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A NATION OF BRAVES

Honor for Indian Heroism

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Distinguished Flying Cross

Distinguished Flying Cross

Lt. William R. Fredenberge, Menominee, of Wisconsin, who wears this ribbon and also has the Air Medal with seven oak leaf clusters. The citation for the DFC reads as follows:

"Lieutenant Fredenberg demonstrated superior skill in the execution of a dive-bombing attack upon a heavily defended marshalling yard wherein he personally destroyed three locomotives and thereafter in the face of heavy and accurate enemy fire remained in the target area strafing installations until his ammunition was exhausted. The outstanding flying ability and tactical proficiency which he exhibited on this occasion reflected the highest credit upon himself and his organization."

Sgt. Shuman Shaw, a full-blood Paiute from California, was wounded on his third mission as a tail-gunner on a B-24 Liberator, but he stayed with his guns and shot down two of the enemy, with three more probably destroyed. During his 22nd mission, while raiding strategic installations at Budapest, he was again seriously wounded. On both occasions he was given plasma. Sgt. Shaw has the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal with three oak leaf clusters, the Presidential Unit Citation, and the Purple Heart with oak leaf cluster.

Harold E. Rogers, Seneca from Miami, Oklahoma, was reported missing in action on July 3, 1944, when his plane failed to return from a mission over Budapest. Sgt. Rogers had flown 25 missions with the 8th Air Force in England, and then served as instructor in the United States for six months. He went back into action, this time with the 15th Air Forced, based in Italy. He wore the Air Medal with nine oak leaf clusters, and the Distinguished Flying Cross. The Purple Heart was awarded to him posthumously. His wife, a Potawatomi from Kansas, who now lives in Hollywood, was a student at Haskell Institute with her husband and Sgt. Rogers was studying law at the time.

Lt. William R. Fredenberg Menominee, Wisconsin

Lt. Richard Balenti Cheyenne-Haida, Oklahoma

S/Sgt. Peter N. Jackson Hoopa, California S/Sgt. Shuman Shaw Paiute, California

S/Sgt. Neil McKinnon Yurok, California (1 cluster)

S/Sgt. Alfred Dalpino Shoshone, Idaho

T/Sgt. Theodore S. Breiner Sioux, North Dakota

S/Sgt. Ernest DuBray Blackfeet, Montana (3 clusters)

Lt. Alfred Houser Apache, Oklahoma (1 cluster)

S/Sgt. Albert Lopez Delaware, Oklahoma

Lt. Edward Tinker Osage, Oklahoma (2 clusters)

S/Sgt. Archie Hawkins Sioux, South Dakota

S/Sgt. Steve Brown Paiute, Nevada

T/Sgt. Harold E. Rogers Seneca, Oklahoma

S/Sgt. Robert C. Kirkaldie Assiniboine, Montana

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Silver Star

A soldier who is cited for gallantry in action, when that gallantry does not warrant the award of a Medal of Honor or a Distinguished Service Cross, is given the Silver Star.

This decoration was awarded posthumously to Ben Quintana, a Keres, from Cochiti Pueblo. According to the citation, Ben was "an ammunition carrier in a light machine gun squadron charged with protection of the right flank of his troop which was counterattacked by superior numbers." The gunner was killed and the assistant gunner severely wounded. "Private Quintana," the citation continues, "refused to retire from this hazardous position and gallantly rushed forward to the silenced gun and delivered a withering fire into the enemy, inflicting heavy casualties. While so engaged he was mortally wounded. By this extraordinary courage he repulsed the counterattack and prevented the envelopment of the right flank of his troop. Private Quintana's unflinching devotion to duty and heroism under fire inspired his troop to attack and seize the enemy strong point." 

With Ben Quintana's death the country has lost one of its most promising young artists. At the age of 15, he won first prize over 80 contestants, of whom 7 were Indians, for a poster to be used in the Coronado Cuarto Centennial celebration. Later, he won first prize and $1,000 in an American Magazine contest in which there were 52,587 entries.

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Captain Leonard Lowry, a graduate of Sherman Institute, also wears the Silver Star. he was a first lieutenant at the time of the citation, which says: "He was advancing with an infantry force of 500 men when they were halted by the enemy and the leading elements were pinned down. It was imperative that this force get through. Lt. Lowry assumed command and directed temporary security measures. He then organized a small combat patrol and personally led it in storming the enemy elements that were delaying the unit's advance." Capt. Lowry has been wounded several times.

Marine Pfc. Leonard A. Webber, of Fort Hall, Idaho, who received his Silver Star "for gallantry and intrepidity while serving with the Second Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Tarawa, Gilbert Islands, from November 22 to November 23, 1943. During this period, when radio communication was out, he performed duties as runner between the tank battalion command post, tanks, and infantry front line positions, with utter disregard for his own personal safety in the face of heavy enemy gunfire. His skill and devotion to duty contributed greatly to the maintaining of communication of tank units. His conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity were in keeping with the highest tradition of the United States Naval Service."  Later, for action in 1944, Leonard Webber, now a Corporal, received the Bronze Star. This decoration is awarded for meritorious or  heroic achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight, in connection with military operations against an enemy of the United States. The citation for the Bronze Star reads:

"For meritorious achievement in action against the enemy on Saipan and Tinian, Marianas Islands, from 15 June to 1 August, 1944, while serving as a reconnaissance man in a Marine tank battalion. With aggressive determination and fearless devotion to duty Corporal Webber reconnoitered routes of advance for tanks in the face of intense enemy fire. On one occasion, he led a tank platoon over exceedingly dangerous and perilous terrain, while under heavy mortar and small-arms fire, to support the infantry advance and make it possible for his tank platoon to inflict severe casualties on the enemy. His cool courage and outstanding ability contributed in a large measure to the success of the tank operation. His conduct throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service."

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Pvt. Blaine Queen received the Silver Star posthumously awarded for heroism in action in Germany. Pvt. Queen, a Cherokee from North Carolina, was with a platoon engaged in sharp action with the enemy. They were under heavy fire from nearby enemy positions, and when their ammunition began to run dangerously low, Pvt. Queen volunteered to leave his foxhole and go for the needed supplies. As he ran he was mortally wounded, but in spite of his wound he kept on toward his destination until death overtook him.

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Pfc. Albert Wahweotten, Potawatomi from Kansas, received the Silver Star from his commanding general last February in Germany. According to the citation, Pfc. Wahweotten, armed with an M-1 rifle and a bazooka, worked his way 200 yards beyond the front lines to a house occupied by the enemy. In spite of heavy fire, he crawled to within ten yards of the house, which he set on fire with the bazooka. Then he went into the burning building and captured twelve Germans, eliminating the last enemy resistance in the town.

An Iowa-Choctaw, also from Kansas, was another winner of the Silver Star for gallantry in action against the Germans. When his superior officer was disabled, Pfc. Thurman E. Nanomantube took over the duties of section leader of a heavy machine gun section, and with complete disregard for his own safety ran across fifty yards of open ground, swept by heavy fire, in order to help a gunner whose gun was not working properly. When the battalion was pinned down by artillery fire, he gave first aid to two wounded men and handled another skillfully in order to keep him from becoming the victim of combat exhaustion. The citation praises Pfc. Nanomantube for his initiative, bravery, and gallantry.

Pfc. Norris L. Galvez, Papago of Sells, Arizona, was driving up the road. Pfc. Norris was told that the Japs had two automatic weapons firing across the road ahead, but he decided that the bulldozer must go through and unhesitatingly drove the unprotected machine through the field of fire, an action which brought him a citation and the Silver Star.

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Pfc. Otto Hodge, a Yurok-Hoopa, who was killed in action in Italy.

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Pvt. Houston Stevens, Kickapoo from Shawnee, Oklahoma, The citation accompanying the Bronze Star Medal awarded to Pvt. Houston Stevens, Kickapoo from Shawnee, Oklahoma, reads:

"For heroic achievement near St. Raphael, France, on 15 August 1944. Struck by an aerial bomb as it neared shore during the invasion of Southern France, LST 282 was burning fiercely and ammunition aboard was exploding continuously. Unmindful of the intense heat and the exploding ammunition, Pvt. Stevens manned a 50-caliber machine gun located within ten yards of the explosion. Though his hair and eyebrows were singed by the spreading flames, he remained at his post and continued to fire the gun at the enemy plane. By his devotion to duty, Pvt. Stevens prevented additional damage by the plane. His action reflects credit upon himself and the armed forces of the United States."

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Sgt. Perry Skenandore, Oneida from Wisconsin, wears two rows of ribbons, as well as the blue bar for the Presidential Unit Citation. He has been awarded the Silver Star, the Bronze Star with oak leaf cluster, and the Soldier's Medal. His European theater ribbon carries three battle stars and the bronze arrow which stands for the invasion of Normandy. Sgt. Skenandore is a member of the 4th Infantry Division, the Ivy Leaf.

 

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BRONZE STAR

A posthumous award of the Bronze Star Medal was made to Cpl. Jack E. Mattz, Yurok-Smith River Indian from Grants Pass, Oregon. During an assault on enemy lines in Holland, Cpl. Mattz crept forward toward a dugout containing a large number of the enemy, killed several of them with his sub-machine gun, and when his ammunition ran out, accounted for the rest by using hand grenades. A few hours later he was killed by shell fire.

Two Indian gunners with the 15th Air Force, based in Italy, had similar stories to tell of parachute jumps in Balkan territory. S-Sgt. Cornelius Wakolee, Potawatomi, from Kansas, was forced to bail out over Yugoslavia when his Liberator bomber was hit by heavy flak. He was reported missing on October 14, and returned to duty some six weeks later, after a long walk, guided across enemy-held territory by Yugoslav partisans. Some months afterward, T-Sgt. Ray Gonyea, from the Onondaga Reservation, New York, made a similar jump and landed in a village held by the partisans, who helped him and his crew back to their base--after an hilarious celebration. Sgt. Gonyea holds the Air Medal with two oak leaf clusters, and the Purple Heart. Sgt. Wakolee has three clusters to the Air Medal.

Pfc. Herbert M. Bremner Tlingit, Alaska

S/Sgt. David E. Kenote Menominee, Wisconsin

Pfc. William A. Davis Chippewa, North Dakota

Cpl. Samuel Powvall Mission, California

Pfc. Bernard Tracy Navajo, New Mexico

Pfc. Otto Hodge Yurok, California

Cpl. Leonard Webber Shoshone, Idaho

Cpl. Jimmy Begay Navajo, New Mexico

Sgt. Louis Provost Omaha, South Dakota

Pfc. Harvey Natchees Ute, Utah

Pfc. Danny B. Marshall Creek, Oklahoma

T/5 Calvin Daily Otoe, Oklahoma

Pfc. Roy Toledo Navajo, New Mexico

Walter Key Biye, AOM 2/c Navajo, Arizona

Pfc. Augustine Smith Paiute-Klamath, Oregon

S/Sgt. Walter J. Roberts Seminole, Oklahoma

Cpl. Calvin Flying Bye Sioux, South Dakota

Cpl. Bert Orben Good Chippewa, Minnesota

T/5 Warren Adams Blackfeet-Gros Ventre, Montana

Lt. Myron W. Anderson Blackfeet, Montana

Pvt. Marion McKeever Flathead, Montana

Sgt. Perry Skenandore Oneida, Wisconsin

Pfc. Joe C. Lewis Papago, Arizona

Cpl. Ramon Juan Papago, Arizona

T/3 John E. Snyder Seneca, New York

Pfc. John W. Kionut Caddo, Oklahoma

Sgt. Lanert Brown Eyes Sioux, South Dakota

Cpl. Garfield T. Brown Sioux, South Dakota

Sgt. Norman Janis Sioux, South Dakota

Pfc. Carl Broken Rope Sioux, South Dakota

Donald O'Neal Arapaho, Wyoming

Sgt. Bert H. Jefferson Lummi, Washington

Pfc. Leonard Johnny Nooksack, Washington

Pfc. August L. Smith Makah-Lummi, Washington

Lt. James M. Ware Osage, Oklahoma

Pvt. Lester D. Douglas Navajo, New Mexico

Nat Becenti Navajo, New Mexico

Sgt. Jose P. Benavidez Isleta Pueblo, New Mexico

Pfc. Harvey Walking Eagle Sioux, South Dakota

Cpl. Jack E. Mattz Yurok, California

Pvt. Houston Stevens Kickapoo, Oklahoma

Sgt. Leo Upshaw Navajo, New Mexico

Sgt. Augustine Chico Papago, Arizona

Cpl. Ralph Andres Papago, Arizona

Cpl. Lyndreth Palmer Kiowa, Oklahoma

Pvt. LeRoy Hamlin Ute, Colorado

Pvt. Vance Broken Rope Sioux, South Dakota

Pvt. Leonard White Bull Sioux, South Dakota

Pvt. Alex Hernandez Sioux, South Dakota

Pfc. Clyde Smith Hualapai, Arizona

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PURPLE HEART

Danny B. Marshall, Creek, from Holdenville, Oklahoma, has evaded death dozens of times and has been wounded eight times. Five of his wounds required hospital treatment, but the other three times he had first aid and did not report at a hospital. He has been hit in the face, head, arms, leg, and back, and has the Purple Heart with four clusters, the Bronze Star, the Good Conduct medal, the Combat Infantryman's Badge, and five battle stars for service in Italy, including the Anzio beachhead and Rome, and the invasion of Southern France.

 

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Congressional Medal of Honor

S/Sgt. Francis B. Brave, Sioux, Oklahoma

Lt. William Sixkiller, Jr.Cherokee, Oklahoma

Pfc. Warren GullicksonSioux, South Dakota

Pfc. James R. AlexanderLummi, WashingtonCpl. Leonard WebberShoshone, Idaho

Lt. James SulphurCreek, Oklahoma

T/4 Rober K. PaulBlackfeet, Montana

Sgt. Knowlton MerrittKlamath-Modoc, Oregon

Sgt. Perry SkenandoreOneida, Wisconsin

Pfc. Ben QuintanaCochiti Pueblo, New Mexico

Cpl. Vincent Village CenterSioux, South DakotaT/

Sgt. Joseph LawrenceSioux, South Dakota

Pfc. Francis ShawPaiute, Nevada

Pfc. Philip KowiceLaguna Pueblo, New Mexico

Lt. Jack C. MontgomeryCherokee, Oklahoma

Sgt. Bob AllenChoctaw, Mississippi

Pvt. Blaine QueenCherokee, North Carolina

Pvt. Eugene RoubideauxSioux, South Dakota

Pfc. Alonzo EnosPima, Arizona

Pfc. Albert WahweottenPotawatomi, Kansas

Sgt. Clifford EtsittyNavajo, New Mexico

Bert G. EaglehorseSioux, South Dakota

Pfc. George W. WalkerCherokee, North Carolina

Sgt. Leo UpshawNavajo, New Mexico

Pfc. Thurman E. NanomantubeIowa-Choctaw, Kansas

Pfc. Norris L. GalvezPapago. Arizona

Pvt. Vincent Hunts HorsesSioux, South Dakota

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Air Medal

S/Sgt. Roger WorleePaiute, Nevada (9 clusters)

S/Sgt. Shuman ShawPaiute, California (3 clusters)

T/Sgt. Waldron A. FrazierSioux, South Dakota

S/Sgt. Cornelius L. WakoleePotawatomi, Okla. (3 clusters)

S/Sgt. Clifton J. RabideauxChippewa, Minn. (5 clusters)

S/Sgt. Peter N. JacksonHoopa, California

T/Sgt. Oliver GibbsChippewa, Minnesota (3 clusters)

Lt. Charles SmithBannock, Idaho

S/Sgt. Alfred DalpinoShoshone, Idaho (12 clusters)

Lt. John CookMohawk, New York

T/Sgt. Orus Baxter, Jr.Creek, Oklahoma

S/Sgt. Abe ZuniIsleta Pueblo, N.M. (3 clusters)

T/Sgt. Forrest J. GerardBlackfeet, Montana

S/Sgt. Jesse LaBuffBlackfeet, Montana (2 clusters)

Sgt. Floyd MonroeBlackfeet, Montana (1 cluster)

Lt. Kenneth M. LeeSioux, South Dakota (1 cluster)

Pfc. Albert E. FairbanksChippewa, Minnesota (1 cluster)

S/Sgt. Earl M. ThomasLummi, Washington (1 cluster)

Sgt. Cloyd I. GoodayApache, Oklahoma

T/Sgt. Kent C. WareKiowa, Oklahoma (2 clusters)

Lt. Myers WahneeComanche, Oklahoma (clusters)

S/Sgt. Fred B. LarmerSioux, South Dakota

Sgt. John C. RustemeyerSioux, South Dakota

T/Sgt. Cleveland J. BordeauxSioux, S. Dak. (4 clusters)

Sgt. Lawrence R. MorrisIowa, Kansas

S/Sgt. John Lee RedeagleQuapaw, Oklahoma

S/Sgt. Albert LopezDelaware, Oklahoma (1 cluster)

S/Sgt. Glenn BlackQuilleute, Washington (4 clusters)

Sgt. Joseph BlackQuilleute, Washington

Lt. John C. DiricksonOsage, Oklahoma (1 cluster)

S/Sgt. Blaze SavageChippewa, Minnesota

S/Sgt. Archie HawkinsSioux, South Dakota

S/Sgt. Steve BrownPaiute, Nevada

T/Sgt. Harold E. RogersSeneca, Oklahoma (9 clusters)

Lt. Charles E. HarrisPawnee, Oklahoma (1 cluster)

S-Sgt. Robert C. KirkaldieAssiniboine, Montana (3 clusters

 

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Medal of Honor~Co-Rux-Te-Chod-Ish

Co-Rux-Te-Chod-Ish 

Was a Pawnee Scouts and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Indian Wars of the western United States.

Co-Tux-A-Kah-Wadde or Traveling bear in English was born in Nebraska and entered the U.S. Army as an Indian Scout. Due to the language barrier between him and the Army soldiers his name was misinterpreted as Co-Rux-Te-Chod-Ish or Mad Bear and that is the name that has been incorrectly documented in his Medal of Honor and other references to this day. While on patrol after a dismounted Indian and in the process was badly injured when another member of his unit shot him by mistake. For his actions in Republican River, Kansas July 8, 1869 he became the first native American to receive the Medal of Honor on August 24, 1869.

 

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Medal of Honor~Jim

Jim (1850 – c. 1897),

Born Bow-os-loh, was an Apache Indian scout in the U.S. Army who served under Lieutenant Colonel George Crook during the Apache Wars. He guided cavalry troopers against renegade Apaches in the Arizona Territory during Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73 and was one of ten scouts later received the Medal of Honor for gallantry.

Born Bow-os-loh in the Arizona Territory, Jim was a member of the White Mountain Apache. In late-1872, he and nine other Apaches were hired by the U.S. Army as an Indian scout for Lieutenant Colonel George Crook's campaign against renegades still active in Arizona following the surrender of Cochise earlier that year.

Jim and the other scouts guided cavalry troopers in the Tonto Basin where the Western Apacheand Yavapais had been successfully conducting raids and eluding troops for several years. During Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73, Jim was cited for gallantry battling the Apache in the mountains. Of the 23 men received the Medal of Honor, Jim and all 10 Indian scouts received the award for "gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches". The other scouts included William AlchesayBlanquetChiquitoElsatsoosuKelsayKosohaMacholNannasaddie and Nantaje. Most of the Apache scouts, save for William Alchesay, disappeared from public record soon after the expedition. The death of Jim was not reported until 40 years later when his widow applied for his army pension in 1927

 

 

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Medal of Honor~Machol

Machol 

Was a private serving as an Indian Scout in the United States Army during the Indian Wars who received the Medal of Honor for bravery.

Rank and organization: Private, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona, 1872-73. Entered service at: ------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875

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Medal of Honor~Nannasaddie

Nannasaddie 

(fl. 1872 – 1875)

Was a Apache Indian scout in the U.S. Army who served under Lieutenant Colonel George Crook during the Apache Wars. He guided cavalry troopers against renegade Apaches in the Arizona Territory during Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73 and was one of ten scouts who later received the Medal of Honor for gallantry.

Born in the Arizona Territory, Nannasaddie was among the ten Apaches hired by the U.S. Army as an Indian scout for Lieutenant Colonel George Crook's expedition against renegades active in Arizona following the surrender of Cochise in late-1872.

He guided cavalry troopers in the Tonto Basin, where the Western   Apache and Yavapais raiding parties had eluded the U.S. Army for several years, fighting the Apache in the mountains during Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73. A total of 23 men were received the Medal of Honor. All of the Indian scouts, including Nannasaddie, received the award on April 12, 1875, for "gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches". The other scouts included William AlchesayBlanquetChiquitoElsatsoosuJimKelsayKosohaMachol and Nantaje

 

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Medal of Honor~Nantaje

Nantaje 

(fl. 1872 – 1875),

Also called Nantahe, was a Apache Indian scout in theU.S. Army who served under Lieutenant Colonel George Crook during the Apache Wars. He guided cavalry troopers against renegade Apaches in the Arizona Territoryduring Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73 and was one of ten scouts who later received the Medal of Honor for gallantry.

Born in the Arizona Territory, Nantaje (or Nantahe) was one of ten Apache Indian scout hired by the U.S. Army for Lieutenant Colonel George Crook's expedition against renegades in Arizona following the surrender of Cochise in late-1872. He guided cavalry troopers in the Tonto Basin, where the Western Apache and Yavapais raiding parties had successfully eluded U.S. troops for several years, and saw action against the Apache during Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73. In one of these engagements, Nantaje led a group of sharpshooters to the mouth of a cave to ambush a number of Yavapai hiding there.

During the battle, a Yavapai boy was caught in the crossfire. Nantaje ran from cover and carried the boy to safety. By the end of the day Nantaje and the other scouts had helped rout the Indians in the cave, seventy-six of whom were killed. The place was henceforth known as "Skull Cave."

 

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Medal of Honor~William Alchesay

Alchesay (aka William Alchesay and Alchisay,

May 17, 1853 – August 6, 1928

Was a chief of the White Mountain Apache tribe and an Indian Scout. He received United States militaries highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Indian Wars.

He tried to convince Geronimo to surrender peacefully on behalf of the United States government and remained friends with Geronimo until his death. After the wars were over he returned him to his wives and became a rancher and was active in Indian affairs.

He was born May 17, 1853 in a part of the Arizona Territory known as Limestone Canyon. He joined the Indian Scouts at Camp Verde December 2, 1872 and served under General George Crook in actions against an uprising of the Chiricahua Apachein the winter of 1872–1873, holding the rank of Sergeant. He was cited for gallantry, and acted as an envoy from Crook to Geronimo, trying to convince him to surrender peacefully.

Crook's aide (and fellow Medal of Honor recipient) John G. Bourke described Alchesay as "a perfect Adonis in figure, a mass of muscle and sinew of wonderful courage, great sagacity, and as faithful as an Irish hound." He was an adviser to Indian agents and to President Grover Cleveland. He fought again under Crook in the campaign against the Chiricahua Apache in the Sierra Madre of Mexico in 1883 and his last military duty was as an advisor during the pursuit of Geronimo in Mexico in 1885.

The Apache Wars officially ended with the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 and Alchesay returned to his family and his home. He became a successful cattleman and farmer, living for a while in Forestdale and later in North Fork. Plural marriage was an Apache custom, and was recognized by the U.S. government and he had two wives, Tah-jon-nay who he married in 1871 and her sister, Anna in about 1881. However Chief Alchesay's first wife was a young girl named Apache who bore him a son.

As a leader, Alchesay sought better conditions for his people in Washington, D.C. In 1887 he traveled to the Capital to speak to President Grover Cleveland. He met with President Theodore Roosevelt in 1909, and with Warren G. Harding in 1921. When the military left Fort Apache and Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School was built in 1923 for Navajo children, Alchesay traveled to Navajo county to welcome Navajo children to the White Mountain reservation. He was instrumental in getting federal compensation for the families that were removed because of the school.

He and Geronimo remained close friends until Geronimo's death in 1909. He filed for an Indian Wars pension under the name William Alchesay and resigned from active chieftainship in 1925. 

Alchesay died August 6, 1928 at Norfolk, Arizona and is buried on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in Whiteriver, Arizona.

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Medal of Honor~Blanquet

Blanquet 

Was an Indian Scout in the United States Army and a recipient of the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions in the Indian Warsof the western United States.

An Apache born in Arizona, Blanquet served as a scout for General George Crookduring the Apache Wars. For his participation in campaigns through the winter of 1872–73, he was awarded the Medal of Honor two years later, on April 12, 1875.

Blanquet's official Medal of Honor citation reads:

Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches

 

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Medal of Honor~Elsatsoosu

Elsatsoosu 

(fl. 1872 – 1875),

Also called Elsatsoosh, was a Apache Indian scout in the U.S. Army who served under Lieutenant Colonel George Crook during theApache Wars. He guided cavalry troopers against renegade Apaches in the Arizona Territory during Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73 and was one of ten scouts later received the Medal of Honor for gallantry.

Born in the Arizona Territory, Elsatsoosu (or Elsatsoosh) was one of ten Apaches hired by the U.S. Army as an Indian scout for Lieutenant Colonel George Crook's campaign against the renegades still active following the surrender of Cochise in late-1872.

He specifically guided cavalry troopers in the Tonto Basin, where theWestern Apache and Yavapais had been successfully conducting raids and eluding troops for several years, battling the Apache in the mountains during Crook's winter campaign of 1872-73. A total of 23 men were received the Medal of Honor. Of these, all 10 Indian scouts, including Elsatsoosu, received the award on April 12, 1875, for "gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches". The other scouts were William AlchesayBlanquetChiquitoJim,KelsayKosohaMacholNannasaddie and Nantaje

 

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Medal of Honor~Kosoha

Kosoha was an Indian scout serving in the United States Army during the Indian Wars who received the Medal of Honor for bravery.

Kosoha was born in Arizona and after entering the army served as a scout in the Indian Wars. He received the Medal of Honor for “engagements with Apaches”

 

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Medal of Honor~Adam Paine

Adam Paine, or Adam Payne,

(1843 – 1877)

Was a Black Seminole who served as a United States Army Indian Scout and received America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Indian Wars of the western United States.

Paine enlisted in the Army at Fort DuncanTexas, and joined other Black Seminoles known as the "Seminole Negro Indian Scouts". From September 26, to September 27, 1874, he was serving as a private in Texas at Blanco Canyon, a tributary of theRed River, where he participated in an engagement. Paine "[r]endered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie4th U.S. Cavalry, during this engagement." A year later, on October 13, 1875, Private Paine was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Blanco Canyon.

Paine was shot to death by a fellow Medal of Honor recipient, Claron A. Windus,deputy sheriff of Brackettville, Texas, who was attempting to arrest Paine as a murder suspect. Paine died at age 33 or 34 and was buried at the Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery in Brackettville, Texas.

 

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Medal of Honor~Pompey Factor

Pompey Factor 

(1849 – 1928)

Was a Black Seminole who served as a United States Army Indian Scout and received America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Indian Wars of the Western United States.

Factor and other Black Seminoles joined the army as Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts. On April 25, 1875, he was serving as a private by the Pecos River in Texaswhere, "[w]ith 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol." A month later, on May 28, 1875, Factor was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the engagement. Two of the other men who took part in the charge, Isaac Payne and John Ward, both Black Seminoles, also received Medals of Honor.

Factor died at age 78 or 79 and was buried at the Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery in Brackettville, Texas.

 

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Medal of Honor~Isaac Payne

Isaac Payne, or Isaac Paine,

(1854 – 1904)

Was a Black Seminole who served as a United States Army Indian Scout and received America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Indian Wars of the western United States.

Payne and other Black Seminoles enlisted in the army 1871 and became known as one of the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts. On April 25, 1875, he was serving as atrumpeter by the Pecos River in Texas where, "[w]ith 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol." A month later, on May 28, 1875, Payne was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the engagement. Two of the other men who took part in the charge,Pompey Factor and John Ward, both Black Seminoles, also received Medals of Honor.

Payne died at age 49 or 50 and was buried at the Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery in Brackettville, Texas.

 

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Medal of Honor~John Ward

John Ward 

(1848 – 1911)

Was a Black Seminole who served as a United States Army Indian Scout and received America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Indian Wars of the western United States.

Ward enlisted in the Army at Fort DuncanTexas, and joined other Black Seminoles known as the "Seminole Negro Indian Scouts". On April 25, 1875, he was serving as a Sergeant in the Indian Scouts attached to the 24th Infantry Regiment by the Pecos River in Texas where, "[w]ith 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol." A month later, on May 28, 1875, Ward was issued the Medal of Honor for his actions during the engagement. Two of the other men who took part in the charge, Pompey Factor and Isaac Payne, both Black Seminoles, also received Medals of Honor.

Ward died at age 62 or 63 and was buried at the Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery in Brackettville, Texas.

 

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Medal of Honor~Rowdy

Rowdy 

(died March 29, 1893)

Was a United States Army Indian scout and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions during the Cherry Creek Campaign in Arizona Territory.

Rowdy, a Sergeant in Company A of the Indian Scouts, was involved in an engagement in Arizona on March 7, 1890. He was awarded the Medal of Honor two months later, on May 15, 1890, for his "[b]ravery in [the] action with ApacheIndians."

Rowdy died three years after earning the medal and was buried in Santa Fe National CemeterySanta Fe, New Mexico. His grave can be found in section A, grave 894.

 

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