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Gross-Rosen Concentration Camp

(1940—1945)

The Gross-Rosen Concentration Camp was initially organized as a subcamp for Sachsenhausen. It became an independent camp in 1941. Prisoners were sent to work in the nearby granite quarry, and as the camp expanded, many prisoners worked in the factories of several subcamps. The most famous of Gross-Rosen's subcamps was Brunnlitz where the workers of Oskar Schindler's textile factory were interned. Overall, Schindler saved over a thousand Jews who worked in this camp. Gross-Rosen was a large and very typical Nazi concentration camp. In 1944, Gross-Rosen reached its peak population, holding eleven percent of all Nazi prisoners in the main and subcamps. When the Soviet Army began moving west, thousands of Jews were transferred from Auschwitz and other Polish camps to Gross-Rosen where they were interned until the Soviets liberated the camp in February 1945.

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Stories

Siegfried Halbreich Describes conditions and forced labor in the Gross-Rosen camp [1992 interview]

“There was a new camp, consisted only in the beginning of six blocks, barracks, and at night we were taken to our barrack, and this was our barrack for the whole year, and the conditions were there much worse than in Sachsenhausen. During the day, we had to march to the stone quarry, I would say maybe 20 minutes away, and it was in a mountainous terrain, and, uh, there we had to work, we had to work in this quarry carrying the heavy rocks [coughs], and, uh, people died like flies. On the way back, we had to everyone carry one big rock on our shoulders to the camp because coming home, I mean, to the barracks, to the camp after the report, counting how many people are left, or how many, if the, the same amount of people is coming back who went out of the camp, they said, "All go back to the camp, to the barracks, but the Jews remain." And we had to continue to build the camp till twelve o'clock at night. So--all without food. When we came to the barracks, we were so tired that we just didn't have any appetite. We fall asleep. And in the morning, five, six o'clock right away, up and again the same thing.”

Source: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/media_oi.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005454&MediaId=1215

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Major Subcamps of Gross-Rosen

Aslau, Bad Salzbrunn, Bad Warmbrunn, Bautzen, Bernsdorf, Birnbaeumel, Bolkenheim, Brandhofen, Breslau, Brieg, Brunnlitz, Bunzlau, Christianstadt, Dyhernfurth, Faulbrueck, Friedland, Funfteichen, Gabersdorf, Gablonz, Gsassen, Gebhardsdorf, Gellenau, Gorlitz, Graeben, Grafenort, Gross Koschen, Grunberg, Grulich, Halbau, Halbstadt, Hartmannsdorf, Hirschberg, Hochweiler, Hohenelbe, Kamenz, Kittlitztreben, Kratzau, Kretschamberg, Landeshut, Langenbielau, Liebau, Libenau, Maerzdorf, Mittlesteine, Namslau, Neuhammer, Neusalz, Niesky, Ober Altstadt, Parschnitz, Peterswaldau, Reichenau, Reichenbach, Sackisch, Schatzlar, Schweidnitz, Treskau, Waldenburg, Weisswasser, Wustegiersdorf, Zillertal and Zittau.

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Place Details

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Camp Commandants:
Arthur Rodl: 18 Dec 2014 1
Johannes Hassebroek: 31 Dec 1969 1
Wilhelm Gideon: 1942 1
Location:
City: Gross-Rosen 2
Country: Poland 2
Camp holds over 75,000 prisoners with 100 subcamps:
15 Jan 1945 3
Gross-Rosen becomes independent concentration camp:
01 May 1941 3
Gross-Rosen established as subcamp Sachsenhausan:
02 Aug 1940 3
Prisoners selected for euthanasia program killed:
12 Dec 1941 3
Schindler's Factory in Brunnlitz becomes subcamp:
21 Oct 1944 3
Several thousand Soviet Prisoners of War executed:
01 Oct 1941 3
Soviet forces liberate Gross-Rosen:
13 Feb 1945 3
The SS order the evacuation of the camp:
08 Feb 1945 3
Typhus Epidemic kills more than 1,000 prisoners:
17 Jan 1942 3
Prisoners:
Total Number of Deaths: At least 40,000 3
Total Number of Prisoners: At least 120,000 3

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