquarters Staff:
Col. John Gibbon, 7th Infantry (Brvt. Maj. Gen. USA)
1st Lt. Levi Frank Burnett, Adjutant, 7th Infantry (Brvt. Capt. USA)
1st Lt. Joshua West Jacobs, RQM, 7th Infantry
1st Lt. Holmes Offley Paulding, Assistant Surgeon

George Herendeen

Capt. William Logan (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Charles Austin Coolidge
1st Sgt. John Rafferty
Patrick Rogan (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Samuel Plant
Richard B. Dickinson
George C. Meysel (At old Ft. Pease, sick)
Paul Daniels
James Randall (Special duty with Gatling Gun Detachment)
Adolph Heinzman
Christian Sipfler (At old Ft. Pease)
John McLennon
Henry McNary (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Joseph Klewitz (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Charles Alberts (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Lorenzo D. Brown
August Brethauer (At Ft. Shaw, discharged 5 May 1876)
John Cannon (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
George W. Cullom
James Doyle (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
James Drew
James E. Goodwin (special duty with Mounted Detachment)
Thomas Harrington
Levi Heider
George Leher
James C. Lehmer
Lemuel Loomis (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Michael J. McCabe (At Ft. Shaw, sick)
William MacBeth (At Ft. Leavenworth, Dishonorable Discharge 15 May 1876)
John C. Martin
William Moore (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Carl Pilts (With Col. Gibbon1⁄4s Head Quarters, pioneer party)
John G. Pfenniger (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Morris C. Roche (Special Duty, Gatling Gun Detachment)
Joseph Smith
John B. Smith
Patrick Sullivan
Edward Stumpf
William H. Thompson (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
James Walsh (Special duty with Mounted Detachment)
William Walter
James Collins

Temporarily attached for duty at Fort Shaw 9 Mar 1876:
William H. Aubrey (Co. G)
John J. Conner (Co. G)
Isaac H. Spayd (Co. G)
Frank McCollum (Co. F, at old Ft. Pease)

Capt. Thaddeus S. Kirtland (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. James H. Bradley (Commanding Mounted Detachment)
2nd Lt. Charles A. Booth
1st Sgt. John Cashman
Leroy H. Dayton (At old Ft. Pease, discharged 31 May 1876)
Michil Lauls (At Ft. Ellis, discharged 16 June 1876)
William Wolchert
Henry E. Schreiner (acting Commissary Sgt. Attached to Co. K, 7th Infantry)
Henry Smith
George Jabowing
William A. Short (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Thomas Baiggo
Phillip Reid
John Baaer
John O. Bennett (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Herbert Clark
Patrick Coakly
Alfred DeGroot
Augustus W. Ford
Frank Geiger
Frederick Groshan
Frank E. Hastings
William Hinkler
William Ickler
Albert Kifer (Special duty with Mounted Detachment)
James Knox
John Madden (Special duty with Mounted Detachment)
George F. Meakings (At Chicago, IL for duty as clerk)
John Miller
Edward Mulcahy
Edgar W. Parker
Edward Poetling
Martin Reap
Gelbert Roseboon (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Joseph C. Sinsil (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Louis Striber
Sylvester Waltz
James A. Watson (At Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
August Weber
Benjamin F. Williams (At Ft. Shaw for duty)
Temporarily attached for duty at Ft. Shaw, March 9, 1876:
Frank McHugh (Co. G)
James Norton (Co. G)
Edward Welsh (Co. G)

Capt. Walter Clifford (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. George S. Young
1st Sgt. Peter T.R. Van Ardene
Samuel Bellow (At Camp Baker, for duty)
James Bell
Daniel Dommitt
George W. Jaques (At Camp Baker, for duty)
Collomb Spalding
William Wright
John C. Clark
William D. Bendell (Promoted Cpl. May 7, 1876)
George C. Beary
John Rafferty
William Atkinson (In confinement at Camp Baker June 18, 1876)
Charles A. Barker
James Bell
John Burns
Matthew Butterly
John Duane
Matthias Efferts
William Evans
William Funk (Reduced from Cpl. May 3, 1876)
Charles Grady (In confinement with civil authorities, Dec. 8, 1875)
William Gray (In confinement with civil authorities, March 14, 1876)
Henry Heiner (At Camp Baker, discharged May 5, 1876)
William Hensley
August Hickman (At Ft. Columbus, NY waiting transport)
Francis Honicker
Lewis G. Hubbard
John Miller
Vincent McKenna
James McKibben
Thomas Mullen (At Camp Baker, for duty)
William Noonan
Thomas O1⁄4Malley
Frederick A. Rapp (At Camp Baker, for duty)
August Raw
Walter S. Robertson
William H. Sanders
Thomas Scott
Benjamin F. Stewart
James M. Thomas (At Camp Baker, discharged 29 March 1876)
Samuel Wallace
George W. Wood
Temporarily attached for duty at Camp Baker March 14, 1876:
Lewis G. Einbaum (Co. D, at old Ft. Pease)
Riley R. Lane (Co. D)
John Howard (Co. D)
Robert F. Williams (Co. D, extra duty as hospital attendant)

Capt. Henry B. Freeman (Commanding Company & Battalion)
2nd Lt. Frederick M.H. Kendrick
1st Sgt. George G. Howard
John M. Glengell (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Charles A. Hill
George Stein
Edward M. Ferguson
William Moran
Eugene Navarra
Patrick Rudden
James Costello
Francis Rein
Robert L. Cosgrove (At Ft. Shaw for duty)
Joseph Barkman
Joseph Biddle
William Bolts
John H. Buskirk
Robert Copely
Thomas Curran
Patrick J. Finigan
Augustus Freiberg
Eugene Grant
Henry S. Groff (Special duty with Mounted Detachment)
Elijah Hall
Albert H. Jones
Peter Lorentzen
Thomas Martin
George Matthews
Martin Millet
Michael Partridge
James Reader
George Rivers
Henry Rice (Special duty with Mounted Detachment)
Albert Ross
Henry Scott
Archy T. Segmen
George Von Thianich (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Charles Walters
William West
George F. Woodard
William H. Woodhouse
Frank Wolfe
Peter Young (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Temporarily attached for duty at Ft. Shaw, March 9, 1876:
William D. Mathews (Co. G)
Frank B. Morton (Co. G, at old Ft. Pease)

1st Lt. William J. English (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Alred B. Johnson
1st Sgt. Thomas H. Wilson
Michael Rigney (On Steamer „Far West3⁄4 sick)
Patrick Bosquill
Michael Hogan
Charles Bishop
George A. Wolfe
John L. Reynolds
Richard M. Cunliffe
Robert Gilbert (At Ft. Shaw for duty)
Charles P. Arden (At Ft. Shaw for duty)
John Bane
James Bell
William Carson (At Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Thomas Collins
Lewis Chaplin
Gustav Eishorn (At Ft. Shaw, discharged May 5, 1876)
Patrick Fallon
Thomas Frost
Moses W. Gebhard (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Henry Gray
Maurice Keating (Confined at Ft. Shaw)
Charles J. Keegan
William Lauett
Edward Linehau
Charles Meinhart (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Peter Moan
Nicholas Murphy
Richard Orrington
Thomas Ralph
William Roller (Special service with Mounted Detachment)
Patrick Scanlon
Henry Scott (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Walter Seldon
Calvin Smith
Joseph B. Stivers (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Peter Tenni
William Thompson
James Wilhight
Thomas Wilkinson
Temporarily attached for duty at Ft. Shaw 9 Mar 1876:
William Baker (Co. G, at old Ft. Pease)
Holmes L. Coon (Co. G)
Charles Heinze (Co. G)
Martin Sullivan (Co. G, special service with Mounted Detachment)

US. Participants ~2nd page~

Capt. James M. J. Sanno (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Charles A. Woodruff (Battalion Adjutant & Cmdg. Gatling Gun Detachment)
1st Sgt. Walter E. Garlock
Thomas F. Stanford
Louis Hines (At Ft. Pease, sick)
William J. Wilson
James E. Moran (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Thomas Cox (At old Ft. Pease, discharged 5 May 1876)
James D. Abbott (Special service with Mounted Detachment)
Fredrick Stortz (Special duty with Gatling Gun Detachment)
Herman Wendling
John Kleis
Charles W. Fannin (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
James Allen (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
August W. Bender (Special duty with Gatling Gun Detachment)
Thomas J. Bishop (At Ft. Shaw, discharged 12 June 1876)
Howard Clark
Orison C. Cochran
Peter H. Conniff
Peter W. Frost (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Joseph Gallagher
Jacob Goldberg (Confined in the field 17 Apr. 1876)
David Heaton (Extra duty with Mounted Detachment)
Lummen W. Hoffman (S.D. with Gatling Gun Detachment)
Philo O. Hurlburt (At old Ft. Pease, sick)
Charles Keating
Robert Marlow
William MacIntosh (Special duty with Mounted Detachment)
James McFarland
Frederick Meyer (At old Ft. Pease)
Frank Murphy (Special duty with Gatling Gun Deatchment)
Edwin L Perkins (At Ft. Shaw, dishonorably discharged 20 Apr. 1876)
Noah G. Pomeroy
George Rogers (At old Ft. Pease)
Joseph Sanford
William Simon
Richard Smith (At Ft. Shaw, for duty)
Michael Stritten
Temporarily attached for duty at Ft. Shaw 9 Mar 1876:
Joseph L. Farrell (Co. G, special duty with Mounted Detachment)
Michael Fogerty (Co. G)
Robert M. Isgrgg (Co. G, special duty with Mounted Detachment)
John Meier (Co. G)
Specially attached by verbal order of Capt. Freeman:
Henry E. Schwinn (Co. B, 7th Inf., Acting Commissary Sgt.)
Charles Becker (Co. D, Bn. of Engs.)
1st cl. Pvt. Joseph Weis (Co. D, Bn. of Engs.)

1st Lt. James Howard Bradley, Co. B, 7th Infantry
James D. Abbott (Co. K, special duty)
James Walsh (Co. A, special duty)
James E. Goodwin (Co. A, special duty)
Albert Kefer (Co. B, special duty)
John Madden (Co. B, special duty)
William Noonan (Co. E, special duty in August & October Only)
Henry S. Graff (Co. H, special duty)
Henry Rice (Co. H, special duty)
William Roller (Co. I, special duty)
Martin Sullivan (Co. I, special duty)
David Heaton (Co. K, special duty)
William McIntosh (Co. K, special duty)

Interpreters, Scouts, and Guides (* Indicates Detached Duty 22 June 1876 with Custer Column)
USQMD Interpreters/Scouts/Guides:
*Mitch Bouyer (Interpreter)
*George B. Herendeen (Scout)

Crow Scouts:
*Corporal Half Yellow Face
*Goes Ahead
*Hairy Moccasin
*White Man Runs Him
*White Swan
*C urly

2nd United States Cavalry Regiment
Major James Sanks Brisbin (Brvt. Col. USA)

2nd Lt. Charles F. Roe (Commanding Company)
1st Sgt. Alexander Anderson
John R. Nelson
Thomas Wallace
William Leipler
Richard Davis
John H. Serven
Edward G. Granville
Ausburn B. Conklin (Escorting mail from Ft. Ellis)
E. Dwight Chapman
William C. Osmer
Joseph Baker
William J. Cleeland
Thomas Jones
Frederick Allen
George H. Barnes (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Claus Brummer (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
William Burke
Benjamin Betts
James Bovard (Extra duty as hospital attendant)
Andrew Brouse (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
Thomas Carroll
Marion Childers (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
John Craden (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Robert H. Cowen
Michael Cowley
John E. Duggan
James Farrell
Thomas Graham
Frank Glackewsky
Edward Harrington
Charles E. Hall
John W. Jones
Christie Kaiser
Charles A. Lauthammer
Charles Leslie (Escorting mail to Ft. Ellis)
John McLaughlin
George W. M. Merryman (At Ft. Sanders, for duty as Drum-Major)
David Melvill
John G. Moore
John J. O1⁄4Flynn
John O1⁄4Sullivan
Adolf Puryear
William S. Parker
Daniel C. Starr
George Schick (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
George H. Sibbeske
George Shuless
Oliver Shaw (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
William F. Somers
Charles Sweeny (Confined Ft. Ellis)
Edward Seibert
Thomas Turnholt
Henry Watson
Joseph Waller
George S. Wall
William H. White
Alonzo Wilfert (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Johan Youk (Escorting mail to Ft. Ellis)

Capt. James N. Wheelan (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Gustavus C. Doane
2nd Lt. Edward J. McClernand (Acting Eng. Off. Col. Gibbon1⁄4s Staff)
1st Sgt. George E. Barnaby
Asher Davey (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
George W. Prentice
Andrew Peffer
George Perry
John Ruth
Frederick E. Server
Christian Allspach
Patrick Cigan
Kermit G. Nail
Christian Leitz
Wheeler H. Polk
Thomas Hinton
Richard Coam (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Robert Somers
Fowler R. Applegate
John F. Atkinson
Patrick F. Brady (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Charles Baker (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Morris Babitsch (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Herbert Bixby
John J. Clarkins (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Thomas K. Collins
James A.Chamberlain
Francis Conner (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
John Dale
Wiley D. Dean
John Dugan
Herbert O. Evans (At old Ft. Pease)
William H. Fletcher (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Jacob Forren (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
John Fitzgerald
Benjamin F. Harper (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Edward J. Hamilton (At old Ft. Pease)
Morris H. Huth
John Irving
John Keegan (At old Ft. Pease)
John Kinsler (At Ft. Sanders, for duty)
Jackson Kennedy (At old Ft. Pease)
Joseph Kroll
Michael Kearney
Frederick R. King ( At Ft. Sanders, for duty)
Walter Lookstedt
Francis Long
Charles Mallis
Michael McCaffery
Henry W. Merrick (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Alfred Norman (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
William G. Osborn
William H. Power (At old Ft. Pease)
James Rotchford
George C. Smith (At old Ft. Pease)
Watson P. Stone
John Tavlane (At old Ft. Pease)
Gotleib Voltz ( At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Charles Webber ( At old Ft. Pease)
Thoma White
Henry Young (At old Ft. Pease)

Capt. Edward Ball (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. James G. McAdams
1st Sgt. John R. Elkins
Asa T. Merrill (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
Clifford Pearson
John McCabe (At old Ft. Pease)
Frank Whitney
Thomas Kelly
Francis Stewart
Charles Grillon
Andrew Kennedy
Thomas Carney (At old Ft. Pease, sick)
Charles Murrey
Edward Wells
James Beverly
James Adams
William Benson
John Brown
Mathew F. Canning (Extra duty as hospital attendant)
John Carroll
James Carroll
Patrick Claffy (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
John Clark
Henry C. Coales (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
Joseph H. Davis
James R. Dipp
Martin Dooley (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Patrick Donegan (At Ft. Ellis for duty)
Thomas Duffy
Joel S. Flanigan
Thomas B. Gilmore
Henry E. Gray (At old Ft. Pease, sick)
Thomas S. Hoover
Joseph Igglesden (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Nickolas James (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with Subs. Dept.)
George F. Kane
Mathew Kearney (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
John Kern
Henry Kozigk (At Ft. Sanders, for duty)
George T. Lawlor
Frederick Miller (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
William Miller
Thomas McDonald
Victor McKelery
George S. Meyers
Daniel Mount (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
Francis Phillips
Frank Ruland
Henry Rahmeir (Killed by Indians, 23 May 1876)
John Reardon
Henry Schargenstein
Augustus Stocker (Killed by Indians, 23 May 1876)
Frank Waters
Richard Warren
William Wherstedt
William Wilson
David H. Winters
Edward Williams

Capt. Lewis Thompson (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Samuel T. Hamilton
2nd Lt. Charles B. Schofield (Battalion Adjutant)
1st Sgt. Henry Wilkins
Emil Plum
Charles E. Weston
Edward Page
John F. McBlain
John F. Prutting
Charles Egert
William Thompson
Martin Shannon
Robert A. McLeod (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Harry B. Melville
James H. White
Samuel A. Glass
Ansil Riden
John Cox
Konrad Bubenheim
John C. Chase
Wilfred Clark (Confined at Ft. Ellis 4 May 1876)
George Cook
John W. Davis
Charles R. Davis
Pierre Domminger (At Ft. Sanders, for duty)
John Engleson (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
John Flanigan
Samuel Foulks (At Ft. Ellis, sick)
Daniel Gallagher
Samuel Hendrickson
Michael Hog (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
William H. Jones
Williams Jenkins
Michael Kelly
Philip Low (At old Ft. Pease)
Maurice Murphy (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
David Murphy
Jean J. Malcolm
Frank P. Miller (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Jacob Mauren
John O1⁄4Conner
James Ryan
Abram W. Riley (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Maxim Robideau
John Rockil (Confined at Ft. Ellis)
James Sanderson
Charles Stevens (At old Ft. Pease, extra duty with QMD)
Robert Sturm (At old Ft. Pease)
John Thompson
George T. Waddington (At Ft. Ellis, for duty)
Joseph Whalen
John Winkle
Arthur Ward
Wade H. Young

Department of the Platte
Wyoming Column (Present at the Battle of the Rosebud, June 17, 1876 and awaiting reinforcements at Camp Cloud Peak)

Note: * Indicates Killed In Action at Rosebud Creek
** Indicates Wounded in Action at Rosebud Creek


Brig George Crook (Brvt. Major General USA)
AAAG 1st Lt. John Gregory Bourke, Co. L, 3rd Cavalry
ACS 1st Lt. John Wilson Bubb, Co. I, 4th Infantry
CMO Capt. Albert Hartsuff, Ass1⁄4t Surgeon (Brvt. Lt. Colonel USA)
ADC 2nd Lt. Walter Scribner, Co. B, 5th Cavalry

Capt. George Morton Randall, Co. I, 23rd Infantry (Brvt. Major USA) Commanding Scouts
Frank Grouard
Baptise Pourier
Louis Richard
Crow Scouts: (175 total)
Medicine Crow
Plenty Coups

Shoshone Scouts:

(Complete List Pending)

Lt. Col. William Bedford Royall, 3rd Cavalry (Brvt. Colonel)
AAAG 2nd Lt. Henry Rowan Lemly. Co. E, 3rd Cavalry
AAQM 2nd Lt. Charles Morton, Co. A, 3rd Cavalry

Maj. Andrew W. Evans, 3rd Cavalry (Brvt. Lt. Colonel)
Adjt. 2nd Lt. George Francis Chase, Co. L, 3rd Cavalry

1st Lt. Joseph Lawson (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Charles Morton
1st Sgt. John W. Van Moll
Charles Anderson
William J. Armstrong
Gottlieb Bigalsky
Henry Shafer
Frederick Stanley
Charles A. Bessey
William H. Finch
John Patton
George Hammer
Walter Wells
Karl Dreher
Michael Conway
James Allen
John Anderson
William Babcock
Conrad Baker
Frederick Bartlett
John Bigley
Robert Blackwood
Joseph Boyle
Maurice Breshnahan
John Cook
William Davis
John Downey
William Featherall
Michael Fitzgerald
James Golden
Charles Gordon
Lawrence L. Grazierni
Edwin M. Griffin
Thomas Gynau
Maurice Hastings
Robert Harry Heinz
Herman J. Kaider
Lawrence Kennedy
Charles Kolaugh
Henry Leonard
John A. Lowder
John Lynch
John McCann
Florence Neiderst
Samuel Peterson
John Reilly
James L. Roberts
Henry Rompton
Albert Simons
James E. Snepp
Alfred S. Southon
James Taggart
Ernest Therion
William H. Vince
John Wenzel
George White
James Wood

Capt. Charles Meinhold (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. James F. Simpson
1st Sgt. Charles Witzelmann
Charles S. Abbott
James A. Boggs
Maurice Connell
John Moriarity
Robert Stewart
Thomas M. Clarke
George Criswell
Joseph Kirby
John Tighe
Hugh Carlton
Robert Roulston
Henry N. Tucker
James A. Chaffee
Conrad Allbright
George Allen
James E. Anderson
William E. Anthon
Charles R. Appleton
William E. Baldwin
John W. Barrow
Joseph Bennett
William Brindley
Edward Bushlepp
James Calvin
James Cleveland
Hugh Curry
John Davis
Michael J. Fitzpatrick
Thomas Flood
Charles Foster
Joseph Gallagher
John W. Hobbs
Francois Jourdain
John Kramer
Andrew Lee
William Lee
William B. Lewis
John Longrigg
Reginald A. Loomis
Franklin A. Maricle
Francis Mayer
Hugh McConnell
Martin M. Moore
Julius Murray
William Pattison
Henry L. Quinn
Robert Rice
John Richie
Thomas D. Sanford
Thomas Slater
Frank Smith
John H. Smith
**Henry Steiner
George Stickney
James Sweeney
John H. Thorison
David A. Tilson
William Walton
Francis A. Wilbur
William Wilson
Frederick Winters
Edwin D. Wood

Capt. Frederick Van Vleit (Commanding Company, Brvt. Lt. Colonel)
1st Sgt. William Riley
Otto Ahrens
Hermann Guenther
Joseph Manly
John J. Mitchell
John Welsh
Eugene Bessiers
Joseph N. Hobsen
Michael F. Lanigan
William Stewart
Alfred Helmbold
George Stelle
William Johnson
John Mathews
Henrich Glucing
Henry Wellwood
James Allen
Henry Burmeister
William B. Dubois
Wentelin Ehrig
Perry A. Elden
Walter Gau
John H. Green
William Hart
William Herd
Henry Johnson
William Larkingland
John D. Leak
Fred Lehman
Arthur Leroy
George P. Lowry
William P. McCandless
William J. McClinton
William McDonald
John Miller
James Mulney
James Nolan
Fred Paul
James Perkins
Frank Quado
John Reed
John W. Reppert
Francis Rodgers
Louis Sachs
George E. Sanderson
John H. Sherman
David O. Sloan
John A. Smith
Harry Snowdon
Andrew Tierney
William M. Walcott
Arnold Weber
Henry Weyworth
George Williams
Louis Zinzer

**Capt. Guy V. Henry (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. John G. Bourke
1st Sgt. Joseph Robinson
Patrick Flood
John Knox
John D. Lindsay
Richard J. McKee
Charles Taylor
William Blair
William Ferguson
John McDonald
John F. Sanders
Frank Ropetsky
John Robinson
George W. Hutchinson
Sidney F. Bates
Michael Bolton
James Caraley
Frank Cunningham
Frank DeHaven
John Delmont
John F. Doherty
John W. Elder
Robert Flint
Eugene Jones
John Kearney
James Kelly
Jacob Knittell
James Loun
John McDonald
John Miller
John Phillips
Charles H. Pulli
Thomas Riley
Alfred Rowcliffe
Francis Stahl
George Steine
John Stevens
Dennis Sullovan
Charles Ward
Jacob R. Webb
Frederick Weber
J. Franklin Webster
Henry Wielenburg

US. Participants ~3rd page~

Capt. Alexander Sutorius (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Adolphus H. Von Luettwitz (Temporary duty from Co. C)
2nd Lt. Henry R. Lemly
1st Sgt. Jeremiah Foley
Edward Glass
Morgan B. Hawks
Joseph P. Secrist
Edwin F. Ambrose
William Miller
Charles N.E. Williams
George Hoffstetter
Evan S. Worthy
Samuel Stanley
George Hanernas
Peter Jansen
Daniel Akley
Christopher Ayers
John Beatts
Michael Brannon
Joseph Budka
Henry Burton
William H. Clark
James Conway
Malachi Dillion
Richard Dillion
Andrew Dolfer
Patrick J. Dowling
Orlando H. Duren
Charles F. Eichweitzel
Thomas Ferguson
John Foley
Michael Glannon
Lewis S. Grigsby
Marcus Hansen
Patrick Hennessey
**Henry Herald
William G. Hill
Peter Hollen
Bernard Kelly
Patrick Kelly
John Langan
Edward Lavelle
William C. C. Lewis
Thomas Loyd
Allen Lupton
Marcus Magerlein
Edward McKiernan
Thomas McNanara

2nd Lt. Bainbridge Reynolds (Commanding Company)
1st Sgt. Michael A. McGann
Robert Emmet
John Gross
Thomas Hackett
*David Marshall
Frank Rugg
John C.A. Warfield
John Fry
Dennis Giles
John Kohn
Arthur N. Chamberlin
Richard O1⁄4Grady
Averius S. Varney
Jeremiah Murphy
Spencer Bates
**Otto Brodersen
Henry Carson
William Chambers
Thomas Cramer
Charles Dennis
Michael T. Donahue
Peter Dyke
Frank W. Estabrook
**William Featherly
Edward Glasheen
John Hecker
Frederick Hershler
Julius Jansen
John W. Jordan
Henry Kett
John Lannen
David Lindsay
Robert Livingston
Richard Lynch
Michael McGraine
Oliver Meserby
John Meyer
James Moran
William Mulroy
John Murphy
Alexander Noterman
Gerold O1⁄4Grady
Michael O1⁄4Hearne
*Gilbert Roe
Ferdinand Rutten
Albert Salice
John Semple
John Staley
John Tischer
**Phineas Towne
Charles R. West
Francis Woltering

1st Lt. Emmett Crawford (Commanding Company)
1st Sgt. William Campbell
William Conklin
Hugo Deprizin
Fritiz W. Henry
William Mason
Jacob Bender
Fred Gahlsdorf
Allen J. Rosenberry
Joseph Billow
Robert McMurray
Patrick Tooel
Charles P. Hansen
Charles F. Smith
Frank McConnell
James H. Bell
Hubert Beohnke
John B. Comber
Edward M. Courtney
Patrick Delmage
George M. Edgar
Frederick P. English
Henry Feister
Byron D. Ferguson
Frederick W.S. Fonss
Patrick Freeman
James Gandley
Thomas Glanon
John Hale
Edwin Hamilton
Jacob Hekel
Alonzo Hogland
Adolph Kalber
Thomas Kirby
Edward C. Leitelt
John Martin
James McChesney
John McClain
Edward McCloskey
John Miner
William Moore
Henry Olsson
Gotthilf Osterday
Thomas Phelan
Thomas Quinn
Fred Ray
James E. Rose
Charles W. Ruffle
Henry Schmidt
Peter Schweikart
John Smith
William Smith
George Spreight
John A. Taylor
William Taylor
James Welsh

Capt. William Howard Andrews (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Albert King
2nd Lt. James E.H. Foster
1st Sgt. John Henry
Peter Foster
**Andrew Grosh
George W. Lowry
John Sullivan
Frederick Ashwall
John L. Byrons
Tobias Carty
William H. West
Michael O1⁄4Reilley
Dick C. Kingston
Frank S. Connells
*William Allen
Henry Blake
George H. Bowers
Peter Butler
John Carroll
John Conley
Edward Flood, Jr.
*Eugene Flynn
Benjamin Helad
Charles H. Hines
Frank W. Hitchcock
George Holledered
John Hubert
James M. Hurt
Anselm Langman
William Leary
**John Losciborski
Frank Maginn
James Martin
Michael McMahon
Robert Neal
**James Reilley
Robert Roberts
Patrick Ryan
William Schubert
Daniel Shields
Lewis C. Singleton
**Francis Smith
John Smith II
Fritiz Strickert
**Charles W. Stuart
Herbert W. Weaver
Thomas Welch
Louis Wilmer

Capt. Peter Dumont Vroom (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. George F. Chase
1st Sgt. Joseph Howe
Fuller H. Chepperson
**Samuel Cook
*Anton Newkirken
Roswell E. Patterson
David H. Connell
Eugene Prince
Otto Tigerstraim
Edward Walker
**William H. Edwards
Marcellus Goddard
Charles Webster
George B. Oaks
Charles L. Fisk
*Richard Bennett
Henry J. Bowler
Richard Callahan
Christopher Camp
Michael Cassidy
John Clements
*Brooks Connors
John Creme
William Griffith
John Hanrahan
Daniel Harrigan
Thomas Hill
Harrison Hiricer
**John Kremer
Theodore Lowe
Fred Mayer
Thomas F. Maxwell
George H. McDonald
Charles Miller
William Miller
*Allen J. Mitchell
James O1⁄4Donnell
James L. Parks
Louis Phister
*George Potts
George Ray
Antony Schenkberg
Claud Schmidt
George A. Serila
John T. Smith
George Sproul
Michel Sullivan
James F. Todd
Thomas Walker
William M. Ward
Richard H. White
Rudolph Winn
Azabel R. Van Seer
Alexander Yates

Capt. Anson Mills (Commanding Company, Brvt. Lt. Col. USA)
1st Lt. Augustus Choteau Paul
2nd Lt. Frederick (Fred) Schwatka
1st Sgt. Fran Rittel
Alexander B. Ballard
Frank V. Erhard
Charles Kaminski
Franklin B. Robinson
Gilbert Exford
Mathew Grappenstetter
Pter L. Hogebroom
John A. Kirkwood
Frank Serfas
**Elmer A. Snow

Albert Glaurniski
Charles A. Lindenberg
Henry Badgery
Myron P. Boyer
John H. Bryce
Carlos L. Chamberlain
Bernard F. Cullen
Henry E. C urly
Bernard Deringer
John E. Douglass
Dave S. Drake
Dennis B. Duggan
George Foster
John A. Foster
Isaac J. Kelton
Dennis W. Larkin
Patrick I. Maguire
Hugh H. Massey
Timothy McCarthy
William McGinness
James B. Miller
Joseph W. Morgan
Albert Moranthaler
Jeremiah Murphy
Thomas I. O'Keefe
Adam Pringle
George Raab
Dave C. Renear
William H. Reynolds
Blaseus Schmalz
Joseph Schmittz
Fred Schuttle
James Shanley
John W. Singer
Robert Smith
John I. Stevenson
John Sweeney
Charles E. Trevick
Soren O. Very
Joseph Walzer

Capt. Henry Erastus Noyes, Co. I, 2nd Cavalry (Brvt. Major USA)

Capt. Thomas Bull Dewees (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Daniel Crosby Pearson
1st Sgt. Gregory P. Harington
Alexander Albrecht
William H. Butterworth
John A. Carr
James Ellis
Charles A. Maude
Charles Angus
Antonio Brogerri
John Naaf
Charles Wintermute
William F. Somers
John W. Vincent
John A. Bott
Bernard Schable
Frederick France
Charles Austin
James Branagan
Henry C. Campbell
Marvin Collins
John A. Courtney
Thomas J. Dickinson
Uriah Donaldson
Michael Duffy
John Durkin
Henry Glock
Hugh Green
George Greenbauer
James Hayes
James P. Henry
John Kelly
Charles King
Ferdinand Knupper
Rudolph Laffelbein
Edward Lewis
Henry A. McCook
James McDuff
Christopher McIntyre
William H. Merritt
Daniel Morgan
Daniel Munger
John Murphy
David W. Neil
Robert Noonan
William F. Norwood
William J. Porter
William L. Regan
Michael Reynolds
George Robinson
Thomas A. Second
Charles M. Sheldon
Charles Spencer
George W. Sweeney
John F. Vincent
Alonzo A. Vincent
James Walsh
John Wray

1st Lt. William Charles Rawolle (Commanding Company)
1st Sgt. Charles S. Alter
William J. Cunningham
Charles W. Day
John Howard
Thomas Murray
Bartholomew Shannon
Thomas Aughey
Eugene H. Glasure
Alexander Huntington
James Mitchell
Robert Dyer
John Friegal
Charles F. Jones
Edmund Grady
John Graninckstrotkin
John Atkin
Daniel Austin
Henry Baldwin
Henry Chambers
Henry G. Coffman
William Cogan
Charles P. Corliss
James Corniff
James Cosgriff
Robert Coster
William Coulton
Louis Craft
Richard N. Criswell
William J. Daughty
John Davis
Patrick Doherty
Benjamin Domeck
Charles F. Edwards
Adam Fox
Wesley Gable
Thomas B. Glover
Michael Graemer
Alexander Graham
Paul Guitike
Patrick Hanson
Herman Harold
Francis Hart
William A. Hills
Thomas Kelly
Eggert Kohler
Theodore P. Leighton
William W. Lyman
Daniel McClurg
Henry Morris
Francis O. Connor
Charles S. Podge
James Ramer
Peter J. Redmond
George W. Rowlau
Mark B. Rue
William H. Taylor
Augustus Thompson
George D. Vickers
Patrick Wall
Herbert Witmer

1st Lt. Samuel Miller Swigert (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Henry Dustan Huntington
1st Sgt. James W. Marcey
Oscar R. Cornwell
Frederick W. Evans
John L. Joisteen
**Patrick O1⁄4Donnell
George C. Williams
Henry C. Harrington
William Madigar
Russell W. Payne
William I. Webb
Gustavus Nicolai
Joseph A. Wadsworth
Henri Heynimann
William L. Webb
William H. Haynes
William Allen
James Anthony
Otis Clark
Davis Connors
Michael Connors
Jeremiah Cory
Samuel J. Curtis
James Darcey
George Daum
Henry DeMott
Edward Devinney
William Dudly
John Flemming
James Forresel
William Fryling
James Galvin
John T. Harris
Carl Hecht
Samuel W. Hine
Eugene Isaac
John Jackson
Abraham Jacobs
Washington Jones
Harry Kiel
James Koelman
William Lang
Joseph Laverty
John Lewis
John McCormack
George McKnight
William McManus
Jacob Mack
Frank Mackenzie
William Madden
William Moffitt
John Moore
Charles E. Parker
John C. Putman
Emile Renner
John Shields
George A. Stone
Carlton Torman
Joseph Ward
Edward A. Watson
Thomas H. White
William H. Williams
James Wilson
John F.A. Witt

Capt. Elizah Revillo Wells (Commanding Company, Brvt. Major USA)
2nd Lt. Frederick William Sibley
1st Sgt. William Land
William P. Cooper
Weaver Dollmair
Louis Gilbert
George L. Howard
Orson M. Smith
John Hollenbacker
William C. Kingsley
Otto C. Mendhoff
Peter Waag
Joseph F. Long
Leo Baader
John Bach
Nicholas Burbach
Patrick Clark
George Coyle
William I. Croley
Lawrence Delaney
William J. Dougherty
George Douglas
Milton F. Douglass
William T. Englehorn
Frank Foster
Daniel Gabriel
John Glancey
Jacob Heird
John Hoffman
David Hogg
Howard Krapp
Austin E. Lemon
Alfred Logan
Gustav Martini
Montgomery McCormick
Thomas McCue
William C. Murray
Edward Nagle
Richard Parkington
William F. Paul
Linden B. Perry
Oliver Remley
Cody Robertson
Oscar Rollan
George Rosendale
Valentine Rufus
Charles H. Sargent
James A. Scott
James Smith
Patrick Sullivan
Charles Tausher
Jerimiah Twiggs
James Vance
William Volmer
Hugo Wagner

Capt. Henry Erastus Noyes (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Frederick William Kingsbury
1st Sgt. William Kirkwood
William Skinner
William Taylor
Amos Black
Thomas C. Marion
*Thomas Meagher
John P. Slough
George Fisher
Henry Knapper
Herman Ashkey
George M. Bickford
Phillipp Burnett
John E. Collins
Charles Emmons
Frank W. Foss
John Gallager
Charles G. Graham
John G. Hall
Robert Johnson
Walter B. Keenright
Peter King
George H. Liddle
Martin Mahe
Charles Minarcik
John Moran
Charles Morrison
Gustav Ohm
James H. Ray
John Reynolds
George Rhode
Gottlieb Ruf
John Russell
Konrad Schmid
John M. Stevenson
Irvine H. Stout
William Strong
Patrick H. Wall
Daniel Walsh
George J. Walters
George Watts
Thomas Wingfield

Capt. Avery Billings Cain (Commanding Company, Brvt. Major USA)
1st Lt. Henry Seton
1st Sgt. Richard Z. Dexter
Smith Chittenen
John F. Cochrane
Bernard Degnan
Joseph Lister
Thomas Conley
Alfred F. Funk
James Connelly
Alfred Smith
Charles McMahon
John Benazet
Charles R. Bill
John H. Bishop
George W. Bowley
Carl Dahlman
Peter Decker
**James Devine
James Devlin
David F. Dowling
John Edwards
Louis Eiskamp
**Richard Flynn
Phillip George
John Hall
Richard Haney
Irving Heaslip
Patrick Higerty
Leon Lawrence
Gilbert Long
Thomas Maher
Daniel McCormick
Ezekial Morgan
William Perry
Lawrence Schneiderhan
Joshua Scott
Charles Stollnow
**John H. Terry
Albert Wagner
Edward Williams

Capt. Gerhard L. Luhn (Commanding Company)
1st Sgt. John D. O1⁄4Brien
William Miller
John H. Neiss
John C. Cain
Ludwig Roper
Lucius E. Stearns
George Wood
Peter Cassidy
Jay E. Brandow
Oscar Baker
John Baptiste
Oliver F. Bowden
Edward Buird
Michael Cunningham
Richard Dickson
James Ferguson
William Frisby
John Galliger
George W. Gibbs
William Green
August Gunker
John Healey
William E. Helvie
William Johnston
William Kent
Christopher Larsen
Patrick Lonangan
James Malford
Thomas Malford
David Mesirola
John McCarty
Patrick McEnery
George Richberg
Jacob Schumaker
Oscar Sloan
William Stillwell
Richard C. Sullivan
William Swain
Frederick Tostika
Joseph Turner
William E. Wolfe

Capt. Samuel Munson (Commanding Company)
1st Lt. Thaddeus H. Capron
1st Sgt. James Whelan
William W. Butler
Jesse N. Farmer
Stephen Malloy
Andrew J. O1⁄4Leary
Marshall Crocker
George Kressig
Andrew Murphy
William S. Parsons
Frank Clarke
William H. Smith
Sylvester Blanwell
Howard Boyer
Edward Burns
James W. Butler
William B. Colcroft
Harley Crittenden
Michael Deegan
Christopher Dillion
Edward Donnelly
Michael Dougherty
Charles Edwards
John C. Eisenberg
Barney Flanagan
Samuel Gibson
Thomas W. Granberry
Frank Hamill
Frederick Hanshammer
Solomon Herschberg
Julius Hoppi
Thomas Hughes
Samuel Hunt
Samuel Jacob
Andrew Johnson
David Mahoney
George W. McAnnulty
Hugh McLean
Ernest Melin
Henry Mell
Oliver Navarre
Charles A. Nichols
Calvin Rainsome
Walter C. Smith
Ole Tothamer
Luther B. Wolfe
Albert Zimmerman

Capt. Thomas Bredin Burrowes (Commanding Company, Brvt. Major USA)
1st Lt. William L. Carpenter
2nd Lt. Edgar Brooks Robertson
Capt. Julius Herman Patzki, Assistant Surgeon
1st Sgt. John C. Rafferty
Frances Doyle
Frederick Klein
Frank McCarthy
James Delaney
Timothy O1⁄4Sullivan
Rudolph Ormann
Joseph S. Wrisley
William Droody
Hugh Thomson
Joseph Holtz
John Anderson
Richard L. Case
Edward Conlin
Patrick Dwyer
William Ecrestain
William Faulman
James Glick
William R. Hardin
Michael Healey
August Hocksmith
Frederick Lafine
Gineral A. Lee
Alexander M. Lowrie
Michael Murphy
John G. Newman
John Norton
Samuel Smith
John Thomas
Charles W. Wilson
Samuel H. Woollen
Samuel C. Wynkoop
Rudolph Zysset

Capt. Andrew S. Burt (Commanding Company)
2nd Lt. Edgar B. Robertson
1st Sgt. August Lange
Charles F. Hiller
Danford R. Langley
John Smith
Henry Stoll
John McFarlane
Sylvester Poole
Berhard Blomer
Julius Permell
Louis Allison
John H. Artwood
Joseph S. Bennett
Charles Beyschlag
Samuel B. Borwn
George Coy
David N. Eshelman
Henry Robert Frtiz
Thaddeus N. Hendrickson
George E. Leggatt
John McCann
John McCormick
James Morgan
William Nobles
Richard O1⁄4Hearn
Daniel P. Reddy
Charles Riesch
John Stephenson
Warren Taylor
John Walsh
Richard Walsh
James Waters
Peter Winegardner



AAAG Acting Assistant Adjutant General, the staff officer in charge of keeping official records, correspondence, etc.
AAQM Acting Assistant Quartermaster, the staff officer in charge of supplies, forage, and ammunition
ACS Acting Commissary of Subsistence, the staff officer in charge of food.
ADC Aide-de-Camp
Bn Battalion
CMO Chief Medical Officer
D.S. Detached Service away from the regiment
E.D. Extra Duty for which the soldier received extra pay, such as teamster, or laborer with the quartermaster or subsistence departments or as
hospital nurse

E.O. Engineer Officer
IHCA In Hands of Civil Authorities
Mtd. Det. Mounted Detachment
O.O. Ordnance Officer
PM Paymaster
QMD Quartermaster Department
RQM Regimental Quartermaster
S.D. Special Duty such as serving with the Mounted Detachment or the Gatling Gun crew
Subs. Dept. The Subsistence or Commissary department
TDy Temporary Duty other than the regularly assigned; an officer serving with another company than his own


Carrol, John M. & Price, Byron. ROLL CALL ON THE LITTLE BIGHORN, 28 JUNE 1876. Ft. Collins CO, The Old Army Press, 1974


Vaughn, J.W. WITH CROOK AT THE ROSEBUD. Mechanicsburg PA, Stackpole Books, 1994

Written Testimony of Mario Gonzalez ~ September 25, 1990, Senate Hearing

Mr. Chairman, and honorable Members of the Committee, my name is Mario Gonzalez. I am an enrolled member of the Oglala Sioux Tribe and a descendant of Chief Lip's Band. I am appearing here today as the attorney for the Wounded Knee Survivors' Associations and the Oglala Sioux Tribe. I am honored to appear before the Committee to discuss events surrounding the December 29,1890 Wounded Knee Massacre .

I am also related by blood to some of the victims and survivors of the massacre. Dewey Beard , the last survivor of the Battle of the Little Bighorn and an 1890 Massacre survivor, was a first cousin to my great-great-grandmother, Rattling Hawk. Dewey's real mother, Seen By Her Nation, and my great-great-great-grandmother, Jealous Of Her, were sisters.

One cannot understand what happened at Wounded Knee without understanding something about the Sioux people and their history.

The term "Sioux" should be distinguished from the word "Siouan," which refers to a linguistic stock that the Sioux are a part of. Other Siouan peoples include such Tribes as the Mandan, Omaha, Otoe, Winnebago and Osage. The Sioux refer to themselves as "Lakota," "Dakota," or "Nakota," depending on whether the "L," " D" or "N" dialect is used.

It is also important to understand that the term "Sioux Nation" has been used to refer to different entities at different times. According to the Indian Claims Commission, the Sioux people were divided into seven divisions:

  1. Mdewakantons
  2. Sissetons
  3. Wahpakootas
  4. Wahpetons
  5. Yanktonais
  6. Yanktons
  7. Tetons

The Mdewakantons, Sissetons, Wahpakootas, and Wahpetons, or eastern Sioux, are sometimes referred to as "Santee" or "Mississippi" Sioux and speak with the "D" dialect. The Yanktonais also speak with the "D" dialect. The Yanktons speak with the "N" dialect and the Tetons with the "L" dialect.

The Tetons, or the western Sioux, were sub-divided into seven bands:

  1. Blackfeet
  2. Brule
  3. Hunkpapa
  4. Minneconjou
  5. Oglala
  6. Saris Arc (No Bows)
  7. Two Kettle

The Teton Bands held aboriginal title to a vast territory west of the Missouri River in what are now the States of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Much of this territory was held jointly with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nations. The Big Horn Mountains were the western boundary. The Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers were the northern boundary. The Republican River was the southern boundary.

The Tetons, along with the Yanktonai, also held aboriginal title to a tract of territory consisting of at least 14 million acres east of the Missouri River in the States of North and South Dakota.

Aboriginal title is legally based on use and occupation of an area "for a long time." Only a sovereign nation can extinguish aboriginal title, either through conquest, purchase or otherwise. The Supreme Court has held that aboriginal title can be extinguished by the United States without payment of compensation.

Recognized title, on the other hand, is a grant of title from a European nation, or successor nation such as the United States. Many times tribal leaders ask, "How can the United States give us land that we already own?" But this is exactly what happens. Even though a tribe may hold aboriginal title to a territory, the United States can still "grant" the tribe title to the same area under its laws. And once it is recognized, it comes under the protection of the Fifth Amendment and can be acquired by the federal government only by purchase or eminent domain.

The 1851 Ft. Laramie Treaty recognized title in the Teton and Yankton Sioux to 60 million acres west of the Missouri River in the States of South and North Dakota, Nebraska, Montana and Wyoming. During the 1860s, the United States attempted to build a road called the "Bozeman Trail" across the 1851 Treaty territory. This resulted in the Powder River War of 1866 through 1868, which culminated in the 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty. Under the Treaty:

  • All war between the United States and the Sioux people, in this case, the Tetons, Yanktonai, and Santee Sioux, would "forever cease" and the United States pledged its honor to keep the peace;
  • Sioux would deliver over to the United States bad whitemen, and Indians who commit wrongs or depredations upon the person or property of whitemen, blackmen or other Indians, to be punished according to its laws.
  • Sioux Nation title would be recognized to a 26 million acre reservation, commonly referred to as the "Great Sioux Reservation" and located primarily in the State of South Dakota west of the Missouri River, for its "absolute and undisturbed use and occupation," and only persons authorized by the United States would be permitted to pass over, settle upon or reside on it.
  • All country north of the North Platte River and east of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains, namely, the 34 million acres of unceded 1851 Treaty territory and aboriginal title territory beyond the 1851 Treaty boundaries would be held and considered "unceded Indian territory," and no white person or persons would be permitted to occupy the same. The treaty also provided that the Sioux would relinquish the right to permanently occupy the areas outside of the Reservation boundaries, but could hunt on them so long as the buffalo ranged on these lands so as to justify the chase.
  • That no cession of lands held in common on the Great Sioux Reservation would be valid unless signed by at least 3/4 of the adult male Sioux occupying or interested in the Reservation.

In 1874 the United States Army planned and undertook a military expedition into the Black Hills portion of the Great Sioux Reservation. The expedition was led by Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer, who sent out glowing reports of gold. This led to an invasion of the Hills by white miners and settlers in violation of the 1868 Treaty and created intense pressure on Congress to open the Hills for settlement. The influx of miners and settlers into the Hills increased when President Grant refused to enforce the Treaty and remove these trespassers. In the winter of 1875 and 1876, most of the Sioux were residing on the Great Sioux Reservation, keeping the peace they promised to maintain under the 1868 Treaty. Others were exercising their hunting rights with their Cheyenne and Arapahoe allies near the Big Horn Mountains. Contrary to the terms of the Treaty, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs sent instructions to the hunting parties that if they did not return to the Great Sioux Reservation by January 31,1876, they would be declared "hostile." The Sioux were under no legal obligation to return and could not return because of the weather. They were attacked, but defeated General Crook at the Battle of Rosebud and annihilated Lt. Col. Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876.

The U.S. violated Articles 11 and 16 of the 1868 Treaty by attacking the Sioux while they were exercising their right to hunt near the Bighorn Mountains. Although some refer to the Battle of the Little Bighorn as a "massacre," it was clearly a battle in which the Indians were defending their families against an egocentric Indian fighter who planned to capitalize on the event and become President of the United States.

The United States Government resented its defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. The Battle, therefore, marked the beginning of a course of dishonorable dealings by the federal government with the Sioux people to [get] revenge [for] Custer's defeat. This course has continued down to the present time.

On August 15, 1876, Congress passed an appropriations bill, often referred to as the "starve or sell" bill, which provided that no further appropriations would be made for the subsistence of the Sioux under the 1868 Treaty unless they gave up the Black Hills and reached an accommodation with the United States that would enable them to become self-supporting. To accomplish this cession, Congress requested the President to appoint a commission to negotiate an agreement with the Sioux to buy the Hills.

The 1876 Commission, however, could not obtain the requisite number of signatures required by Article 12 of the 1868 Treaty, so Congress took matters into its own hands and enacted the proposed "Agreement" into law on February 28, 1877. This enactment confiscated the Black Hills, the 1851 Treaty lands, and hunting rights recognized under the 1868 Treaty.

It is important at this point to explain the importance of hunting rights. To survive, the Sioux people had to depend on buffalo for food, clothing and shelter. Other game animals were often scarce and too hard to kill. The buffalo, however, were a steady food supply until they were slaughtered by buffalo hunters with the encouragement of the federal government. The Powder River War was fought because the United States was interfering with buffalo migrations by putting a road across 1851 Treaty territory, the so-called "Bozeman Trail." The importance of the buffalo to the Sioux cannot be overemphasized. This is illustrated by Chief Spotted Tail's insistence that hunting grounds on the Republican River be protected in the 1868 Treaty.

Beginning in 1882, the Government attempted to reduce the remainder of the Great Sioux Reservation by creating six smaller reservations and having the Sioux cede the remaining 9 million acres. Congress supposedly accomplished this objective through the Act of March 2,1889. However Section 28 of the Act provided that the Act would not go into effect until signed by at least 3/4 of the adult male Sioux interested in the reservation and proclaimed by the President. Since each Band of Sioux was a separate, distinct sovereign, Section 28 should have been interpreted by the U.S. as requiring 3/4 adult male signatures of each Band. This view is corroborated by the fact that Section 16 requires 3/4 of the adult signatures of each Band to constitute a release of title to each other's reservations.

The United States has never obtained the requisite 3/4 adult male signatures required by Section 28 of the 1889 Act, even under its own interpretation of that Section. Moreover, the Federal Government used coercion and fraud to obtain most of the signatures it managed to get. Many whitemen married to Indian women were allowed to sign as Indians and take allotments under the Act as Indians, even though Congress clearly denied them such rights earlier on August 9, 1888. Many of them dressed up as Indians for that purpose. Some persons signed twice. Many Indians under the age of 18 were allowed to sign. Some Indians signed after they were provided alcohol. But, worst of all, many Indian men were not allowed to leave the agency until after they signed, only to return home and find their gardens dried out. The President nevertheless issued a Proclamation verifying that the requisite number of signatures were obtained. Everyone has been forced to live under its provisions since 1889. The Supreme Court has termed the taking of the Black Hills in 1877 as the most 11 ripe and rank case of dishonorable dealings" in the nation's history. History will someday show and prove that the taking of 9 million acres of Sioux lands under the later 1889 Act was even more rank and dishonorable.

In the late 1880s, a Paiute Indian named Wovoka had a vision that was explained to a Sioux delegation in 1889 consisting of Kicking Bear, Short Bull and others, that if they did a certain ritual dance, the Indian people would be united with deceased relatives, the buffalo would return and the whiteman would disappear. Kicking Bear's delegation brought the prophesies contained in Wovoka's vision back to the Sioux reservations.

A terrible drought occurred in both 1889 and 1890. There were epidemics that caused death in many families. The beef rations promised by the 1889 Crook Commission were reduced. The reduction of beef rations was a violation of Article 5 Of the 1877 Act that provided that, in consideration for the confiscation of the Black Hills and Sioux hunting rights, the U.S. would provide all aid necessary for civilization and subsistence rations, or the equivalent thereof for as long as necessary for the survival of the Sioux. This provision was continued in Section 19 of the 1889 Act.

Because of the theft of their lands in 1877 and 1889, and the terrible conditions that they lived under in 1889 and 1890, many Sioux looked for salvation in the Ghost Dance religion. The dance was a pacifist religious movement, but white settlers living near the reservations misinterpreted it as an Indian uprising. Indian agents also became alarmed and asked for military intervention and protection. The Sioux in turn became alarmed at the whites and donned Ghost Shirts to protect them from the bullets of the whitemen. This created great tension, which was exacerbated by what is called yellow journalism depicting the Sioux as bloodthirsty savages.

A boundary dispute between the newly created Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations also played a part in the events that occurred in 1890. The 1889 Act placed the Rosebud/Pine Ridge boundary at the mouth of Blackpipe Creek, about 15 miles east of Pass Creek. Chief Lip's band of Wazhazha had already settled on the east side of Pass Creek when the 1889 Act went into effect. Because the U.S. regarded them as Rosebud Indians, they were informed that they had to move to the Rosebud Reservation.

Lip's people didn't want to move, since they had already devoted much time and energy on developing their homes and lands. They therefore demanded to be placed on the Pine Ridge census rolls. According to tribal elders, when Lip heard that General Miles was coming to Pine Ridge Agency, he decided to visit him to request assistance in resolving the boundary dispute. Other Rosebud Indians, who were concerned about the arrival of troops at their agency, attempted to convince Lip to join them in making a stand against the U.S. Army in the badlands. Lip ignored them and eventually established a temporary camp on Wounded Knee Creek near Pine Ridge Agency. Other Indians headed for the badlands and became part of the Ghost Dance camp. There were also many clashes in 1890 between white cowboys, the U.S. Army and Indians that resulted in the massacres of Indian people. The following are three examples:

  • The State of South Dakota took matters into its own hands. Governor Mellette sent hundreds of guns and ammunition to Rapid City to arm a cowboy militia he created, known as the "Home Guard." In early December, 1890, this militia devised a plan to kill Indians and collect depredation monies. They picked their best riders to cross the Cheyenne River onto the Pine Ridge Reservation and shoot at the Ghost Dancers. When the Ghost Dancers followed, they were ambushed and 75 of them were killed and scalped. The scalps and ghost shirts were taken to Chicago where they were displayed and sold.
  • A small band of Indians were also killed by the cowboy militia in early December, 1890, on French Creek. The band had gone to Buffalo Gap to hunt at the ranch of a friendly whiteman they knew. They were greeted with a gun. They were unaware of the events that were transpiring around them. They sensed something wrong and attempted to leave. Because their horses were tired, they had to make camp on French Creek and were massacred in a surprise attack the next morning. One young woman managed to escape to tell the story. The U.S. Government had a duty under Article 8 of the 1877 Act to protect the Indians, but failed to hold the State of South Dakota responsible.
  • The United States Army was also guilty of a massacre in early December of 1890. Troops A & B of the 8th Cavalry under Capt. Almond B. Wells was stationed at Olrichs, S.D. Wells allowed Lt. Joseph C. Byron to enter the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and massacre a small band of Indians under Chief Two Strike on Cuny Table with Cannon fire. All the Indians were killed. This incident appears to have been covered up by the United States Army for the past 100 years. The property of the Indians was buried and the soldiers of the 8th Cavalry were sworn to secrecy, so that even General Miles, the overall commander at Wounded Knee in 1890, may not have been aware of it.

The above incidents are documented in the Renee Sansom Flood Collection at Vermillion, South Dakota.

Eventually, over half of the U.S. Army surrounded the Sioux reservations to protect settlers. Orders were sent out by the Army to arrest the Sioux leaders. Agent James McLaughlin sent the Indian police to arrest Chief Sitting Bull on the Standing Rock Reservation. On December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull and members of his family were killed. Members of Sitting Bull's band sought refuge with Sitting Bull's half brother, Chief Big Foot, at Cherry Creek on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation.

Fearing for the safety of his band, Big Foot evaded arrest and sought refuge with Chief Red Cloud on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Red Cloud had extended an invitation for Big Foot to come to Pine Ridge and help make peace between the whites and Indians. Big Foot's band endured great hardship on its way to Pine Ridge. The Band was intercepted at Porcupine Butte on December 28, 1890, by Major Samuel Whiteside. Big Foot surrendered and was taken to Wounded Knee Creek where he and his followers were fed and allowed to set up camp.

The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred the next day. Although the U.S. Army has attempted to shift the blame for the massacre to the Sioux, it was in actuality caused by the actions of the 7th Cavalry, whose members were intent on getting even for Custer's defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876.

Colonel James Forsyth assumed command of the 7th Cavalry at Wounded Knee on the eve of December 28, 1890. A barrel of Whiskey was brought into camp by an Indian trader. Officers, including Forsyth, and soldiers got drunk celebrating the capture of Big Foot. Some soldiers even tried to get Big Foot that night, but were stopped by the guards. This caused the surrounded Indians to become uneasy. Some of them understood English and knew that the soldiers were up to no good and were out for revenge.

Among the drunken soldiers was their drunken interpreter Philip Wells. Wells was part Sioux, but hated the Sioux for killing his father. He was known as a bad interpreter and was especially disliked by Big Foot's people.

On the morning of December 29, 1890, Forsyth ordered the disarming of Big Foot's band. The men were separated from the women and children. The soldiers were abusive to the Indian men during the disarming, pointing empty guns to their heads and pulling the triggers. The weapons were stacked in a pile near the Indians. The Indians, understandably, were reluctant to relinquish their weapons, although the majority of them did.

During the disarming, a scuffle occurred between some soldiers and a man called Black Fox, which some say, resulted in an accidental discharge of a rifle. Fighting immediately broke out on both sides and a massacre of Big Foot's people ensued. A few of the Indian people who were still armed fired back while others attempted to retrieve their weapons from the pile of guns. Some Indians engaged the soldiers in hand-to-hand combat, including Dewey Beard, who killed four soldiers.

Big Foot's people attempted to escape by rushing into a nearby ravine. Many soldiers died in their own crossfire. Soldiers chased and killed Indian women and children as far as two miles from the camp site. When it was over, about 356 members of Big Foot's band were killed or wounded. Approximately 30 soldiers from the 7th Cavalry died with them.

The slaughter of Big, Foot's Band was caused in large part by the fact that the 7th Cavalry officers and interpreter, Wells, were drunk. Much of the basis for the Army's version of the 1890 Massacre was Wells's eye witness account, but his veracity was highly questionable. In all likelihood, Wells glossed over the whole affair to coverup his own ineptness as an interpreter and to cover for his friends.

Evidence also exists that when the bodies of the soldiers killed in the Massacre were exhumed in 1905 for reburial, their bodies were remarkably preserved due to the high concentration of alcohol in their bodies. This documentation can be found in the Renee Sansom Flood Collection at Vermilion, South Dakota.

The callousness of the 7th Cavalry is evident from their gruesome conduct as they buried the Indian dead, posing for photographs and jumping on the piles of bodies to pack them down into the mass grave. The soldiers were buried immediately. The Indian people were not buried, as indecent a burial as it was, until five days after the massacre, on January 3, 1891. At least one of Big Foot's people is known to have been buried alive, and with the knowledge of the overseers of the burial party.

Later that year, Congress passed the Sioux Depredations Act of 1891 to compensate the so-called "innocent victims" of the 1890 Massacre and the Ghost Dance troubles for their losses, including white people and churches. Everyone but the Indian victims of the 1890 Massacre were compensated.

My clients, the Cheyenne River and Pine Ridge Wounded Knee Survivors'Associations, have tried for years to get Congress to atone for the 1890 Massacre. Several bills have been introduced in Congress over the years, but all failed. The Survivors' Associations nevertheless continue in their quest for justice.

On March 13,1917, General Miles stated in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs that: " [i]n my opinion, the least the Government can do is to make a suitable recompense to the survivors who are still living for the great injustice that was done them and the serious loss of their relatives and property-and I earnestly recommend that this may be favorably considered by the Department and by Congress and a suitable appropriation be made." And again, in an April 12,1920, letter to the Commissioner, Miles reiterated his position by stating that " [t] he present time seems a most favorable time for the government ... to atone in part for the cruel and unjustifiable massacre of Indian men, women and children at Wounded Knee on the Red Cloud Reservation." The General was hardly innocent of the heinous acts committed against the Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee, but at least he was man enough to admit his mistakes and urge the federal government to do likewise.

The Wounded Knee Survivors' Associations have been developing proposed legislation which would have Congress: (1) make a formal apology to the Sioux people for the 1890 Massacre: (2) establish a national monument and memorial at the Massacre site; and (3) compensate the dependants of the Indian victims for the killing or wounding in the form of benefits, i.e., educational benefits and multi-purpose buildings, plus direct compensation for property confiscated by the Army. In 1921 Inspector McLaughlin, whose wife was Philip Wells's first cousin, inventoried most of the property taken from Big Foot's people and found its value to be $20,000.00.

It is my belief as that the Wounded Knee Massacre, and indeed the massacres perpetuated by the 8th Cavalry and Governor Mellette's cowboy militia, are more than just moral claims. They are legal claims which only Congress can resolve.

It is questionable whether the military forces had a right to be on the Sioux reservations in 1890. The federal government certainly breached its promise to maintain peace with the Sioux under the 1868 Treaty. It also failed to follow the extradition procedures outlined in the 1868 Treaty when it attempted to arrest Big Foot on the Pine Ridge Reservation.

In 1890 the federal government also had a duty to protect the persons, lives and property of the Sioux Indians under Article 8 of the 1877 Act and the Fifth Amendment. it presently has a duty to compensate the Indians for their losses under the Fifth Amendment and the 1868 Treaty which provided that if persons "subject to the authority of the U.S. shall commit a wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the U.S. will ... reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained."

I urge this exemplary Committee to start the process to atone for the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre by initiating legislation to accomplish the objectives of my clients. Thank you for your kind attention.



Mitch Bouyer~Indian Scout

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Mitch Bouyer

(sometimes spelled 'Bowyer', 'Buoyer', or 'Buazer'; or, in Creole, 'Boye'- the proper French spelling is "Boyer") (1837–1876) was an interpreter/guide in the Old West following the American Civil War. General John Gibbon called him "next to Jim Bridger, the best guide in the country". He was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876.

He was born Michel Bouyer in 1837.  His father, John Baptiste,  was French, and employed with the American Fur Company, trading with Sioux in the Wyoming area. His mother was Santee Sioux. His father was killed by Indians while trapping, sometime before 1871. He had three full sisters: Marie, Anne, and Therese, which seem to have been triplets born in 1840. He also had at least two half-brothers; John Bouyer (c 1845-1871), who was hung at Fort Laramie for killing an Army scout in the first legal execution in Wyoming Territory, and Antoine Bouyer (born 1852?), who Walter Mason Camp interviewed in 1912. John, in an interview just before he was hung, stated that there had been others who had already died.

In 1869, Mitch courted and married a young Crow woman named Magpie Outside (or Magpie Out-of-Doors), who became known as Mary. Their first child, also named Mary, was born in 1870. Sometime later they also had a son, apparently named Tom, but later named James LeForge (see below).

Bouyer became a civilian guide and interpreter for the 2nd U.S. Cavalry, but Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer requested that he be transferred to the 7th U.S. Cavalry as an interpreter for the Crow scouts when Gen. Alfred Terry sent the 7th south from the Montana Column to scout for Indians. Custer's regular scouts were Ree (Arikara), but for this mission, Terry had assigned six of Lt. James Bradley's Crow scouts to the 7th (including Curley) and Bouyer had the additional bonus of knowing the country well.

At the Crow's Nest, Bouyer was one of the scouts warning Custer about the size of the village, with Custer claiming he couldn't make it out. He said to Custer, "General, I have been with these Indians for 30 years, and this is the largest village I have ever known of." After having failed to convince Custer, it is reported that Bouyer gave away his possessions as he was convinced he would die in the upcoming battle. There was a report that Sitting Bull had offered a bounty of 100 ponies for Bouyer's head.

When the command was divided into 3 battalions, around Noon, Bouyer was assigned to Custer's, which was almost completely wiped out later. There were only about a dozen survivors, all of which, except Curley, had left the main group before the battle started. Soldiers during Reno's fight claimed to have seen Lt. Col. Custer on the bluffs watching the retreat, but this was later shown probably to be Bouyer and Curley, who had ridden ahead of the main force.

There are conflicting reports as where his body was found or even if it was. W. R. Logan, who claimed to have known Bouyer well, claimed to have found his body about halfway between Custer Hill and Reno Hill. His belief was that Bouyer had been carrying a message for Reno (John Martin had been dispatched to Benteen, with the third battalion). Sgt. Knipe, who was one of the very few survivors of the Custer battalion, thought he had seen Bouyer's body in a gultch with about 28 others about a kilometer from the monument.. Peter Thompson claimed to have seen Bouyer near the Indian village on the WEST side of the river, as did an account by 6 Arapahoes who had been captive 'guests' of the Sioux village. Lt. Roe put the body in a flat area northwest of the monument near the river, saying it was badly mutilated.

In 1984, a fire burned through much of the Custer Battlefield, enabling archaeological digging to be done. Part of a skull was found that was identified as Bouyer's by comparison of facial bones with the only photograph known of him. [These identified remains were found to the west of the monument on Custer Hill, at what is called the 'South Skirmish Line'.]

Bouyer seems to have been a rather flamboyant character. In the photo, he is wearing a fur hat with 2 woodpeckers, one on either side, and he was wearing a piebald calf's vest the day of the battle.

After his death, Bouyer's widow Mary was taken in by his close friend, Thomas Leforge. After his own wife died, he married Mary and adopted the two children (this is probably when Mitch's son was renamed, as Leforge had a son of his own named Tom). Mary died in 1916.

In 1985, Henry Weibert and his son Don published a book, Sixty-Six Years in Custer's Shadow, in which they analyzed the battle in light of an intimate knowledge of the terrain. Amongst their theories was the claim that the Seventh had been led into a trap by Bouyer; who, when the Custer battle started, shot Lt. Col. Custer in the head. He then was shot by cavalrymen as he tried to escape. Although several other writers had speculated that the Seventh had been entrapped, this was probably the only one to point the finger at Bouyer. Other historians denounce this idea, pointing out that the idea goes against everything that we know about Bouyer's character; it would also have been tantamount to a personal betrayal of his family and friends of many years' standing among the Crow.

In a later book, written after his father Henry died, Don Weibert, although repeating much of the earlier conclusions about how the battle was fought, dropped the Mitch-as-traitor thesis.

Source: From Wikipedia

Birth:   1837, USA Death:   Jun. 25, 1876
Little Big Horn Battle Site
Big Horn County

Custer National Cemetery
Crow Agency
Big Horn County
Montana, USA
Plot: Buried in mass grave


Mitch Bouyer Tombstone

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After the Great Fire of August 1983, archeological digs were conducted in 1984-1985, 1989 and 1994. The immediate area of the doomed Custer men was surveyed that first summer and remains of soldiers were found. In 1984 at markers 33 and 34 fragments of an individual including part of a skull, upper jaw and left eye orbit were unearthed. This excavation also recovered a mother-of-pearl button, soldier cartridges and Indian bullets.

The renowned forensic anthropologist, Dr. Clyde Snow, studied all remains found over the battlefield and he discovered something quite extraordinary of the remains from markers 33-34.

The bones suggested that this person was of Caucasian-Mongoloid mix. The teeth were worn down as pipe smokers teeth would wear. The mother-of-pearl button would have been worn on civilian clothing. Soldier cartridges found presents a strong argument that he was of the Custer Battalion firing at the warriors and, they in-turn, were firing back at him hence the Indian bullets. There was only one person in the Custer Battalion that fit this description and that was Mitch Bouyer. To complete the detective work a video overlay of the only known photograph of Bouyer, with the photos of the bones, show they fit like a glove.


Corp. John Foley Memorial

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FELL HERE, JUNE 25, 1876


  • 1876

Arikara Scouts Memorial

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On June 11, 2007 the National Park Service placed new soldier markers for the Arikara scouts killed while fighting in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Little Brave was killed on the west side of the Little Bighorn River near Isaiah Dorman, and Sgt. Bobtail Bull was killed on the east side below Reno Hill. Custer’s favorite Arikara, Bloody Knife, employed as a Guide-Interpreter was killed in the clearing/park on the west side of the Little Bighorn river during Reno’s fight in the timber. For the time being, their markers will be erected at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield below the first overlook on the Entrenchment Trail next to the marker for Little Whirlwind, Northern Cheyenne Suicide Warrior.* Little Whirlwind and Bobtail Bull both shot and killed each other during a bravery run on horseback at each other.

The white marble markers are being supplied by the Veterans Administration and are the same Civil War style that were first placed on the battlefield in 1890 by the U.S. Army to denote and preserve 7th Cavalry casualty sites.  They will include the following information:






Myles Keogh Memorial

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Sources: Christopher Belton of County Carlow, Ireland, 

During the week of July 23, 2001 the village of Leighlinbridge, Keogh's birthplace, unveiled a memorial in memory of Keogh.

This memorial stands in the shadow of one of the oldest bridges in Europe. Christopher states, "The bridge was built in 1320 to replace an earlier bridge. When Richard II of England landed in Ireland with his army of 500 ships, it was here that he crossed beyond the Pale to subdue the native Irish."

Christopher goes on to say, "There is also a stain glass window in a church in Tinryland, County Carlow some 7 miles from Leighlinbridge which has the following inscription, 'erected to the memory of Thomas Keogh, Park, died 15th August 1897; his wife, Alice Keogh, died 21st April 1875, and his brother, Bvt. Lt. Col. Myles W. Keogh, Capn. 7 Cavalry USA., killed in action 25th June 1876. R.I.P.'"
American Burial Site at bottom of page

Cankuhanska (Long Road), Marker

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A new marker for “Cankuhanska” (Long Road), Sans Arc Lakota Sioux warrior killed on June 26, 1876 during the historic Battle of the Little Bighorn, was dedicated at 3:00 PM Tuesday June 26, 2001 during a brief ceremony at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield.

Long Road was killed on June 26, 1876 while attempting to charge an entrenched position held by the 7th cavalry. Unfortunately little is known of him.  Joseph White Bull, Minnenconjou Lakota recalled “Two men were killed in the fight with Reno on the bluffs that afternoon: Dog’s Backbone (Minneconjou); he was shot down right in front of White Bull.  Long Road, a Sans Arc, was shot while trying to count coup on the soldiers in the trench.” 

In 1909 Private Jacob Adams, Company H, 7th Cavalry, recalled “While effecting a slight change of position [on June 26] my tent-mate, Thomas Meador of West Virginia, fell with a dangerous wound in his right breast.  I attempted to carry my wounded comrade back across the ridge, when another bullet struck him in the head, ending his life instantly.  I dropped the body and hurried to shelter and when I happened to look back I saw an Indian [Long Road] with a long stick adorned with feathers trying to reach Meador’s form.  I felt my whole nature revolt, and I assure you that Indian never attempted another such feat.” Private Jacob Adams, Company H, 7th Cavalry 1909.

Long Road was killed within the Company H line and the Lakota were unable to recover his body until sometime after the battle.  The Sioux also erected a small stone cairn to commemorate the site where he bravely died trying to count coup on Private Meador.  During a visit to the battlefield in 1898, Charles A. Varnum, formerly of Company A, 7th Cavalry and Custer’s Chief of Scouts during the battle, walked over the battlefield and came across a stone cairn with sticks and red cloth medicine bundles tied to them stuck into the ground at the site.  This important account indicates that the Sioux continued to visit the site over the years to pay homage to the bravery of their fellow tribesman.

Long Road’s marker, erected a few yards from his original stone cairn,  is the third warrior marker erected at Little Bighorn Battlefield, and the first for a Lakota Sioux casualty.  In 1999  markers were erected for Southern Cheyenne Chief Lame White Man, and Noisy Walking, Northern Cheyenne casualties from the Custer Fight.  The new red granite marker was donated by Salt Lake Monument, Salt Lake City, Utah and was cut to the same dimensions as the historic 7th Cavalry markers first erected in 1890.  The Cheyenne River Sioux symbol features prominently at the top, with  his Lakota and English name, and brief description of his death.  The reverse features an inventory number and June 26, 2001 dedication date.  The inscription reads:




Lame White Man -- Southern Cheyenne

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Lame White Man, a 37-year-old Southern Cheyenne went into battle to encourage the young warriors. As a warrior he was highly respected and his presence in this fight would have indeed motivated the warriors to fight harder.

At the southeast end of Battle Ridge were deployed Companies L and C. Company L under the command of Custer’s brother-in-law First Lt. James Calhoun would hold the high ground of this part of the ridge. Deployed about 100 yards down and to the southwest of Company L was Company C led by Ohio native First Sgt Edwin Bobo, the Irishman Sgt Jeremiah Finley and the German born Sgt George Finckle .



The two companies held these positions as the remaining three Companies E, F, and I under Lt. Col George Armstrong Custer, moved further north and deployed in different areas along Battle Ridge. Company I, under Captain Myles Keogh, was held in reserve immediately behind Calhoun's Company L. Companies F would be in skirmish order in the present National Cemetery area and Company E probably in the basin just below Last Stand Hill. These were the approximate dispersals of the five companies as the Indian warrior force massed from the south and west. Large contingents of warriors were firing long range into Companies C and L from Greasy Grass Ridge (which parallels Battle Ridge from the south and west).

It was from somewhere near Greasy Grass Ridge that Lame White Man yelled out to his warriors to follow him, that they could kill all the soldiers. Leading this charge, Lame White Man and hundreds of warriors overtook and overwhelmed the brave soldiers of Company C. The fighting was fierce, hand-to-hand and the soldier survivors began to pull back to Company L and over Battle Ridge to meet up with Keogh’s Company I.

Still leading the warriors, Lame White Man’s charge carried over the top of Battle Ridge. It was near the center of Battle Ridge that Lame White Man was mistaken by a Lakota warrior, as a scout of the Custer Battalion and killed and scalped. When the battle was over the error was discovered and the Lakota warrior, mourning, returned the scalp to Lame White Man’s family. Lame White Man was buried in a rocky hillside near the Bighorn Mountains.

The Lame White Man charge was the beginning of the end of Custer’s five companies. Crazy Horse would lead a charge from the opposite direction that cut off Keogh’s company from the Custer end of the ridge.


John Stuart Forbes Monument

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Forbes was born on May 28, 1849 in Rugby, England of Scottish parents. He enlisted in the U.S. Army on January 20, 1872. At the Battle of the Little Bighorn he was with Company E and fell amongst the 210 soldiers and civilians under the Custer Battalion.

Where ever he fell on that battlefield, Pvt. Forbes must have been one heck of a sight and a fight to the Indians because he stood 6'0" tall. He is listed on the 7th Cavalry Monument as J.S. Hiley.

A memorial plaque for Forbes is placed in St. Johns Episcopal Church, West End, Edinburgh within a stones throw of the beautiful gardens below the Edinburgh Castle. The memorial reads, "In Memory of John Stuart Forbes, 7th Regt., United States Cavalry, Born 28 May 1849. Killed in Action 25 June 1876."



Capt Myles Walter Keogh~Burial Site

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Birth: Mar. 25, 1840
Carlow, IrelandDeath: Jun. 25, 1876
Little Big Horn Battle Site
Big Horn County
Montana, USA 
Captain, Commanding Company I, 7th US Cavalry, at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, where he was killed in action, along with General George A. Custer and most of the 7th Cavalry.

The son of John Keogh and Margarete Blanchfield Keogh, he was born at Orchard House, Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant, St. Patrick Battalion, Papal Guard, at Ancona, Italy, on 7 Aug 1860, and remained at the Vatican until 20 Feb 1862. Awarded 2 medals: Pro Petri Sede and the Cross of St. Gregory. In April 1862, he moved to NY City, where he was appointed Captain, US Volunteers, on 9 April 1862, and served on the staff of General John Buford. When Buford died in December 1863, he joined General George Stoneman's staff and was promoted to Major. Brevetted Lt. Col, US Volunteers, while commanding the 11th Kentucky Cavalry. In 30 battles during the Civil War. After the war, he joined the 7th Cavalry as a Captain, in 1866. During the 1876 Battle of the Little Big Horn, he commanded an ad-hoc battalion, consisting of Companies C, I, and L, when Custer split the command. These units were wiped out on Last Stand Hill, along with General Custer. Keogh was the owner of Comanche, the surviving horse of the battle. Keogh's watch was recovered in Feb 1877, and returned to friends of his in Europe, as he was unmarried.
Fort Hill Cemetery
Cayuga County
New York, USA


Contributor: bgill
Created: June 13, 2007 · Modified: November 26, 2007

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