Event Page

The Holocaust

(1933—1945)

Antisemitism permeated German and European society in the early 20th century. The Nazi Empire, in particular, regarded the Jewish people as a threat to the “purity” of the Aryan race. It enacted legislation, most notably the Nuremberg Laws, to strip Jews of their freedoms. The atrocities culminated with the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” This “solution” led to mass killings of over six million Jews and five million “undesirables”—gypsies, the mentally handicapped, homosexuals, and political agitators. Extermination camps like Auschwitz and Dachau are testaments to the Holocaust and the horrific consequences of prejudice and racism.

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Prisoners in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen Germany 19 Dec 1938.jpg
Prisoners in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen Germany 19 Dec 1938.jpg
Holocaust1.jpg
Holocaust1.jpg
"These are slave laborers in the Buchenwald concentration camp near Jena; many had died from malnutrition when U.S. troops of the 80th Division entered the camp." Pvt. H. Miller, Germany, April 16, 1945. 208-AA-206K-31. (ww2_178.jpg)
Holocaust2.jpg
Holocaust2.jpg
"Bones of anti-Nazi German women still are in the crematoriums in the German concentration camp at Weimar, Germany, taken by the 3rd U.S. Army. Prisoners of all nationalities were tortured and killed." Pfc. W. Chichersky, April 14, 1945. 111-SC- 2034
Page 1
Page 1
German civilians bury the bodies of Holocaust victims after Allied liberation.
Burying Buchenwald corpses
Burying Buchenwald corpses
An American soldier supervisors two German civilians who have been forced to prepare corpses for burial at the newly liberated Buchenwald concentration camp.
Buchenwald Concentration Camp
Buchenwald Concentration Camp
American soldiers view a pile of corpses found behind the crematorium in the newly liberated Buchenwald concentration camp.
Jewish prisoner identifies SS guard
Jewish prisoner identifies SS guard
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
Anne Frank Hiding 2.jpg
Anne Frank Hiding 2.jpg
Female Prisoners.gif
Female Prisoners.gif
Holocaust victim's wedding rings.jpg
Holocaust victim's wedding rings.jpg
Thousands of wedding rings were removed from Holocaust victims. This photo shows a few.
Page 1
Page 1
Refugees, Freed From German Concentration Camps, Are Gathered Along A Rail Line Near Torgau, Germany, Awaiting The Linkup Of The American And Russian Forces.
Jewish children on way to Palenstine leaving Buchenwald Concentration Camp.jpg
Jewish children on way to Palenstine leaving Buchenwald Concentration Camp.jpg
Einsatzgruppen-Killingfull.jpg
Einsatzgruppen-Killingfull.jpg
Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg
Ebensee_concentration_camp_prisoners_1945.jpg
Oskar Schindler.jpg
Oskar Schindler.jpg
Oskar Schindler standing (second from right) with some of the people he rescued. Munich, Germany, 1946. This may be the Rosner family. Henry Rosner was a famed violinist.
aerial photo of Dachau.jpg
aerial photo of Dachau.jpg
clothes stacked at Dachau.gif
clothes stacked at Dachau.gif
Train at Dachau.gif
Train at Dachau.gif
Harold Porter Letter page 2.jpg
Harold Porter Letter page 2.jpg
7 May 1945 letter written by Private First Class Harold Porter to his parents from the Dachau concentration camp, detailing the horrors he saw entering the camp. Page 2 of 4. National Archives, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.
Harold Porter Letter page 1.jpg
Harold Porter Letter page 1.jpg
7 May 1945 letter written by Private First Class Harold Porter to his parents from the Dachau concentration camp, detailing the horrors he saw entering the camp. Page 1 of 4. National Archives, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.
Harold Porter Letter Page 3.jpg
Harold Porter Letter Page 3.jpg
7 May 1945 letter written by Private First Class Harold Porter to his parents from the Dachau concentration camp, detailing the horrors he saw entering the camp. Page 3 of 4. National Archives, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.
Harold Porter Letter page 4.jpg
Harold Porter Letter page 4.jpg
7 May 1945 letter written by Private First Class Harold Porter to his parents from the Dachau concentration camp, detailing the horrors he saw entering the camp. Page 4 of 4. National Archives, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library.
Warsaw-Ghetto-Josef-Bloesche-HRedit.jpg
Warsaw-Ghetto-Josef-Bloesche-HRedit.jpg
Pastor and Mrs. Trocme
Pastor and Mrs. Trocme

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Pastor Andre Trocme

Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, France

Pastor and Mrs. Trocme

“These people came here for help and for shelter. I am their shepherd. A shepherd does not forsake his flock. I do not know what a Jew is. I know only human beings.”

Andre Trocme, a Protestant pastor in the small French mountain village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, uttered these words in the face of Vichy authorities during World War II. Andre Trocme, along with all the citizens of his village, rescued 5,000 Jews from the Nazis by hiding them in their town and assisting them in escaping to Switzerland or Spain.

Andre Trocme was a pacifist and teacher, who encouraged his followers to resist the Vichy and Nazi regimes. The town of Le Chambon hid Jews in private homes, on farms, and in public institutions like boarding schools. Several times Nazi officials arrived in an effort to find Jews, but the citizens of Le Chambon never revealed their secret. The Vichy government knew what Trocme and his followers were doing and Trocme was eventually arrested but avoided staying in jail for long. Andre Trocme’s cousin, Daniel Trocme, was sent to Majdanek where he died. This kind of intimidation meant Andre had to go into hiding while his wife continued his work until the end of the war. In 1990, the town of Le Chamon-sur-Lignon became the first community honored by the Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem. Amazingly, not one townsperson ever revealed any Jew to the authorities. Andre Trocme and those around him saved Jews because it was right. They were an example of doing what’s honorable in the face of great danger.

Event Details

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Holocaust in Poland:
Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp: 1 million Jews killed and 1 million non-Jews 1
Belzec Extermination Camp: 550,000 Jews killed 1
Chelmno Extermination Camp: 150,000 Jews killed 1
Lublin Extermination Camp: 50,000 Jews killed 1
Major Ghettos: Warsaw, Lodz, Krakow, Lublin, and Lvov 1
Sobibor Extermination Camp: 200,00 Jews killed 1
Treblinka Extermination Camp: 750,000 Jews killed 1
Concentration Camp:
Auschwitz, Poland 2
Largest Extermination Camp:
At its peak Auschwitz killed 12,000 people per day 2
Anne Frank and family arrested:
04 Aug 1944 3
Displaced Person Camps set up for camp victims:
June 1945 3
First day of Nuremberg Trials:
20 Nov 1945 3
Gas Chambers last used at Auschwitz:
30 Oct 1944 3
Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B gas begins:
January 1942 3
Prisoners blow up a crematoria at Auschwitz:
07 Oct 1943 3
Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz:
27 Jan 1945 3
Soviets liberate first concentration camp Majdanek:
24 Jul 1944 3
U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau:
29 Apr 1945 3
Wannsee Conference implements the Final Solution:
January 1942 3
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins:
19 Apr 1943 3
All Jews required to wear yellow Star of David:
23 Nov 1939 1
Jewish boy kills German diplomat vom Rath:
06 Nov 1938 1
Kristallnacht or Night of Broken Glass:
November 9, 1938 to November 10, 1938 1
Nazi concentration camp Dachau opens:
22 Mar 1933 1
Nazis begin program of euthanasia in Germany:
October 1939 1
Nazis begin using gas vans-trucks to kill Jews:
08 Dec 1941 1
Nazis prohibit Jews from owning land:
29 Sep 1933 1
Nuremberg Laws:
September 1935 1
The Nacht and Nebel (Night and Fog) order passed:
07 Dec 1941 1
Warsaw Ghetto is sealed off, 400,000 Jews inside:
15 Nov 1940 1
People or Groups:
Name: Reinhard Heydrich 2
Role: SS General, carried out Final Solution 2
People or Groups:
Name: Heinrich Himmler 2
Role: Architect of the Final Solution 2

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