It may be that the 1740 enlistment record which I confirmed long ago with The Society of Cincinnatus, librarian (Wash.DC), regarding Dr. Thomas Pool (read below) is the definitive one. It's time to conclude there is no other record, and this pursuit must cease. Yes, Pool's name was recorded in Col. or Captain John Prescott's papers. Henry Nourse's excellent source: "The military annals of Lancaster, Massachusetts. 1740-1865- Including lists of soldiers serving in the colonial and rev. wars, for Lancastrian towns: Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, Leominster, Sterling". Entry: Thos Pool Lynn 32 [age] Physician May 1st [1740]-- “Of what town born” is the text over column, where town: Lynn, is entered. So 32 yr old Thos Pool, a medical doctor/physician, was born in Lynn [MA], not residing there. Yes, this is my own ancestor who descends from John Pooll, the wealthy miller d.1667 whose English lineage is sought. We were told "De la Pole" growing up, but this seems suspect.

08 May 1708 1
Lynn now Wakefield, Mass., USA 1
c1741 1
near Cuba or on the sea in route to Cartegena, or at Cartegena 1

Related Pages


Pictures & Records (0)

Add Show More

Personal Details

Full Name:
Thomas POOL 1
Also known as:
Thomas POOLE 1
08 May 1708 1
Lynn now Wakefield, Mass., USA 1
c1741 1
near Cuba or on the sea in route to Cartegena, or at Cartegena 1
British Army Surgeon, physician, medical doctor 1
Race or Ethnicity:
Caucasian of English or Welsh descent 1

Looking for more information about Thomas POOL?

Search through millions of records to find out more.


  1. Contributed by segers


See Spotlights re: E.R. POOLE & Chester Poole b. c1761 pension (brother of Wm2 b.1766)

New Orleans, LA

I have made many spotlights- - on the confusion among the many Thomas POOL, POOLL, POOLE, POLEs.  It could be that some of them were lumped together inadvertently early on. Your comments are needed for this exercise to have any value, so please post your insights.

See Spotlights from Chester Poole Revolutionary War Pension records. Chester's papers are key to tracing the lineage of the POOLE DNA Project's plum group, John POOLL (b.c. 1609/1667 now Wakefield, Mass).  Immigrant John seemed first to be of Saugus, which was generally...renamed Lynn, then renamed Lynnfield, then renamed Reading, then renamed South Reading, then renamed Wakefield-- so he has been lost among the myriad of names for his Mass. USA roots...He is not even featured in the Wakefield history books which seems so sad...but use Wakefield to see his true neighborhood..

Also see spotlights re Edward RIchardson Poole (E.R. POOLE) merchant of New Orleans-- See letter written by E.R. Poole on the Thomas Poole saga. There seems to be confusion, since the elder Thomas b.c. 1708, was to be the physician of Groton, Mass...but...

But yes if Thomas the cordwainer was born 1730, he would have been about 15 yrs young in a 1745 battle--seems too young to be a "surgeon"? But by the 1758 battle, Thomas the Cordwainer would be about 28 yrs old.  I had always believed that the surgeon was the elder Thomas born 1708 but....Another rumour is that the Thomas 1708 did not die in Cuba, but stayed there, grew wealthy, and eventually returned to England where he died c1805 was it? This would make him close to 100 yrs old so, this version also has its holes.  At Kew Archives, I paged through some Thomas POOLEs dying there, c1800-1815, with no luck...

Please help the POOLE DNA Project find POLE/de la POLE/ POOL / POOLL males of England, Wales, Australia, etc with DNA and papertrails which will match this wealthy John POOLL, the miller (d. 1667 Mass USA) line.  John arrived with money and servants, c1630-1634, but no immigration records can be found. John POOLL, the miller, is the direct ancestor of both the Thomas POOLs at issue on this footnote page...

One bit of family lore I have been told by a DNA participant,  says John POOLL born circa 1609 received a grant of sorts to be the miller of this new colony (near Lynn/Lynnfield/South Reading/Wakefield, Mass. USA), but I cannot find out how to determine if such grants or orders were even issued by England.  Please post to this footnote page, how to obtain such info, should anyone out there know...Perhaps the town just made him miller, etc...[Boston and its Story].

In c1630 would England have granted the privilege of being a miller to a POOLL emigrant...if this were the case, it would seem that written communication back and forth could have occurred. 

Please steer the POOLE DNA Project in the right direction here...anyone can add stories and info to this page...

Archive-Lemon POOLE (1808/1902),Detroit filed Affidavit in Essex, Ontario, Canada, re Estate of one Thomas POOLE

Essex, Ontario, Canada


Lemon POOLE (1808/1902) descends from his father, tanner, Warren POOLE of southern Vermont, who was the son of cordwainer, Thomas Jr POOLE (1730/1781) and his wife, Sarah WARREN.  Thomas Jr. was the son of Eunice GREEN & her husband, the ? surgeon, Dr. Thomas POOLE/POOL, of Groton, Mass [at some point]--not Groton Connecticut where I made the mistake of driving to, in error, several years ago...

But a copy of Warren POOLE's son's, Lemon POOLE's (1808/1902) affidavit survived which Lemon of Detroit Michigan seemed to file in Quebec due to one Thomas POOL/POOLE passing away.  I spent years trying to piece together the story, but do not have my papers out. I could not conclude the matter then or now.

I do not know which Thomas Pool/Poole estate Lemon wrote for, but I have assumed it was his Grandfather or Great Grandfather due to the contents of his affidavit...But I have a copy of the Affidavit (thanks to Karen Trevino of Utah, now sadly deceased, and her aunt, Shirley Deahn (sp?) Hermstadt's, of California, research on both of their Chester POOLE b. 1761 line) so some puzzle pieces exist.

It is unknown where in the Canadian Archives perhaps?, to look for the estate filing re: Thomas POOLE estate, date unknown - 1742 seems so early (if Thomas Sr.), 1781 (if Thomas Jr.) or Lemon did have a brother Thomas3 of Norwalk Ohio (both sons of Warren POOL, tanner) whom I cannot seem to fully find...

One of my notes refers to Quebec repositories having the Essex, Ontario, Canada c1740-1742? estate files- so perhaps Lemon's filing is in Quebec. I have not been to Quebec ...

It seems as if Lemon Poole of Detroit wrote with E.R. Poole [Edward Richardson Poole I believe] of New Orleans in trying to search for Thomas POOLE (1708/c1742) father of Thomas Jr. (c1730s/1781 southern Vermont [which was also called New York way back when- arguments ensued over the boarder line]- This is the POOL line of South Reading/Wakefield Mass, which immigrated c1629-1634.  See POOLE DNA Project plum group.

This is just in process... Please write on genforum, Poole surname message board, or write POOLE DNA Project a Join Request with further info, if for some reason you cannot post it here.  Given the lack of input, posting this has not worked, so....

INCOMPLETE PAGE-- DRAFT ONLY- Unfortunately, this might be too complicated to try to write up here--


1755: Cordwainer, Thomas POOLE (1730/1781), 1st Regmt,6th Co, Capt Ezekiel PIERCE

Plainfield, Connecticut

Thomas POOLE (1730/1781), the cordwainer had the following military service (other service too if I recall correctly) as per Shirley Deahn Hermstad of Saratoga, California, a descendant of Chester POOLE born 1761, pensioner.  Shirley (now sadly deceased) wrote me in 2006 and stated:

"Rolls of Connecticut Men in the french and Indian War, 1755-1862, Conn. Historical Society, Hartford: 1903.  Thomas Pool enlisted April 1755 and was discharged Dec. 9.  He was in the First Regiment, Sixth Company - Capt Ezekiel Pierce of Plainfield."

Did the Thomas Pool born circa 1740s of Willington Connecticut claim this same service in one item in my files...must recheck this. Find Doug Poole's tree/documentation--didnt this point to this other Thomas 1740s being related to my cordwainer Thomas 1730-- plum group YDNA.


2013 UPDATE: Printed out the military service to submit with the Colonial Dames paperwork, July 2013.  Source:  Collections of the Connecticut Hist. Soc., Vol IX, Hartford, CT, 1903,  Use pages imprinted p15-17, with Thomas Pool on p17, second from the top. Here his enlistment shows to be on the 15 April 1755 (as per column heading) with ditto marks under the previous man's discharge date of Dec 9 (so he also was discharged on 9 Dec).   So this 1755 service, was Thomas as a young man (say abt 24 yrs), and with his father (Dr Thomas Pool MD) dying 1741 could this point to where his mother, Eunice Green Pool was living...her remarriage if any still needs to be found; her death is also still sadly unknown.

SAFFORD descendants of Thomas3 POOLL, Clayton, Iowa inherited surgeon's tools?

McGregor, Clayton Co, Iowa

One POOL line of Norwalk, Huron County, northern Ohio, say 1830s, inherited the surgical tools of this elusive surgeon Thomas POOL, discussed infra.  But so far this family has not arisen, and perhaps they daughtered out.  Come to think of it, surgical tools could look like a cordwainer's tools..Has anyone inherited these from their POOL line...? I hope you are out there somewhere.

I found one of my old notes which refers to Thomas POOLL and wife Sophia, as hotel keepers, c1850 census.  It looks like Sophia - perhaps - had a lot of kids from a perhaps previous marriage-- with a tough to read surname of perhaps, SAFFORD, SUFFERD, SOFFORD, SUFFRONT... But unfortunately, no POOLL or POOL kids are listed, Norwalk, Huron, Ohio, 1850.  They spell their surname POOLL, which is encouraging.  This family with Thomas born 1810 Vermont (verifiable via bible record in Chester Poole pension papers, footnote) appears to be running a boarding house, McGregor, Clayton, Iowa, Fed Census 1860.  Here Sophia S. Pool seems to stand for Sophia SAFFORD Pooll or Sophia nee ______ Safford Pooll.  Where the family went to after here is unknown.  Did this Thomas POOL die in the Civil War... Are there SAFFORD descendants who have inherited the Thomas POOLL surgical tools/cordwainer tools...Please post here...Thanks...


1748: Town of Groton, Mass (2011) has no 1748 record of any Thomas Pool's death

Groton, MA

Why did a possible death date of 1748 arise in researcher, Charles Henry Poole's writings?

Part I:

Could the surgeon Thomas Poole have died in Groton, Mass in 1748?  I sent the town clerk a request today, after reviewing some of my old files...the reason for this was due to a notation of a 1748 death date declared for him in an early book? or publication by ... which I noticed in my paper files here at home. I rummaged through other boxes to see if I could locate the original source suggesting or stating 1748 but I do not seem to have this page...

The Town Clerk's office in Groton, Mass. kindly and quickly replied to my 2011 inquery, but they too are lacking the medical doctor, Dr. Thomas Poole's death year or death record.

But again 1748 is say seven years after abt Sept 1741 where Eunice Green Pool/Poole was named a "widow" in certain church records. Remember that sadly several of her children died and such children's deaths were duly recorded, and this is primary proof of her status as a widow, i.e. her husband died prior to the children dying.

In Memoirs of Members of the Social Circle in Concord, By Social Circle in Concord, John Shepard Keyes, Edward Waldo Emerson, p80, [online at ____________] the death yr for Dr. John Prescott is given as 1748, in London, at age 37 years.  I mention this in the event that this 1748 death year could have become entwined with Dr. Pool’s, over time, in transcriptions.

Compare, C.f. Charles H Poole & Frederick Poole Smith’s publication/papers/mss/binder  giving a 1748 death year for Dr. Thomas Pool (Find Copy of their joint effort...) This is what Karen Trevino's notes say... which source would then be at NEHGS, Boston, Maybe it never got published before their deaths?  I am assuming this is different than Wm Prescott Greenlaw's handwritten pages at NEHGS (which Poole cousin John Heizer kindly obtained for me, c2004 and later showed me around our line's early Poole tombstones in Mass. USA)--Clarification is needed here.

Part II:

I found the fax from Karen Trevino to her aunt, Shirley Deahn Hermstad, with this page numbered four (of the fax), but with handwriting below which says- Doc 748, which seems to be Karen's writing.  It is here Karen Trevino writes about page 93 of SG P005, Genealogical Rec. of the Poole Fam. and Particularly the Desc. of John Poole of Reading in the State of Mass. by Charles H. Poole 1876(?).

So, this clarifies what CH Poole wrote. Here he is called a yeoman, but is not called a doctor.  Here it says he died in Groton in 1748, if I am reading this correctly... So here is the top portion of Karen's abstract of pg 93:

"Page 93: Thomas Poole, son of Lieut. John and Mary (Jonathan, John) was b. 'Lynnfield homestead' May 8, 1708, removed to Reading and there m. Eunice Green, dau of William and Elizabeth (Farmer) Green, b. 1709.  He afterwards removed to Groton, Mass, where his youngest child was born, and died there 1748.  He was a yeoman."

(kid listing omitted since I included it in a different section, infra)


2009-2011 Version of this Tho. Pool (1708/1741) page-Archive

Cincinnati, OH

Was Cordwainer,Thomas POOL(1730/1781), Louisbourg,English Army Surgeon? [former title of this section, which was altered from versions placing the father instead at Louisbourg]

This is a DRAFT attempt to correct and consolidate international pockets of knowledge regarding an English Army Surgeon named Thomas POOLL -Thomas POLE -Thomas POOLE- who allegedly is the same man as one of this name who died in Cuba, c1742. His wife, Eunice GREEN. Surgeon, Thomas POOL, allegedly served in the military battle at Louisbourg, Canada, after this ? 1742 death date, since skirmishes occurred  c1745 &  c1758.  Or is his cordwainer son, Thomas Jr (1730/1781) the surgeon or ? His wife, Sarah WARREN. My  Spotlights on this have about 600+ hits, but unfortunately no one writes... So, please add insights.  This endeavor involves Y-DNA patterns of forty+ POOL surnamed men  in POOLE DNA Project, international original research, and examination of all available discoverable paper trails. Please help  - the accurate tracing of my 6th - 7th great grandfather affects Y-DNA project's conclusions, re: miller, John POOLL (c1609/1667) -Need Y-DNA from Wales/ENG.

No input was received.

South Carolina ship pilot, Thomas Pool, d. 1754, Working Paper posted on Poole DNA Project

South Carolina, USA

This SC man died 1754. .. see Working Paper posted on Poole DNA Project, Goals page (2012).  This is on the South Carolina ship pilot of Gosport, Hampshire, ENG.  Please help sort out the Pole Pool Pooll Poole lines by sponsoring Y-DNA, and doing original research and writing.  Another copy of this paper was posted onto genforum in an attempt to collect comments there.  Please post a reply onto that message board with meaningful sources cited.

Where the German Pfuhl lines fit, is also murky...both PA and SC lines. Why has no American with Y-DNA done, been able to research, and trace lineage sufficiently to claim / prove descent from these Pfuhl Pool Poole Pole German lines...where are the missing puzzle pieces? Sadly, no one pursues this--

1 May 1740: Author, Henry Nourse (1889) details Thomas Pool's extant 1740 enlistment, Prescott's Co.

Boston, MA

Here is a paste from author, Henry Nourse (1831/1903) detailed online reference cited above, i.e.
including:  Thos Pool Lynn  32 Physician  May 1st [1740]

This extract (with formatting changes added by me to increase readability here, and note the scanning errors not changed infra)   is from:

Full text of "The military annals of Lancaster, Massachusetts. 1740-1865. Including lists of soldiers serving in the colonial and revolutionary wars, for the Lancastrian towns: Berlin, Bolton, Harvard, Leominster, and Sterling"

Author: Nourse, Henry S. (Henry Stedman), 1831-1903
Subject: Lancaster (Mass.) -- History; Berlin (Mass.) -- History; Bolton (Mass.) -- History; Harvard (Mass.) -- History; Leominster (Mass.) -- History; Sterling (Mass.) -- History
Publisher: [Clinton, Mass., W. J. Coulter, printer]
Possible copyright status: NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT
Language: English
Call number: 8660333
Digitizing sponsor: Sloan Foundation
Book contributor: The Library of Congress
Collection: library_of_congress; americana
Scanfactors: 1



[In?]  The Early Records of Lancaster, printed by the
author in 1884, the experiences of that town in warfare
previous to 1725 have been fully detailed. Before that
date Lancaster's adult male population were practically
always soldiers, were constantly menaced by savage foes,
and often fought in defence of their lives and homes. Two,
at least, of her earliest pioneers, John Prescott and William
Kerley, had probably served in the army of the mother
land ; certainly they brought with them into the wilderness
the arms and armor characteristic of the Cromwellian sol-
dier. Another of her leaders. Major Simon Willard, on
his coming from England bore the title, captain, and, at
the outbreak of the war called King Philip's, held the
highest military rank then recognized in the colony, hon-
oring the position by his bravery, energy and skill during
the earliest horrors of that bloody episode in New England
history. Lieutenants William and Henry Kerley and
Thomas Wilder, and Ensigns John Divoll and John Moore
trained the first military company of the town under the
immediate supervision of Major Willard. Scarce an inven-
tory of the period but contains, listed among humble do-
mestic appointments and the utensils of husbandry, various
articles of a soldier's equipment. Jacob Farrar, the head
of a family noted for its many martyrs in Indian warfare,
possessed "a Gulliver Gun." Reverend John Whiting,
who, surprised by savages in the field, bravely refusing
quarter fought until slain, had five "fire arms," appraised
after his death at four pounds. In the property schedules
of seven other Lancaster planters figure these items :

Three musketts, one sword, one p'' bandiliers and one pistol! and
bullets, 3^ 16'' ... .

4 gunns, I cutlash t,£. y . . . .

Iron cloathes 2£. — military books ....

One muskett 12% one sword and Rest 12"

A snapsack and bag y. A pike 2^ 6''

A muskett, a sword, one rest and a snapsacke 2£. . . .

One Gun, one sword 2j£ 4'; one halibut i6% 2 mu.squetts one cut-
lash i^ 18^

Of a frontier tow^n, standing in the advance guard of
Puritan civilization, Lancaster's yeomen were too com-
pletely engrossed in the hard struggle for existence to
spare volunteers for service on other battle grounds than
those within a day's march of their own hearthstones.
Nevertheless, some adventurous spirits joined the little
armies from time to time organized for the invasion of
Canada. In Sir William Phip's disgracefully unfortunate
attempt upon Quebec in 1690, Benjamin Willard served as
lieutenant, and of several townsmen w^ho are supposed to
have accompanied him were : Joseph Atherton, Jonathan
Fairbank, John Pope, Samuel Wheeler and Timothy
Wheelock. Of these, Wheeler, if not others, died in the
service. The two Acadian expeditions of 1707 and 1710
had such enthusiastic support in Massachusetts that Lan-
caster was doubtless well represented therein ; but the only
record thus far discovered to prove this, is an item in the
inventory presented by the administrator of a deceased
soldier, Ralph Houghton, filed in the Middlesex Probate
Registry. Captains Jabez Fairbank, John White and Sam-
uel Willard, during Lovewell's War, 1722-1726, leading
their neighbors, won repute as able commanders of rangers,
and made it hazardous for the savages to venture far south
of the fountains of the Merrimac.

For fifteen years the
arts of peace had been undisturbed by war's alarms, and
swords had grown rusty in their scabbards, when the re-
cruiting officer in 1740 drummed for recruits in Lancaster.
Great Britain, committed to a blindly selfish commer-
cial policy, held a monopoly of the trade in African slaves,
and her merchants were enriched by the enormous gains
of their smuggling and man-stealing ventures.
She exer-
cised the right of search upon the seas and denied it to
Spain. She demanded the privileges of free trade from
other powers, but persistently refused them to the North
American colonies — a lesson of the mother land which
they remembered and acted upon in after time. At length,
having forced war upon Spain under pretended champion-
ship of free commerce, England called upon her colonies
to aid in an expedition sent under command of Vice-Admiral
Edward Vernon to assail the Spanish strongholds in the
West Indies. Massachusetts was required to furnish a reg-
iment, and the organization of one was nearly perfected,
officers and men being enrolled and assembled at Boston.
The bills for expenditures in levying some of its companies
are extant, and the methods of the recruiting officers of
that day are illustrated by the recurrence of such charges
as these :

To Drummers and Liquor expended,
To Ribbons for cockades, 50 yards C«) 2/ . . . .

For some reason only four captains' commissions were
receivfd from the king instead of the ten expected. These
were bestowed upon John Prescott, who was to have been
colonel of the regiment, Daniel Goffe, Thomas Phillips
and George Stewart. The other companies were dis-

Dr. William Douglass, in his Summary, states
that this disastrous enterprise cost the province seven thou-
sand pounds sterling, and that "of the 500 men sent out
from Massachusetts Bay not exceeding 50 returned.
majority fell victims to pestilential disease during the siege
of Carthagena, or at Jamaica, whither the enfeebled rem-
nant of the defeated army was withdrawn. Joseph Willard,
Esq., in a note to page 50 of the History of Lancaster,
states that "there were eighteen or nineteen in this expedi-
tion who belonged to Lancaster; none of them lived , to
return." He had good authority for claiming in behalf of
this little town so large an enlistment, although it seems
almost incredible that it should have furnished nearly one
twenty-fifth of the whole quota of the commonwealth.

The town's volunteers must be looked for in the com-
pany of which a Lancaster man, Jonathan Houghton, was
lieutenant ; the other companies were recruited far from
here, and in their rolls, as found, no Lancaster family
names are discovered.

Captain John Prescott of Concord
was a direct descendant of the founder of Lancaster, whose
name he bore. His enlistment roll, sadly mutilated, is
preserved in Massachusetts Archives, xci, 333. It was
written upon both sides of a single sheet,
and the right-
hand columns of the first page, which included residences
and dates of muster, have been torn ofl^" and are missing.
Thereby thirty-six names borne upon the reverse page are
lost. The sixty-five names remaining follow :

A List of such Persons as are Enterd-. as Vol
In the West Indies Under the Co?nmand of
Persons Names
Of what Town born
Calling Time
of Enlisting

[end of paste here, bolding added by me--please read bolded sections]

So then the list begins.  I have clipped off the other names but you can find them at the source document named infra.  But here is the important entry:

"Thos Pool




1 May [1740]"


So apply the column headings to this entry for Thos, an abbreviation for Thomas.  The background context is so critical to grasping the importance of this primary source entry.

21 Apr 1740: Author, Walter Kendall Watkins (1899) describes Preparations for Admiral Vernon's mission to West Indies

Boston, MA

[Source:  Title Publication, Issue 5 Author Society of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Published 1899  Original fromHarvard University Digitized Oct 22, 2008]

[p64 starts below]

By [author] Walter Kendall Watkins, 1899.

In 1893 the Committee on Historical Documents of the General Society of Colonial Wars were instructed to prepare a resume of the part that the Colonies took in the expeditions against the Spanish in 1740 1742, with a muster-roll of the Colonial troops. Their report on the subject occupies eight pages of the 1894 Year Book of the Society, and over one-half the space is devoted to the participation of Virginia and New York, while Massachusetts is credited with a hundred words.
The results of the writer's [Walter Kendall Watkins] investigations have accumulated to such an extent that they have been placed in this work in the form of a documentary history rather than a narrative form, as a matter of economy of space, and that the reader may select from the material and apply the same to his own needs.
To the following might have been added matter showing the participation of Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut, but the want of space forbids.
The mortality among the Massachusetts troops was very great. Dr. William Douglas, a Bostonian, in his "Summary of the British Settlements in North America," written in 1748, states that of five hundred sent from Massachusetts not over fifty returned.”

[pg 71 starts below- but yes, there are scanning errors here-so spelling is not precise...]

At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Monday, April 21, 1740, according to order, His Majesty's declaration of war against Spain was published in the following manner:
About eleven o'clock in the forenoon, His Excellency the Governor (attended by the troop of guards and two foot companies of militia), with the members of His Majesty's Council, justices of the peace, and other officers and gentlemen, walked from the Province House to the Council Chamber, and the town regiment of militia and troop of guards being drawn up in King Street, and a great number of spectators attending, His Majesty's declaration of war was read in the balcony of the Council Chamber by the Deputy Secretary, and from him published with an audible voice by Mr. Richard Hubbard, door-keeper, &c, which was followed with huzzas and three volleys from the regiment and troop of guards, and the discharge of the cannon at Castle William and the batteries.
And then His Excellency's proclamation for encouraging the enlisting of volunteers, &c, was published out of the balcony.
George II. He was one of the sixteen peers for Scotland in the eighth Parliament from the Union; colonel of a regiment of horse in Ireland, and governor of Duncannon. He married (1) Margaret, daughter of Sir John Schaw, Greenock, and hud Charles Schaw, ninth lord, and a lieutenant general who died in 1776. Lord Charles married (2) in 1739 the widow of Joseph Sabine of Tring, Herts, and died of a bloody flux at Dominica 20 Dec, 1740, and was succeeded as commander of the land forces by Thomas Wentworth. The name is from Kethcart, Renfrewshire and traces back to Reynald de Kethcart, 1178. The lordship was created by James II. in 1442. Lord Charles Cathcart's chief seat was at Sundrum, Ayrshire.
'Col. Alexander Spotswood born in Tangier, Africa, in 1676, served under Marlborough and was wounded at Blenheim. He was governor of Virgiaia 1710-1723. tie was a deputy quarter-master general, and postmaster in 1730. He was a zealous advocate of the interests of Virginia. He died at Annapolis, Md., 7 June, 1740.
* Thomas Wentworth b. 1693, son of Sir Matthew Wentworth, third baronet, of Bretton, Yorkshire, matriculated 28 Jan., 1709/10 at University College, Oxford, aged 16. He married at Somerset House Chapel, London, 3 July, 1720, Klizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Robert Lord, Esq., of London, by whom he had no issue.
He died in 1747, at the Court of Turin. His widow died at Mill-Hill, Hendon, Middlesex, in Sept., 178S, aged 92.
At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Monday, the 7th July, 1740. Sitting the General Assembly. His Excellency having communicated to the Board a letter from Mr. Anthony Caverly of Boston, offering to use his endeavors to raise a number of men for the intended expedition under my Lord Cathcart, and subsist them at his own charge till they shall be delivered to the General of the American troops, and to wait for his reimbursement from His Majesty; and praying for proper powers from His Excellency for enlisting men for that purpose. His Excellency asked the advice of the Council thereon.

And the matter being considered, the Council are of opinion that the method proposed by Mr. Caverly for enlisting men is not agreeable to His Majesty's instructions on this affair; by which the charge of our raising soldiers for this expedition and subsisting them until their arrival at their place of general rendezvous is devolved on this province; and this Government hath cheerfully made provision for defraying the charge thereof accordingly; and therefore that His Excellency's granting such power to enlist men is not consistent with the dispositions aforesaid.
His Excellency laid before the Board a list of a number of persons that have offered themselves to serve as officers in the intended expedition against the Spaniards under my Lord Cathcart.
And the following persons were named by His Excellency to be captains or commanders of companies (to be by them raised for this service) to be approved of by the Council, viz.: Capt". Daniel Goffe, Capte. Stephen Richards, Coll0. John Prescott, Major Ammi Ruhamah Wise, Mr. Joshua Barker, and Mr. Timothy Ruggles. and the matter was referred for consideration for Wednesday next.

[Note-- see how here John Prescott is titled, Coll. for ostensibly Colonel(??)]

21 Jul 1740: Author, Walter Kendall Watkins explains that Pool gave Affidavit giving his place of birth, et al

Boston, MA


"At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Wednesday, July 9, 1740. Sitting the General Assembly. His Excellency having again nominated the six gentlemen named on Monday last to be captains of companies to be by them raised for the expedition against the Spaniards, viz.: Capte. Dan1. Goffe, Cpt. Stephen Richards, Coll0. John Prescott, Major Ammi Ruhamah Wise, Mr. Joshua Barker, and Mr. Timothy Ruggles. The Council advised to their being appointed captains accordingly.
His Excellency likewise nominated Mr. Thoe. Phillips, Mr. John Furney, and Mr. George Stewart to be captains or commanders of companies to be by them raised for the said expedition, and
The Council advised to their being appointed captains accordingly.
At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Thursday, July 10, 1740. Sitting the General Assembly. His Excellency sent for the gentlemen (in town) who were appointed captains in the designed expedition against the Spaniards, and delivered them his orders for enlisting men, and beating for volunteers in the several regiments in the province.

At a Council held at the Common Chamber in Boston, upon Monday, the 21st July, 1740. Voted, That the soldiers enlisted for the present expedition appear before one of His Majesty's justices of the peace, and severally declare that they did at such a time voluntarily enlist in His Majesty's service in the expedition against the Spanish dominions in the West Indies under such a captain, and that they are ready to do every other thing that can be reasonably required of them to qualify them for His Majesty's said service and pay. And that the said justice note the time of such declaration, in order to give out certificates thereof to the captains; which certificates are to express the place of such soldier's birth, his age, and calling, as far as may be known.

[seal.] Jonathan Belcher, Esq. Govr, and Commander in Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of New Hampr. in New England, to John Eyre of Portsm0 in sd Province, Esq.: You being appointed Captain of the company of Volunteers intended to be raised in this Province for his Majesty's service in the proposed expedition against the Spanish West Indies, are hereby authorized and directed to beat up for Volunteers throughout this Province, in order to procure & engage one hundred able bodyed & effective men to Enlist under you, as their Captain, with all possible dispatch for the aforesaid Expedition, and all Colonels, Lieutenant Cols. & Majors, and all other military officers, and all civil officers, and all his Majesty's good subjects within this Province, are hereby required and desired to be aiding and assisting to you the sd John Eyre, Esq. in raising the intended Company as above-mentioned.
Given under my hand and seal at arms the eighth day of August in y* 14 yr of his Majt''"reign, Anno Domini 1740.
Copy. J. Belcher.
New York, 21 July, 1740. Sir — I have received the favour of yours of the and 14th instant, in answer to which you will be pleased to follow his Majesty's Instructions to you with regard to the Levies in your Province and to give the Commissions as far as they will go to the first of the Gentlemen warranted by you to levy who first shall have compleated their Companies; and if there are any for whom you have not commissions to them you are to give Certificates of their having raised their several Companies and that pursuant to his Majesty's private Instructions to you, you had promised them Commissions which Certificates they are to show to Lord Cathcart or to the Commander in Chief for the time being, who will have blank Commissions to fill up. And in the meantime you are to furnish them with money for their subsistence, (viz.) to every Commissioned or certifyed officer from the date of his Commission or Certificate the Captains at seven shillings and six pence sterling pr day each, the first and second Lieutenants at three shillings & sue pence pr day each, the Ensigns and Adjutant at two shillings pr day each, the surgeons mate at two shillings pr day, and the private men under Commission or Certificate according to ye enclosed Estimate for a Captain & his Company which I now send you in case of any mistake in what was formerly sent you.

Of two Companies compleated here the Musters have been made up from the 25th June last to 24 August next both days included, and their subsistence for that time has been Issued to their respective Captains accordingly; the twenty-fourth day of the month being the general pay day of the Army, to which day the Musters are made up every two months and to which the accounts are to be made up and receipts taken payinge each months subsistence pr advance that is the month from the 25th Instant to the 24th August next inclusive on the 25th Instant and so on. And in order to furnish you with money for such subsistence in the most convenient method I can think of for your care and the advantage of ye service I have herewith enclosed remitted you the six following first Bills of Exchange (the seconds and thirds whereof shall be transmitted to you next Post) dated the 18th inst. at 30 days sight to your order on Henry Pelham, Esq. Pay Master General &c. amounting to the sum of £1357: I viz.
No. 22 — 1 for £ 400
23 — 1 for 300
24 — I for 250
25 — I for 150 ?26— I for 157: 1 ?27 — I for 100
In all 6 Bills for £1357: 1
which sum please to negotiate at the best exchange 1 you can and apply towards paying the Levies at that Exchange; and what you further may have occasion for as the companies are compleated please to advise me and it shall be remitted you. If there is any thing to be rectified or if any thing occurs wherein my concurrence is needful, I beg you will let me know it.
I am, Sr. your most obed1 & humble servant
Wm. Blakeney.
To his Excellency Jonathan Belcher, Esq. Govr of Masse Bay, &c:
1 Value of Paper Money, or Bills of Credit in the Plantations.
Y tor 100 1. Sterl.(English)

At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Monday, the 28th of July, 1740. Advised, and consented that a warrant be made out to the Treasurer to advance and pay unto the following persons, viz.: Captain Daniel Gone, Capte. John Prescot, Capte. Thomas Phillips, Capte. George Stewart, Capte. John Furney, Capte. Stephen Richards, Capt". Ammi Ruhamah Wise, Capt". Timothy Ruggles, and Capte. Joshua Barker, the sum of sixty pounds each in bills of the old tenor, in all five hundred and forty pounds, for the subsistence of their respective companies; to be paid out of the £17,500 appropriation.
WheYeas, It is of great importance for the maintaining of virtue and religion among the forces to be raised in this province, for His Majesty's service in the expedition against the King of Spain's dominions in the West Indies, that chaplains be procured for the said forces,
Voted, That the united ministers in the town of Boston be desired to make inquiry after such persons as may be most suitable and may be persuaded to undertake the said service upon such sufficient encouragement as this Government may give; and recommend to this Board two grave and prudent persons for this service,
At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Tuesday, the 29th of July, 1740. His Excellency having informed the Board that he had received four sets of His Majesty's commissions for the officers of four companies of volunteers raised within fhis province, for the expedition against the Spainards,
Advised, That His Excellency deliver the captains' commissions to the following persons, and in the following order, it appearing that they are so entitled by the time of their completing their levies, viz.: —
I. Capte. Daniel Goffe. 2. Captain John Prescot. 3. Captn. Thomas Phillips. 4. Cape. George Stewart. And His Excellency delivered the said commissions to the above-named gentlemen accordingly.
And there upon the said captains took the oaths appointed by Act of Parliament to be taken instead of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and repeated and subscribed the test or declaration in the said act, together with the oath of abjuration.
Advised, and consented that a warrant be made out to the Treasurer to advance and pay unto James Green the sum of twenty pounds in bills of the old tenor, for his time and expense in riding express to New York; to be paid out of the £1,000 appropriation.
Advised, That Mr James Woodside be placed in Capte George Steward's company as his second lieutenant.
Advised, That the following persons be appointed to the officers hereafter mentioned, viz.: Mr. William Foye, lieutenant, and Mr.George Wardsworth, ensign, in Capte. Daniel Goffe's company.
Mr. Jonathan Houghton, lieutenant, and Mr. William Partridge, ensign, in Capte John Prescot's company;
Mr. Josiah Flagg, lieutenant, and Mr. Christopher Goffe, ensign, in Captn. Thomas Phillips" company; and Mr. John Vryling, ensign in Captn. George Stewarts' company.
And then His Excellency delivered to Lieutt. William Foye, Lieut. Josiah Flagg, Ensign William Patridge, Ensign Christopher Goffe, and Ensign John Vryling, His Majesty's commissions for their said offices.
And then the said William Foye, Josiah Flagg, William Patridge, Christopher Goffe, and John Vryling took the oaths appointed by Act of Parliament to be taken instead of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, repeated and subscribed the test or declaration in the said Act, together with the oath of abjuration.1
1 Oaths appointed to be taken instead of the Oaths of Allegiance & Supremacy; And Declaration.
I A. B. Do sincerely Promise and Swear, That I will be faithful and bear true Allegiance to His Majesty King George the Second.
So Help me God.
I A. B. Do Swear, That I do from my Heart, abhor, detest and abjure as Impious and Heretical, that damnable Doctrine and Position, that Princes Excommunicated, or deprived by the Pope, or any Authority of the See of Borne, may be Deposed or Murthered by their Subjects, or any other whatsoever: And I do declare that no Foreign Prince, Person, Prelate, State or Potentate, hath or ought to have any Jurisdiction, Power, Superiority, Pre,eminence or Authority, Ecclesiastical or Spiritual within the Realm of GREAT-BRITAIN.
So Help me God.
I A. B. Do solemnly and sincerely in the Presence of God, Profess, Testify and Declare, That I do believe that in the Sacrament of the LORD'S SUPPER, there is not any Transsubstantiation of the Elements of Bread & Wine into the Body and Bloodoi CHRIST, at or after the Consecration thereof by any Person whatsoever: And that the Invocation or Adoration of the Virgin Mary, or any other Saint, and the Sacrifice of the Mass, as they are now used in the Church of Rome, are Superstitious and Idolatrous. And I do solemnly in the Presence of GOD, Profess, Testify and Declare, That I do make this Declaration and every part thereof, in the plain and ordinary Sense of the Words read unto me, as they are commonly understood by English Protestants, without any Evasion, Equivocation or mental Reservation whatsoever; and without any Dispensation already granted me for this purpose by the Pope, or any Authority or Person whatsoever, or without any Hope of any such Dispensation from any Authority or Person whatsoever, or without Thinking that I am or can be acquitted before GOD or Man, or absolved of this Declaration or any part thereof, although the Pope or any oilier Person or Persons or Powers whatsoever, should dis. pense with or annul the same, or declare that it was Null and Void from the beginning.

I A. B. do truly and sincerely Acknowledge, Profess, Testify, and Declare in my Conscience, before GOD and the World, That Our Sovereign Lord KING GEORGE the Second, is Lawful and Rightful KING of this Realm, and all other His Majesty's Dominions and Countries there,unto belonging; And 1 do solemnly and sincerely de. Clare, That I do believe in my Conseience That the Person pretended to be the Prince of Wales during the Life of the late King James, and since his Decease pretending to be, and taking upon himself the Stile and Title of King of England, by the Name of James the Third, or of Scotland, by the Name of James the Eighth, or the Stile and Title of King of Great,Britain, hath not any Right or Title whatsoever to the Crown of this Realm, or any other the Dominions there,to belonging; And I do Renounce, Refuse and Abjure any Allegiance or Obedience to him. And I do Swear, That I will bear Faith and true Allegiance to His Majesty KING GEORGE the
At a Council held at the Council Chamber in Boston, upon Thursday, the 14th August, 1740. Advised, That John Winslow, Esqr, be appointed a captain of a company of volunteers in the present expedition against the Spaniards, in the room of Capte Joshua Barker, who has resigned.
Coll0. William Blakeney having signified to His Excellency that those officers that could not have His Majesty's commissions here should have a certificate from His Excellency of their appointment,
The Secretary prepared the form of a certificate for the captains accordingly; which was read and approved of by the Board.
Voted, That the Secretary advertise in public prints His Excellency's pleasure that the officers and soldiers repair to their posts in order to a general muster and review of the troops raised for the present expedition on such day as His Excellency shall appoint.

[end of paste]

23 Sept 1740: Author Lemuel Shattuck (1835) explains Dr. John Prescott's Co. sails to Hispaniola

Boston, MA

Written in 1835 by author, Lemuel Shattuck:
“13. John Prescott, son of Dr. Jonathan Prescott, was born May 8, 1707, and graduated in 1727. He was a physician in Concord, and highly esteemed for his professional skill and excellent character. When the unfortunate expedition to Cuba was proposed, he entered readily into the views of the government, and enlisted a company of 100 men from this neighbourhood. He sailed from Boston, as commander of this company, September 23, 1740, and was off " Don Maria Bay " in the following February. After the melancholy failure of the expedition, he returned to this country in 1743, and not long after went to England, at the request of the government, where he was treated with great respect. He died in London, of the small-pox, December 30, 1743, aged 35.

He married Ann, the 8th child of Nathaniel Lynde, Esq. She died May 12, 1795, aged 88. Her sister married Joseph Willard of Rutland, who was killed by the Indians in 1723. Her mother was Susannah Willoughby, and her father son of Simon and Hannah Newdigate, who came from London. In testimony of the esteem in which Captain Prescott's services were held, his widow received a pension from the British government during her life. She had 5 children, Ann, Rebecca, 2 sons, who died young, and Willoughby, who died in Concord April 15, 1808, aged 65.”
[p245, A history of the town of Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts: from its earliest settlement to 1832 : and of the adjoining towns, Bedford, Acton, Lincoln, and Carlisle, containing various notices of county and state history not before published (Google eBook)]

[note: see how here is the 1743 date, where another place had his death at 1748 wasn't it...but a 3 and an 8 look similar in faded cursive caution]


Where is Don Maria Bay?

As to the precise location of this, Don Maria Bay, apparently in Hispaniola or Dominican Republic island area, I only find this brief mention, 1733- so perhaps this is a former or Americanized translation  for this waterway, now named ______________ .

“131. i. Mr. Telednor to the Duke of Newcastle. Jamaica. April 27th, 1733. Abstract. Feels obliged to represent the state of affairs and weakness of the country. Some of the inhabitants have frankly owned to him that, if the Spaniards had any spirit or courage, or were helped by the French, they might easily make themselves masters of it. A strong squadron will indeed always be a check on them, but the winds, which are sometimes the most terrible enemies we have, may render shipping of little service. The Island is inhabited by four different nations, the English, Scots, Irish and Jews. "By a modest computation two-thirds of the pretended Christians are not only disafected to the present Government, but zealously in the interest of the Pretender, and of such characters that it's allmost a disgrace to have any intimacy with them. The much greater part of them all are involved in debts, and a great many under prosecution, and so entangled, that 'tis impossible they should ever clear themselves without some extraordinary event." They might prove a broken reed, if tampered with by an enemy who designed an invasion. Refers to Governor Hunter's reports upon the rebellious negroes, "with this adition only, that ye rebel negroes are sayd to keep constant correspondance with ye Spaniards of Cuba."

As to the French, he learned on touching at Don Maria Bay that there were 1500 courieurs de bois in that part of Hispaniola alone, whilst an inhabitant of Martinique has recently informed me that there are constantly 2000 regular troops there etc. It will be an age before the fortifying and settling Port Antonio is completed and will cost abundance of men and money. So with the method used in attacking the negroes. "The one seems to me like sending people for health in a countrey infected with ye plague. The other is like sending a great number of men separately and one after the other, to attack an intrenchment or a pass, well guarded by a few etc. "Few people go to Port Antonio but are glad to escape with a severe fit of sickness only and ye expeditions heitherto made against ye negros have been scandallous, and has serv'd only to spirit 'em up and make soldiers of them" etc. Proposes that 1000 men, not regular troops, but married men of some trade, be raised and sent from England under half pay officers etc., with a promise of a grant of land as soon as the negroes are reduced etc., subsequently up to 10,000 such men might be sent. Port Antonio must be made healthy by cutting down the woods about it, on which these men might be employed and in making roads up into the mountains etc. All this to be done at the cost of the Government, for the island is very weak and poor and much divided, and if the work is left to them, it will go on little better than it has been done already etc. Signed, J. Telednor. 6 closely written pp. [C.O. 137, 54. ff. 366, 367, 368-370 v.]”

1740-1742: War of Jenkins' Ear list edited by M.O. Stachiw (1979) includes Thomas Pool

West Indies

Several years ago, I made hard copy of several pages from this book at the incredible Allen County Public Library, Ft. Wayne, Indiana.  The book is:

Mass. Officers and Soldiers, 1723-1743, Dummer's War to the War of Jenkins' Ear, Edited by Myron O. Stachiw.  Allen Co. Pub. Lib, Gc 974.4 St12ma.  1979, New Eng His. Gen. Soc.

On pg 199, there is an alphabetical listing which includes a Thomas Pool.  The column here for his rank is __________(blank).  The next column is entitled "Residence"-- but this is the column which I have discussed elsewhere on this fold3 Memorial Page, which is actually the Town of Birth, as per the Affidavit sworn, as required (as also discussed infra). [ So Residence is an error as a column heading...but the prior pages do explain it more accurately, i.e. pg xxv "In the case of the volunteers for the West Indies expedition, place of birth is given."]  The name of the Military Expedition is "West Indies" with Dates of Service as 5/1/40-42, and with the Length of Service Column as _______ (blank).  The column, Company, states "Capt. John Prescott". The final column, Servant to, is ____________ (blank), implying that he was not a servant to any person.

So whether the date of 1742, under the Dates of Service column bears any meaning or not, is uncertain, given the lack of an entry under Length of Service. Perhaps it is the offical duration of the "West Indies" tragedy.

1730-1740: Eunice Green and husband, Thomas Pool's 5 kids' births recorded in Mass VR

Groton, MA

The Mass Vital Records include five births usually attributed to Thomas Pool (born 1708)  and his wife, Eunice or Unice Green.  Eunice Green Pool was the daughter of William Green and his wife, Elizabeth Farmer:

Thomas POOL
Thomas, s. of Thomas and Unice, bp. Mar. 29, 1730. C. R.
Wakefield, MA

Eunice POOL
Eunice, d. of Thomas and Eunice, bp. Nov. 5, 1732. C.R.
Wakefield, MA

William POOL
William, s. of Thomas, bp. Mar. 9, 1735. C. R.
Wakefield, MA

Benjamin POOL
Benjamin, s. Thomas and Eunice, Aug. 19, 1737. N. R.
Dunstable, MA

Mary, d. Dr. Thomas and Euinic, Apr. 4, 1740.
Groton, MA

Citation Information: Massachusetts Vital Records to 1850 (Online Database:, New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2001-2010).
(but not all towns included here); New England Historic Genealogical Society
99 - 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02116, USA, phone

Note that this Mary Poole, b. 1740 was to "probably" be the wife of a Michael Sweetser, if I am recalling the papers I purchased from NEGHS' hard copy files correctly...

The importance of this topic, and the confusion surrounding which of their children died young has caused certain problems.  It was a man named Elliott Poole, whose conversation posted on Genforum, Poole message board, many years ago, that I have often silently thanked for raising this matter; I have never managed to reach Elliott Poole (or Charles Elliott Poole...), and thus wonder if he has passed away...he should be a distant blood cousin (if he is indeed of the Chester Pool, RWS line), so it is unfortunate that we couldnt have written sooner.


Karen Trevino's 1996 Research at NEHGS, Boston, MA on document numbered SG P005, Genealogical Records of the Poole Family and Particularly the Descendants of John Poole of Reading in the State of Massachusetts by Charles H. Poole 1876(?) [this is Karen's questionmark here, not mine]

Importantly on this document, which Shirley Deahn Hermstad of California received via fax, from her niece Karen Trevino of Utah, further data is given.  The fax header shows "Kerb Construction", Fax No 801/467-2277, with a transmission date of 14 Nov 1996 Thu 13:38.  If I am recalling correctly Shirley said that this Kerb Construction was Karen's husband's firm, but I have not had any contact with the Utah family.  Karen sadly passed away a few years ago, and was missed by her elder aunt, who then just died.   So Karen typed that on page 93, of the SG P005, it gave precise birthdates (not just baptism dates for four (of the five) children of Eunice Green Pool, and Dr. Thomas Pool...Karen wrote in part:

"Thomas, b. March 23, 1729-30

Eunice, b. Nov. 2, 1732

William, b. Mar. 3, 1734-5

Mary, b. Groton, April 4, 1740"

[Karen Trevino (descendant of Chester Poole b. 1761) typed transcription, 1996 from page 93 of Charles H. Poole's c1876?  records named above]

These dates are consistent with the Vital Records dates, infra.


I have not reviewed any of the following Sweetser family records:

Mary of Andover, and Michael Sweetser, Apr. 9, 1761. At Andover.*Intention not recorded.
Reading, MA

(see also Poole), Mary, and Michael Sweetser [of Reading. int.], Apr. 9, 1761.*

Andover, MA

Michael, s. of Michael, bp. Dec. 14, 1735. C. R.
Wakefield, MA

Michael Sweetser, Sweetsor
Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States
Probate Record

Michael, Oct. 31, 1773, a. 67 y. Dysentery. C. R.
Wakefield, MA

Michael m. Mary Smith. Rev. J. Emerson. Nov. 18 1731.
Malden, MA

Citation Information

Massachusetts Vital Records to 1850 (Online Database:, New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2001-2010).
(but not all towns included here)
New England Historic Genealogical Society
99 - 101 Newbury Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02116, USA




Sept 1741: Eunice Pool, named a widow in her 2 children's death records

Wakefield, MA

It is very significant that Eunice Green Pool is called a widow, in the following two 1741 death records-- this record has to suffice as the death record of her husband, he having had to die before she became a widow, or before the end of Sept. 1741.

(see Poolle), ____, d. of wid. Eunice, Sept. __, 1741, a. abt. 9 y. C. R.
Wakefield, MA

[this first record refers to a d. or daughter of widow Eunice dying at about age nine years old, as per church records. ]

____, ch. of wid. Eunice, Oct. __, 1741, a. abt. 4 y. C. R.
Wakefield, MA

[this second record refers to a child of widow Eunice dying at about age four years old, as per church records-- this is only one month later than the previous death.]

So when comparing these two deaths, against the five births I posted in the earlier story here, it would seem reasonable to find that the four yr old would be:

Benjamin POOL
Benjamin, s. Thomas and Eunice, Aug. 19, 1737.

Similarly, the nine year old daughter, could only be:

Eunice POOL
Eunice, d. of Thomas and Eunice, bp. Nov. 5, 1732. C.R.

As such Benjamin Pool (about age four) and his older sister Eunice Pool (about age nine) both died young in 1741, Wakefield, Mass.

[C.f. p216 of The Essex Genealogist, Vol 21 #4, published by The Essex Society of Genealogists, Lynnfield, Mass. USA 01940.  Here Marcia Wiswall Lindberg, Editor Emeritus, in her extensive, detailed article, did not identify the kids named Benjamin or Mary, only listing three (Wakefield) children for Eunice Green Pool; as such, Marcia declared Thomas Pool (1730/1781) [my own direct line, the leather worker/cordwainer who married Sarah Warren] as being the son who died young, despite the math precluding this.  I strongly believe her article is in error on this point, and stress that yes, my line from Sarah Warren Pool definitely exists. Her article is entitled, Research in Progress (column name), John Poole of Lynn and Reading. I did telephone her many years ago after discovering the error, only to find that she had retired from her many years of genealogy...

Feb 1741: Commander Prescott's Mass. Company arrives Hispaniola

Ship in waters off Don Maria Bay, Hispaniola

If Commander Prescott and his Mass. company arrived in the waters off of Don Maria Bay, ____________, in Feb. 1741, after departing Boston, 23 Sept. 1740 (see infra)  then it could be feasible that Thomas Pool died Oct-Dec 1740, at sea, between these two dates. Where such a death in international waters would be recorded is unknown. It would seem reasonable that he did not die these first few months, if I am construing the events correctly.

Otherwise, after a long pursuit, it must be admitted and accepted that my Dr. Thomas Pool died prior to the end of Sept. 1741, due to the church records recording his two children's 1741 deaths, recorded  in now, Wakefield, Mass (see infra.)  Again, these may be the only primary records, and this pursuit can advance no further. Should any students or reseachers in United Kingdom, South America, et al ever find any data, please post it here.

In book, The Prescott Memorial, Part I, p. 50, 1870, by author, Wm Prescott, M.D., this Ann Lynde, his wife (wife of Commander John Prescott, also a doctor), is named as the daughter of Nathaniel and Susanna Willoughby Lynde.   If I am recalling correctly LYNDEs were up at that southern Vermont cemetery where Thomas Pool (1730/1781) was buried (named Old North Burying Ground) near that maple candymaker's bed and breakfast where I used to stay. And/or was it (LYNDE surname) on those Pomfret Center, Conn. or Vermont property deeds (check Williamstown VT early deeds, where I made an extra copy for town clerk). I cannot recall offhand-but it may be that Lynde was a town clerk official who signed some of the old mss papers/entries which I copied a few years ago in one of these exhausting Poole family research excursions up east.

1741: 25,000+ die in War of "Jenkins Ear", including 3,000+ American colonists

San Lazaro (CastilloSanFelipe deBarajas), Cartagena,Columbia

I have long had a difficult time grasping how (and if) my own ancestor, Thomas Pool (1708/1741) served as an "English Army Surgeon", when I had conceived that he was a multi-generational American at his birth, descending from John Pooll, the wealthy c1630-1667 miller/tanner (of the geographic area now known as the town of Wakefield, Mass. USA).  But after reading some excellent, informative articles, I am beginning to construe that the English mandated that American colonists (prior to Independence Day in 1775) join England's battle against Spain, and as such Thomas Pool could be viewed as belonging to the English army-- even in 1740-41, preceding the later Louisbourg dates which have fouled up my earlier analyses for years. The American colonists were all still British subjects in the 1740's.

So, it seems that the references to Louisbourg as the war/timeframe for English Army surgeon, Thomas Pool--actually-- were pointing to this unusual war of disease dubbed Jenkins Ear a few years earlier, 1740-1741. Recognition of this timing shift, importantly allows some of the puzzle pieces to fall into place.

A review of Lemmon Poole letters, from Karen Trevino's research (at NEGHS) seems to support this revised 2012 logic but I am hoping that this Memorial Page could help unravel the details with the help of all of you 1700's military & c1630 England migration experts out there. Please make a page and link it to this one, or add a story in support here. International help is sought!

And accepting Eunice Green Pool, being a widow as proof of Thomas Pool's,  before say, bef Sept 30, 1741, death date, eliminates consideration of the subsequent Louisbourg battle. See below.

Also, Charles Henry Poole, researcher/author (deceased), seems to have given a 1748 death date for (my) Thomas Pool (born 1708), among the other versions of this man's death. Whether this was a construction error, i.e. say, at "end of war" translated into 1748 or some other explantion is unknown at this time. See below. 

But, trying to understand the c1740 background is critical to deciphering the POOLL family mysteries, so I must turn to the published authorities- remember that this Thomas Pool was the medical doctor to these sick c1740 soldiers surely onboard the hospital ship (see below):

1.  Harkness' explanatory thirty page, 1950 article (via JSTOR or your library) is excellent, so read:

Americanism and Jenkins' Ear
by author, Albert Harkness, Jr.
The Mississippi Valley Historical Review , Vol. 37, No. 1 (Jun., 1950), pp. 61-90
Published by: Organization of American Historians
Article Stable URL:

Here are a few excerpts from Harkness:

“In Massachusetts Governor Jonathan Belcher was at first luke-warm to the enterprise, but later changed his attitude as the result of his rivalry with William Shirley. Ten companies were mustered, but expediency again changed his mind. Instead of giving out certificates to the six companies levied over and above the colony's quota, he discharged all but one of them. Thus the colony furnished only five complete companies to the regiment. [fn]39”

“Indeed, since neither the French nor Spanish fleets ever challenged Vernon, the health of the soldiers ultimately became the greatest problem for the British commanders. In the American regiment alone there were already about three hundred sick during January, 1741. Companies which had made a proud appearance on the parade grounds of New England were ('quite broke up and torn to pieces." Some of those who survived the "fevers and flux" succumbed to Sir Richard Rum, [fn 61] though the reforms of "old Grog". .. ”

“To add to the discontent of the Americans the Admiral broke up whole companies to fill vacant billets in his ships and it certainly did no good to the relationship between colonials and Englishmen when the Crews of northern privateers were pressed into the navy. Because the Americans were ill-trained recruits and did not have the protection of the regular British army, they were logical prey for naval press gangs. But whatever the cause, the result was a marked difference in the attitude of all concerned toward the in-habitants of the North American colonies. Blakeney, himself an Englishman, complained that, while the British were well cared for, there were inadequate provisions for the Americans.”

“Only then was Carthagena fixed as objective of the expedition.'' In final preparations for a siege, Negroes mustered by Governor Edward Trelawney of Jamaica and detachments from the American regiment were sent ashore to cut fascines and pickets for earthworks." The Northerners were considered fit for working - parties if nothing eise. After a week in Hispaniola the fleet headed southward to Carthagena. Though the commanders themselves had just decided on this objective, it had long been rumored as such in Jamaica." In any case, it was a logical conclusion and the Spaniards were ready for the voyage-worn troops. Life aboard a troop transport in the tropics is grueling enough nowadays and, if any credence is to be given Tobias Smollett, a surgeon's assistant on this tragic expedition, conditions were immeasurably worse in the mid-eighteenth century. But, as if the lack of tactical surprise and the poor health of the troops were not sufficient guarantee of failure, Admiral Vernon and General Wentworth contributed their personal squabbles to assure a debacle. It is not my purpose to re-examine the disgraceful command relations between the army and navy at Carthagena, a Situation by no means peculiar to this war, but, in the barrage of pamphleteering and letter writing which it evoked, to discern incidental evidence of the British attitude toward American soldiers. For more than a month the troops were subjected to "a climate where there is such a continual expense of the animal fluid, that as many gallons might have been necessary to repair the waste of four-and twenty hours, in a hard working man, sweating under the sun, which was vertical, and fed with putrid beef, rusty pork, and bread swarming with maggots." Ashore conditions were even worse though the men obtained decent drinking water by "sinking half-tubs in holes bored in the beach, which are filled with potable water, strained through the pores of the sand." With the rainy season came an epidemic which invalided many more. There were not enough left to prepare the earthworks for attack. Those who fell ill and were taken aboard the hospital ships suffered an even grimmer fate: they were pent up between decks in small vessels, where they had not room to sit upright; they wallowed in filth, myriads of maggots were hatched in the putrefaction of their sores, which had no other dressing than that of being washed by themselves with their own allowance of brandy; and nothing was heard but groans, lamentations, and the language of despair, invoking death to deliver them from their miseries. What served to encourage this despondence was the prospect of those poor wretches who had strength and opportunity to look around them; for there they beheld the naked bodies of their fellow-soldiers and comrades floating up and down the harbour, affording prey to the carrion crows and sharks, which tore them in pieces without Interruption, and contributing by their stench to the mortality that p r e v a i l e d . [citing to Smollett]  In these miserable surroundings the mutual feelings of the Americans and Europeans ripened into deep mistrust.

[see entire, very well written article and read it...what a miserable death for Dr. Thomas Pool, since this would seem to be his likely fate at Cartagena, Columbia, 1741- so not Cuba, as I have long attempted to investigate.  I would have to revisit why I believed Cuba in the first place, but it could be through phrases such as "expedition to Cuba" or similar. 

Do records exist in the country of Columbia or in the United Kingdom of the dead soldiers?


2.  Next, here is author, Walter Clark's excellent article, 1896:

[written c1896]

HISTORY records few instances of official incapacity and mismanagement so gross as the ill-fated expedition to South America back in 1740, in which perished, to no purpose, over 3000 Americans from the colonies on the Atlantic seaboard, and nearly seven times that number of English. Historians have not loved to linger over its details. Hence it is hardly noted in our books; yet it was a stern, sad reality in its day.

Six times have troops from what are now the United States visited in hostility the territory of our neighbor on the north—viz., in King William's war, 1690; in Queen Anne's war, 1710; at the taking of Louisburg. 1744; in the old French war of 1755-63 (when Quebec fell, and Canada passed to the English); again, during the Revolution, and in the war of 1812. In 1846 we invaded our southern neighbor. The expedition against Cartagena is the only case in which our troops ever engaged an enemy on another continent.

In October, 1739, England declared war against Spain. The real object, all pretexts aside, was to open the ports of Spanish America to British vessels. These ports were hermetically closed to all except Spanish keels. The object in view was no small one from a mercantile standpoint, for Spanish America then reached from the southern boundary of Georgia and the northern boundary of California down to Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn. From this vast country there could be excepted on the mainland only the possessions of the Portuguese in Brazil, together with Jamaica and a few of the smaller islands in the West Indies. The stake was a large one, and Englaud could win only by destroying the colonial system of Spain.
It was a contest for the enrichment of the merchants and traders of England. Small interest had the North American colonies therein. But loving letters and proclamations were sent out calling on them for aid. Promptly on the outbreak of war Anson was sent to the Pacific coast, and Vernon to the Atlantic. Disaster at sea destroyed the hopes of conquest of the former, and turning his expedition into one for booty, and losing all bis ships but one, be circumnavigated the globe, reaching home by way of the East, loaded with fame and enriched with spoils. "Vernon, in November, 1739, with ease, captured Porto Bello and Fort Chagres (near the present town of Aspinwall), both on the Isthmus of Panama, and became the hero of the hour. The following year Great Britain determined to send out a masterful expedition under the same victorious auspices.

Accordingly, in October, 1740, a fleet of thirty ships of the line, and ninety other vessels, besides tenders, under Sir Chaloner Ogle, sailed from Spithead, Isle of Wight, England, carrying 15,000 sailors and 12,000 land troops—the latter commanded by Charles, eighth Lord Cathcart. They joined Admiral Edward Vernon at Jamaica, January 9, 1741, to which rendezvous came the North American troops, 3600 in number. It is in these latter that our interest principally centres.

The colonial troops came from nine of the colonies, as follows: Massachusetts, 5 companies; Rhode Island, 2 companies; Connecticut, 2 companies; New York, 5 companies; .New Jersey, 3 companies; Pennsylvania, 8 companies; Maryland, 3 companies; Virginia, 4 companies; North Carolina, 4 companies. Total, 36 companies. By the royal instructions these companies consisted of 100 men each, including 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, and 2 drummers, besides commissioned officers, consisting of one captain, two lieutenants, and an ensign. The British government, however, reserved the appointment of field and staff officers and one lieutenant and one sergeant in each company. The total was over 3600 men. The provinces of New Hampshire, Delaware, South Carolina, and Georgia sent no troops—the latter two probably because their forces were sent against St. Augustine (to which North Carolina also contributed men), and Delaware was probably counted in Pennsylvania, it being then known as "the three lower counties on Delaware." Why New Hampshire took no part is not explained.

It was ordered that the American troops should be embodied in four regiments or battalions, under the command of Sir Alexander Spotswood, to whom Colonel William Blakeney was to serve
        [p754 starts here]
as adjutant-general. Spotswood had served under Marlborough at Blenheim, 1704; had been Governor of Virginia, 1710 to 1723, and in 1714 had been the first white man to cross the Blue Ridge —a feat which procured him the honor of knighthood. He was an officer of rare talent, a scholar, and a man of high character. His career was unfortunately cut short by his death at Annapolis, June 7, 1740, while waiting for his troops to assemble. He was succeeded in the command by Sir William Gooch, then Governor of Virginia—a post which he filled from 1729 to 1749. Blakeney, the adjutant-general sent out from England, was born in County Limerick, Ireland, 1672, and was therefore in his sixty-ninth year. He lived over twenty years after this expedition, to hold Stirling Castle for the King " in the '45,'' to surrender Minorca, of which he was Governor, to the French, after a gallant resistance, in 1756, and to be raised to the peerage as Lord Blakeney. He died in 1761.

The Massachusetts troops were commanded by Captains Daniel Goffe, John Prescott, Thomas Phillips, George Stewart, and John Winslow. The first lieutenancies of these companies were presumably filled under the general order by appointments sent out from England, and are not named. Among those not officers were Nathaniel Chandler, of Duxbury, ancestor of the late Judge Peleg Sprague, of the United States District Court, and Moses Thomas, ancestor of Hon. Isaiah Thomas, and of Judge Benjamin F. Thomas, of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts; and doubtless by research among the records of that State the names of others may yet be recovered. Nathaniel Chandler did not return, leaving, it is said, a widow and seven young daughters in destitute circumstances. Indeed, of the 500 gallant young men that Massachusetts Bay sent to this Southern expedition, only 50 lived to come home again. These troops were raised and officered in July, 1740. This colony seems to have appropriated 17,500 pounds. In the fall of 1741 a proclamation was issued for recruits to fill the ranks which had been so sorely depleted, but it does not appear whether any were obtained.

Rhode Island sent two companies of 100 men each. The Newport company, equipped in the spring, was commanded by Captain Joseph Sheffield, and the Providence company by Captain William Hopkins. The names of the other officers are not given, but it is mentioned that the first lieutenants in each company were sent out from England. A large number of men in excess had been enlisted, but they were discharged on receiving orders from New York that only 200 were needed. Before embarking the commissioned officers were dined by the Legislature, and the soldiers entertained at public expense. In August, 1741, it is stated that the British troops before Cartagena had been reduced to 3000 men; and, indeed, over half the force having perished in two days by yellow fever, Captain William Hopkins had come home for recruits, which were obtained, and the Tartar was equipped to carry them to Santiago de Cuba, against which an attack was meditated, but afterwards abandoned. Captain Walter Chaloner is also spoken of fcjr good conduct in this expedition. He probably succeeded Captain Sheffield.

Connecticut sent two companies, commanded, it would seem, by Captains Winslow* and Prescott; and in this province also, in the fall of 1741 and February, 1742, a proclamation was issued to raise recruits under Captain Prescott, who had been sent home by General Wentworth for that purpose from Jamaica. The two companies in 1740 were carried to the seat of war in three vessels, commanded re
* Colonel John Winslow, who hud been a captain in this expedition, commanded all the New England forces in Canada in 1755-11. It does not appear whether it was the Massachusetts or Connecticut captain of that name.

-spectively by Captains John Shaw, Nathaniel Shaw, and John Keith. Out of nearly 1000 men furnished by New England, less than 100 ever returned.

Of the five companies sent by New York, one company sailed September 19, 1740, in his Majesty's ships the Squirrel and the Astraa for Jamaica. Early in October the Rhode Island transports, those of Connecticut (one of which had been delayed to stop a leak caused by running on a rock), those from Boston, and the rest of the New York troops were assembled at Sandy Hook, under Colonel Blakeney, who was in the Ludlow Castle. On October 10th they were joined by those of the New Jersey troops which were to embark at Amboy (the West Jersey troops were to go down the Delaware River to meet them). On October 12 the expedition sailed to join Colonel Gooch with the Maryland and Virginia troops. New York raised 2500 pounds for the service. Connecticut gave 4000 pounds towards bounties (premia they styled it) and the expenses of the two companies she sent. Application was made to New York also for recruits in 1741. New Jersey raised two companies, and voted 2000 pounds and recruits; for they were also duly called for there, as elsewhere, Captain Farmer being sent home for that purpose.

Pennsylvania sent eight companies, but refused any appropriation. Of the Pennsylvania troops 300 were white bond-servants, who were given their liberty on condition of enlistment, much to the dissatisfaction of the province. Maryland voted 5000 pounds, and sent three companies. Virginia sent 400 men, and appropriated 5000 pounds for their support. The captain of one of her companies was Lawrence Washington, the half-brother of George Washington. Lawrence, who was then twenty years of age, distinguished himself in the capture of the fort at Boca Chica, and was also in the deadly assault on San Lazaro, when 600 men, half of the assaulting column, were left on the ground. He was fourteen years older than his more distinguished brother. North Carolina sent 400 men; of these, 300 were raised in the Albemarle section, then the most populous, and one company on the Cape Fear, the latter commanded by James Innes, a Scotchman by birth, but at that day a citizen of New Hanover County. Subsequently lie was in command of the North Carolina troops sent to aid Virginia in 1754-5, and as such was the ranking officer under whom George Washington, commanding the Virginia forces, served for a while at Winchester. The names of only two other North Carolinians who served in this expedition are preserved, Captain Robert Holton and Captain Coltrane. North Carolina levied a tax of three shillings on the poll to aid the expedition; but as money was scarce, the General Assembly provided that the tax could be paid either "in specie or by tobacco at ten shillings the hundred, rice at seven shillings and sixpence, dressed deerskins at two shillings and sixpence the pound, tallow at fourpence, pork at seven shillings the barrel, or current paper money at seven and a half for one." This seems to indicate no scarcity in either pork or paper money. Warehouses for receiving the commodities were directed to be built in each county.

Under the royal instructions the feeding and transportation of the troops, till they joined, were to be borne by the colonies, but their pay, clothing, arms, tents, and ammunition from the beginning were to be furnished by Great Britain. The fleet under Colonel Blakeney, which left New York October 12, arrived first at Jamaica, and the troops from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, under Governor Gooch, soon after. On December 14, 1740, Colonel Blakeney wrote announcing this. Indeed, Gooch wrote himself, December 8, that his command had arrived safely, and only the North Carolinians were still to come. These sailed from Wilmington, North Carolina, November 5, 1740. Governor Johnston wrote the Duke of Newcastle on that date, adding that the province would have readily sent 200 more if bills of exchange could have been discounted.

In the mean while the British fleet, with 27,000 sailors and soldiers tinder Sir Chaloner Ogle, proceeded, its 170 vessels having been scattered en route by a storm in the Bay of Biscay, to the rendezvous given the American forces at Jamaica. Stopping at St. Christophers and the neutral island of Dominica to take in water, Major-General Lord Cathcart died of a dysentery, and the command of the land forces devolved upon Brigadier-General Thomas Wentworth, an inexperienced and irresolute man—so styled by both Bancroft and Smollett. As the fleet sailed along by Hispaniola, four strange sails were espied, and Sir Chaloner Ogle detached a like number of vessels, under Lord Augustus Fitzroy, to give chase. The battle that ensued was bloody, and lasted till daylight, when the enemy showed French colors, and as war was not then declared between the two nations, the two commanders complimented each other, and went on their several ways, carrying their dead and wounded. This is a characteristic incident of those times. Smollett, the celebrated historian and novelist, was serving in the English fleet as assistant surgeon, and has left us an accurate description, it is said, of this sea-fight in the naval battle depicted by him in Roderick Random. The forces were united in the harbor of Kingston, Jamaica, January 9, 1741, under Admiral Vernon. Had he at once proceeded to Havana, as intended, it must have fallen, and Cuba would have passed under English rule, and the treasures sent from New Spain would have been intercepted. But unaccountably Vernon lay idle to the end of the month, and then he started east in search of the French fleet off Hispaniola. Finding that it had left for France, towards the end of February it was determined to attack Cartagena. On the 4th of March he anchored off that place, which had three hundred guns mounted. Instead of pressing the attack, he lay inactive till the 9th, giving opportunity for better fortification and re-enforcements to the enemy. He then landed troops on Tierra-Bomba, near the mouth of the harbor known asBocaChica (or little mouth), and attacked the land batteries also with his ships.

In this attack Lord Aubrey Beauclerc, commanding one of the ships, was slain. In the land attack 200 American troops, led by Captain Lawrence Washington, were mentioned for their gallantry. The passage, however, was carried, March 25, and three days later the troops were landed within a mile of Cartagena, which lay at the other end of the spacious harbor, which is really a bay several miles in length. The town was protected by the formidable fort San Lazaro. The enemy abandoned Castillo Grande, the fort on the opposite side of the bay. Had there been proper concurrence between the attacks made by the land forces and the fleet, San Lazaro would have been readily taken; but the worst of feeling prevailed between General Wentworth and Admiral Vernon, and thus there were two poor commanders instead of one good one, as was so essential to success. The whole expedition was shamefully mismanaged. The troops were brave, but the leaders were incompetent. The heat and diseases of the climate slew more than the sword. The town was bombarded three days, terrifying the inhabitants and injuring church steeples and convents.

After repeated demands by Admiral Vernon that a land attack should be made. General Wentworth, in a note to Admiral Vernon, April 2, 1741, demanded that 1500 Americans, under Colonel Gooch, should be landed to assist him. On April 6 he acknowledges the landing of the Americans. The assault, which was made on April 9, is thus described: "Stung by the reproaches of the Admiral [Vernon]. General Wentworth called a council of his oflicers, and with their advice he attempted to carry Fort San Lazaro by storm. Twelve hundred men, headed by General Guise, and guided by some Spanish deserters or peasants, who were ignorant, or more likely in the pay of the Spanish Governor, whom they pretended to have left, marched boldly up to the front of the fort. But the guides led them to the very strongest part of the fortifications; and, what was worse, when they came to try the scaling-ladders with which they were provided, they found them too short. This occasioned a fatal delay, and presently the brilliant morning of the tropics broke with its glaring light upon what had been intended for a nocturnal attack. Under these circumstances the wisest thing would have been an instant retreat; but the soldiers had come to take the fort, and with bull-dog resolution they seemed determined to take it at every disadvantage. They stood under a terrible plunging fire, adjusted their ladders, and fixed upon points where they might climb; and they did not yield an inch of ground, though every Spanish . cannon and musket told upon them and thinned their ranks. Some of the grenadiers even attained a footing on the ramparts, when their brave leader. Colonel Grant, was mortally wounded. The grenadiers were swept over the face of the wall, but still the rest sustained the enemy's fire for several hours, and did not retreat till 600, or one-half their original number, lay dead or wounded at the foot of those fatal walls.* It is said that Vernon stood inactive on his quarter-deck all the while, and did not send in his boats full of men till the last moment, when Wentworth was retreating. The heavy rains now set in, and disease spread with such terrible rapidity that in less than two days one-half the troops on shore were dead, dying, or unfit for service." Vernon sent a vessel to the attack after the failure of the land assault, but so badly managed it that she struck on a mud bank, and was destroyed by the enemy. It is said that he could easily have sent four or five vessels in deep water within pistol-shot of the fort, and if this had been done while Wentworth was attacking the land face, the fort would have fallen. After this the army went back to Jamaica, where it numbered only 3000 out of the original 15,600. Of this, even, only 2000 survived to return home. The sailors also were badly depleted, for after his return to Jamaica Admiral Ver*

179 killed, 459 wounded, 16 prisoners.

-non wrote to the Duke of Newcastle, May 30, 1741, that il without the aid of some Americans we could not get our ships to sea." And this was done by impressing them for that purpose—probably sailors from the sloops which had brought out the American troops. Yet, notwithstanding the promise in the royal proclamation, when these troops were enlisted, that they should be returned to their homes free of expense, Vernon had the effrontery to write to Newcastle suggesting that the few surviving Americans should be colonized in eastern Cuba, as "North America is already too thickly settled, and its people wish to establish manufactures, which would injure those at home " (in Britain).

Three thousand recruits, part probably from the North American colonies, were sent him, and he also organized and drilled 1000 Jamaica negroes with a design of attacking Santiago de Cuba, but this was abandoned. Thus ended probably the most formidable and thoroughly equipped expedition which up to that time Great Britain had sent out. Everything was expected of it. Under good leadership it might have taken Cuba, and ended the rule of the Spaniard in the New World. Its failure is only comparable to that sustained by Nicias in Sicily, as narrated by Plutarch. Vernon's utter defeat overthrew the Walpole ministry.

General Thomas Wentworth, on whom the command of the land forces devolved by the death of Lord Cathcart, was colonel of the 24th Regiment, 1737, brigadier-general, 1739, and after these misfortunes was made a major-general, August 14, 1741. On his return to England in. 1743 was immediately elected to Parliament, had interest enough to be promoted lieutenant general two years later, and died, November, 1747, while minister to Turin.
Admiral Edward Vernon was born at Westminster, 1684. He served in Spain in the early years of the War of the Succession. He was several times elected to Parliament both before and after the disastrous expedition in which his incompetency caused the loss of so many brave men. Altogether considerably over 25,000 men must have perished in the four months from January to May, 1741. Admiral Vernon was at last cashiered and dismissed from the service, but not for his incompetency, which is a venial fault in a government ruled by aristocratic influences, as England then was, provided the offender has influential connections. He did not die till 1757. Admiral Vernon was the first to order the sailors' rations of rum to be diluted with water, which unpopular mixture took henceforward the name of grog, from his grogram overcoat. He incidentally touches later American history by the fact that his name was bestowed by Lawrence Washington (who served under him) on his residence, which afterwards took its place in history as Mount Vernon. It is the irony of fate which thus links his name with immortal fame, for few men so incompetent have ever trod a quarter-deck as that same Vice-Admiral of the Blue, Edward Vernon.

Thus one hundred and fifty-six years ago the colonies came to the front. They responded to the King's call for aid with men and means to the full extent of their ability. Their troops served faithfully— aye, brilliantly. Beneath the tropical sun, at the carrying of the passage of Boca Chica, in the deadly assault upon San Lazaro, amid the more deadly pestilence that walketh by noonday, they knew how to do their duty and to die.

The merest handful returned home. But their States have preserved no memento of their deeds. The historian has barely mentioned them. Few names have been preserved. The recollection of so much heroism should not be allowed to die. Their States should yet erect cenotaphs to these their sons, the "Brave men who perished by their guns, Though they conquered not"  — to the " unreturning brave " who sleep by the Cartagenian summer sea beneath the walls of San Lazaro. 
[abt p754-758 above,
Harper's new monthly magazine, Volume 93, By Cairns Collection of American Women Writers.  A Recovered Chapter in American History by Walter Clark, p753+]

1729: Thomas Pool of Lynn, MA (Wakefield) m. Eunice Green

Wakefield, MA

Here is the Vital Record of their marriage, from same NEGHS database cited earlier, infra:

1729 Thomas POOL
Tho[ma]s of Lynn, and Unice Green, July 8, 1729. C.R." Marriage
Wakefield, MA


8 May 1708: Thomas Poole born Wakefield,MA s/o John and Mary

Wakefield, MA

This is to be the Vital Record of the birth of Dr. Thomas Pool/Poole (1708/1741):

1708 Thomas POOLE
Thomas, s. John and Mary, May 8, 1708. Birth
Lynn, MA

When using a map, please use Wakefield, MA as the town, rather than the current town named Lynn, Mass., USA.   I went to the town of Lynn, MA on one trip, and it is the wrong location.  It has been a steep learning curve.

Notice below where I wrote of Karen's notes regarding Lynnfield Homestead (Thomas' parents home it seems) as precise place of Thomas' 1708 place of birth may need to be refined further.

1876: Charles Henry Poole, author of Mss C 5598, NEHGS

Boston, MA

This is the NEHGS catalogue entry (2012) for the typescript mss credited to Charles Henry Poole,c1876.

Poole, Charles Henry.
Genealogical records of the Poole family : and particularly the descendants of John Poole of Reading in the state of Massachusetts / by Charles H. Poole.
Publication info.
[S.l. : C.H. Poole], 1876?
 Mss C 5598  -
257 leaves ; 33 cm.
Typescript genealogy.
Yet, I believe that I have also seen Frederick Poole Smith's name appended to some work by Charles H. Poole, but it is unclear if it is this same unpublished mss.  I created a spotlight, fold3/footnote, on him long ago, re: Warren Poole (of Vermont) and Lemmon Poole's (of Detroit Mich) line.

Some Poole research seems to have its origins within this C.H. Poole Mss of 257 pages...My references, infra, to Karen Trevino's notes relate to her notes while reviewing the hard copy of this Mss in Boston.

HUTCHISON BOOK- Separately, while looking at pg 18, with the Bibliography for Jonathan Poole(4) on it, I note that the entry #1 cites to this same item.  This is a page from the informative, 1982 book, published in LaCrosse, Wis. by Harry M. Hutchison (son of Estella Poole), Gladys Thomte Poole, and Betty Grover Schnick, on their Poole/Hutchison/Stroessenreuther/Farley/Brookins line.   Here,  the same C.H. Poole source cited by Hutchison, is given the internal NEGHS number of 18F 6 I G Poo 5, as found by Mary Poole Crawford in "New England Historical Record." (prior to 1982 publication date).  Hutchison followed CHP in several places on the hard copy pages in his book.

News . London and Country Journal (1739 1st Thursday Edition) (London, England), Thursday, July 16, 1741; Issue CXIII.

London, Eng

Looking for articles....found this one at...British Lib, Brit Newspapers, galegroup- re Cartagena 1741 - Am unclear if there is a way to add the info here into my Thomas Poole research- but I cannot extract from the pdf...nor could I upload the pdf- so I will note it here, for someone else to be able to extract from it and post it into this Memorial Page, [thanks in advance!]

News .
London and Country Journal (1739 1st Thursday Edition) (London, England), Thursday, July 16, 1741; Issue CXIII.

In postscript:

"The Shallowness of the Water for a Mile from the Walls of Cartagena made it impracticable for the Admiral to hazard any of our large and fine Ships against it, which must have been destroy'd without any success; for unless Ships can lie within less than half a Mile they can never make a Breach in a strong Wall, fit for Storming. (more...)

 [see pdf on MacBook Pro]

About this Memorial Page