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African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War

In 1775, the citizens of the Massachusetts colony were setting course for a war that would decide the fate of a nation. ~Page One

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Salem Poor

BUNKER HILL

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SALEM POOR

"A Brave and Gallant Soldier"
Salem Poor earned his place in history. during "the Battle of Charleston"-known today as the Battle of Bunker Hill. In this battle, African Americans suffered more than 1,000 casualties. At the Battle of Bunker Hill, Salem Poor performed so well that fourteen officers sent a petition to the Massachusetts legislature declaring that he behaved like an experienced officer, as well as an excellent soldier and added that "a reward was due to so great and distinguished a character."

In the Massachusetts State Archives is a petition to the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, stating that in the "late Battle at Charlestown. " a man from Colonel Frye's Regiment "behaved like an experienced officer" and that in this man "centers a brave and gallant soldier." This document, dated December of 1775, just six months after the Battle of Bunker Hill, is signed by fourteen officers who were present at the battle, including Colonel William Prescott. Of the 2,400 to 4,000 colonists who participated in the battle, no other man is singled out in this manner.

This hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill is Salem Poor, of Andover, Massachusetts. Although documents show that Poor, along with his regiment and two others, were sent to Bunker Hill to build a fort and other fortifications on the night of June 16, 1775, we have no details about just what Poor did to earn the praise of these officers. The petition simply states "to set forth the particulars of his conduct would be tedious." Perhaps his heroic deeds were too many to mention.

Few details of this hero's life are available to us. Born a slave in the late 1740s, Poor managed to buy his freedom in 1769 for 27 pounds, which represented a year's salary for the typical working man. He married Nancy, a free African American woman, and they had a son. Salem Poor left his wife and child behind in May 1775 and fought for the patriot cause at Bunker Hill,  Saratoga,  and Monmouth.  We can only speculate about the motives for Poor's sacrifice: was it patriotism, a search for new experience, or the prospect of a new and better life? The Battle of Bunker Hill was a daring and provocative act against established authority; all who participated could well have been hanged for treason. Shut out from many opportunities in colonial society, Salem Poor chose to fight for an independent nation. In the words of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the bravery of Poor and other African American soldiers "has a peculiar beauty and merit."

SOURCE: http://www.americanrevolution.com/AfricanAmericansInTheRevolution.htm

Freed slave's story - Revolutionary War hero Salem Poor
Salem Poor was was performing heroically for the patriots at Bunker Hill. For that he was honored in 1975 with his image on a 10-cent postage stamp. Details of Poor's life after the Revolution were unknown until genealogist David Lambert pieced them together over the past decade. "He was one of the first American heroes. I'm glad to have found the final chapter." Poor purchased his freedom in 1769 for 27 pounds, almost $5,600 in today's dollars. He is believed to have killed British Lieutenant Colonel James Abercrombie in Charlestown and fought also at Saratoga and Valley Forge.

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PRINCE ESTERBROOKS

PRINCE ESTERBROOKS

African Americans played a role on the battle field from the beginning. At the first battles of the revolution, Lexington and Concord, there were ten African Americans. Prince Esterbrooks was described as "the first to get into the fight." Esterbrooks was wounded during a battle at Lexington. The Salem Gazette or Newberry and Marblehead Advertiser for April 21, 1775 gives the name of Prince Esterbrooks "(Negro man)" as "wounded (Lexington) ."

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PETER WILLIAMS Clergyman

When the British took control of New York City, where Williams lived, he moved to New Brunswick, New Jersey. His son later wrote about his father: In the Revolutionary War, my father was decidedly an advocate of American Independence, and his life was repeatedly jeopardized in its cause...He was living in the State of [New] Jersey, and Parson Chapman, a champion of American liberty of great influence throughout that part of the country, was sought after by the British troops. My father immediately mounted a horse and rode round his parishioners to notify them of his danger, and to call on them to help in removing him and his goods to a place of safety.

 

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OLIVER CROMWELL

YORKTOWN

OLIVER CROMWELL

Private, Captain Lowery's Company, Second New Jersey Regiment Oliver Cromwell was born on May 24, 1753, at Black Horse (now Columbus, Burlington County), New Jersey. He lived with the family of John Hutchin and was raised as a farmer. Cromwell had a light complexion and it is believed that he was never a slave. During the Revolutionary War he enlisted in a company commanded by Captain Lowery of the Second New Jersey Regiment, Colonel Isreal Shreve commanding. Cromwell was present at the battle of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Monmouth and Yorktown and at the memorable crossing of the Delaware on December 25, 1776.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Oliver Cromwell was born near Burlington in 1752. Raised a farmer, he served in several companies of the Second New Jersey Regiment between 1777 and 1783. After seeing action at the battles of Trenton and Princeton in 1776 and 1777, Brandywine in 1777, Monmouth in 1778 and Yorktown in 1781, he left the military at war's end. George Washington personally signed Cromwell's discharge papers, and also designed a medal which was awarded to Cromwell.
Some years after the war, Cromwell applied for a veteran's pension. He was well-liked in Burlington, and although he was unable to read or write, local lawyers, judges and politicians came to his aid, and he was granted a pension of $96 a year. He purchased a 100-acre farm outside Burlington, and fathered 14 children, then spent his later years at his home at 114 East Union Street in Burlington. He lived to be 100 years old, outliving 8 of his children, and is buried in the cemetary of the Broad Street Methodist Church. His descendants live in the city to this day.

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JORDAN B. NOBLE

JORDAN B. NOBLE

Drummer Boy, Seventh Regiment and Principal Musician, First Regiment, Louisiana Volunteers

Jordan B. Noble was born around 1800, in Georgia. Later he moved to Louisiana and, at the age of 13, was serving with the Seventh Regiment of General Andrew Jackson's force during the War of 1812. He beat drums at many famous battles and other events, and on January 8, 1815, played the drums at Reveille and before an important engagement.

It has also been stated that he served in the Seminole War in Florida in 1836. Noble served as a principal musician during the Mexican War (one of the few blacks known to have served in this war) with the First Regiment, Louisiana Volunteers, Colonel Walton commanding.

His name appears in the military service record as follows: "Noble, J.B. Company Field and Staff, First Louisiana Military Volunteers (Mexican, the Delaware on the evening before the battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779, a War). Principal Musician. Enrolled May 9, 1846 at New Orleans, Louisiana, for six months. On roll dated August 1846. Book Mark 970 B 1884, Mexican War."

 

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Black Soldiers of the Revolutionary War from Plymouth County :

a list of soldiers identified as "Negro," "Black," or "Mulatto," compiled from recruiting documents in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, by Jeremy D. Bangs, Visiting Curator of Manuscripts, Pilgrim Hall Museum. ( c The Pilgrim Society, 1996)

Silas Accro, age 29, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
Pero Blakely, age 28, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
William Blye, age 43, from Rochester, N. Hammond’s company, Col. Sprout’s regiment
Peter Booth, age 17, from Marshfield, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
James Bowes, age 17, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
Calla Brown, age 44, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Primuss Cabuss, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment (probably identical with Prince Cobus)
Prince Cobus, age 16, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Henry Cook, age 38, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Solomon Dick, age 18, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment
Joseph Fowler, age 26, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Asher Freeman, age 23, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Benjamin Gould, age 16, from Wareham, Gibbs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment
Camaramsawde Gould, age 17, from Wareham, Gibbs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment
Jack Hammond, age 26, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Peter Haskell, age 33, from Rochester, Briggs’ company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment
Bristol Howard, age 43, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Cato Howe, age 25, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
Jeremiah Jones, age 26, from Bridgewater, J. Allen’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Winsor Little, age 17, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Quash Mathrok, age 24, from Bridgewater, Daniel Packard’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
John McCarter, age 22, from Marshfield, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Cuff Mitchell, age 33, from Bridgewater, Washburn’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Prince Newport, age 30, from Plimpton, N. Hammond’s company, Col. Sprout’s regiment
Robert Peagin, age 36, from Bridgewater, Kingman’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
William Pittman, age 28, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Andrew Pompy, age 33, from Bridgewater, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Quamany Quash, age 17, from Plymouth, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
Jubiter Richards, age 30, from Bridgewater, Kingman’s company, Col. Mitchell’s regiment
Toney Rose, age 18, from Middleborough, Churchill’s company, Lt. Col. White’s regiment
Nehamiah Samson, age 16, from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Ceasor Smith, age 24, from Plimpton, Col. Cotton’s regiment
Cesar Steward, age 29, from Pembroke, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Zeba Sutton, age 17 from Scituate, Lt. Col. Hall’s regiment
Toby Tolbert, age 45, from Bridgewater, Nathaniel Packard’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Jack Tomson, age 40, from Kingston, Capt. Rider’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
John Troy, age 21, from Bridgewater, Allden’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
Plato Turner, age 28, from Plymouth, Capt. Rider’s company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
Salmon Washburn, age 23, from Bridgewater, Allen’s company, Maj. Cary’s regiment
John Williams, age 26, from Kingston, Lt. Simmons’ company, Col. Theo. Cotton’s regiment
Uriah Williams, age 29, from Middleborough, Lt. Col. White’s regiment

SOURCE: http://www.pilgrimhall.org/natamdocs.htm#revolutionary%20war

 

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CRISPUS ATTUCKS (c. 1723-1770)

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 The protomartyr of the Revolutionary war was Crispus Attucks, a Negro, who was the leader in the Boston massacre on that memorable 5th of March, 1770. Attucks led the citizens in the charge, shouting, "The way to get rid of these idlers is to attack the main guard; strike at the root; this is the nest!" These were perhaps his last words, as his men threw a shower of clubs, stones and brickbats at the soldiers, which they returned with a galling fire. Attucks was the first to fall, being conspicuous on account of his height, which was six feet and two inches, and the still more important fact that he was in advance of his men. Two others, Samuel Gray and Jonas Caldwell, were killed, while Samuel Maverick and Patrick Carr, an Irishman, were mortally wounded. Attucks and Caldwell were buried from Faneuil Hall, afterwards called the "Cradle of Liberty," the other two from their homes, but all four in one common grave, with the following epitaph on their monument.


"Long as in freedom's cause the wise contend,
Dear to your country shall your fame extend;
While to the world the lettered stone shall tell,
Where Caldwell, Attucks, Gray and Maverick fell."

Crispus Attucks was a man of some learning, and sometime before his tragic death indited the following letter to the Tory Governor of Massachusetts:

On March 5, 1770, Crispus Attucks and a noisy group of Boston Patriots were jeering and "pestering" a contingency of British Redcoats who were sent from England to keep the American colonists in check.

The patriots were a mixed group of disgruntled sailors, dock workers, servants, and apprentices. This group was tired of the steady appearance of the British soldiers amongst them. It is said that a group of seven British soldiers came across the Boston Commons facing the Customs House. Attucks took the lead and waved a group of colonists toward the armed soldiers. The British armed soldiers used their bayonets and pushed the congregating colonists aside and forbade them from assembling in groups.

Ideas of Liberty were being amply discussed by most colonists. A tense moment came when Attucks and four other white patriots moved closer toward the British soldiers. "Let us drive out these ribalds. They have no business here." Attucks lunged forward with his "cordwood club" and beckoned the furious crowd to move in and disarm the British soldiers. Attucks was immediately struck twice in the chest by the British and killed. These shots were then followed by a series of others. Historical records listed four others killed: Samuel Gray, James Caldwell, Samuel Maverick, and Patrick Carr.

For the colonists, this was an outrage, and it became known as the BOSTON MASSACRE. Crispus Attucks' race was secondary to his exemplary heroism and outspoken call for liberty for the American colonists. Attucks' martyrdom is said to have acted as a catalyst for the American colonists' eventual war for liberty and freedom from British rule. This war became the American Revolutionary War.

Crispus Attucks and his compatriots were buried in a common grave in Boston. In 1888, the city of Boston erected a bronze and granite statue on the Boston Common to recognize Attucks as the "first to die for independence."

Crispus Attucks was one of more than 5,000 Blacks, who fought for independence during the American Revolutionary War up until it ended with British General Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781.

Birth: 1723

Death:  Mar. 5, 1770, Boston

BURIED: Granary Burial Ground
Boston
Suffolk County, Massachusetts

 

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THE SPIRIT OF 76

Other historical records recorded other black freedom fighters:
Lemuel Haynes, Primas Black, and Epheram Black who fought as Minutemen at Lexington and Concord, April, 1775.
Peter Salem, Salem Poor, and Jude Hall were soldiers at Bunker Hill, June, 1775.
Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell served with General George Washington crossing the Delaware, just before the Battle of Trenton, December 25, 1779.

Other U. S. units included the names:
Charles Davis * Joshua Dunbar * Samuel Dunbar * Prince Easterbrooks * James Forten * Doss Freeman * Tobias Gilmore * Peter Galloway * Primas Hall * Job Hathaway * Ebenezer Hill * Thomas Hollen * Peter Jennings * Abrose Lewis * Titus Minor * Jerimiah Moho * Pomp Peters * Cato Prince * Esek Roberts * Caesar Sankee * Prince Vaughn * Sipeo Watson * Cuff Whitemore * Jesse Wood

African Americans - free, slave, and ex-slave - fought side by side with white colonists seeking independence from British domination. GEORGE WASHINGTON, as Commander of the Continental Army, forbade the enlistment of Blacks - free, slave, or ex-slave - during the early stages of the war. He later learned that the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, was enlisting slaves and indentured servants into the British army with the promise of "freedom to all slaves who would join the King's army." Dunmore's tactic of lifting the ban on Blacks enlisting in the British army led George Washington to change his mind, and, therefore, Blacks later joined the CONTINENTAL ARMED FORCES.

There were African Americans who served as soldiers and marines. They were on privateers and warships. Today, military records have revealed the names of many early participants who struggled for the establishment of a free America. They were indeed a part of the "SPIRIT OF '76."

Additional names included:
William Appleby * William Balontino * Steven Bond * Charles Bowles * Scipio Brown * George Buley * Seymore Burr * Isaac Carr * Noel Carriere * Samuel Charlton * Caesar Clark * George Cooper * Richard Cozzens * Paul Cuffee * Austin Dabney * John Featherston * Cate Fisk * Jude Hall * Edward Hector * Francis Herd * Agrippa Hull * Jabez Jolly * Jeremy Jonah * Barzillai Lew * Luke Nickelson * Isaac Perkins * Christopher Poynos * Arly Randale * Joseph Ranger * Abram Read * Pomp Reeves * James Robinson * Joel Taburn * John Wheeler * Archelaus White * Cato Wood

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PHILLIS WHEATLEY

Phillis Wheatley was brought to America in 1761 and purchased as a house slave at the age of 8 years by John Wheatley, a wealthy Boston merchant. The beneficence of the Wheatley family helped Phillis Wheatley to cultivate her talents for writing classical poetry. Her poems covered topics on education, virtue, and Christianity. By 1775, she had completed and published a full book of poetry. Some early colonists used Miss Wheatley's talent as an example of what could be achieved by a slave, if given the chance to learn. Phillis Wheatley was granted her freedom in 1773 but lived only to the age of 31 years. Her book of poetry is considered to be one of the first books published by a Black in America.

Author. Phillis Wheatley was the first African-American to publish a book. She was born in Senegambia (now Senegal) in west Africa. As a child Phillis was taken into captivity and shipped to Boston where she was sold into slavery at the age of eight to John and Susanna Wheatley who named her Phillis after the ship she sailed on. After begining to work for the Wheatleys as Susanna's personal maid, Phillis started to show signs of being intellectually gifted. The Wheatley's daughter, Mary, began to instruct her in reading the Bible. After just sixteen months in the New World she could read English and later mastered Latin. Phillis first published poem appeared in a Rhode Island newspaper in 1767. After failed attempts to find subcribers for her proposed volume of her poems, a wealthy philantropist from England agreed to back the project. Phillis's book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773) made her a celebrity throughout England and the colonies. Wheatley eventually attained her independence and continued to write, publishing another volume of poetry in 1784, but struggled to support her three children, and died destitute at 31. Beyond being merely the first African-American to publish, she produced a quality of style and range of themes that inspired generations of black writers after her. (bio by: Curtis Jackson)

 

 

 

Death: 

Dec. 5, 1784

BURIED: Copp's Hill Burying Ground
Boston
Suffolk County
Massachusetts


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JUBA FREEMAN

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Documents like this one for Juba Freeman, as well as Revolutionary War muster rolls, pay and service records, and pension applications and awards demonstrate the active participation of African Americans in the American independence movement. Most African American servicemen in the Continental Army did not serve in segregated units. They usually fought alongside the whites in their communities. African names, pension record information and testimonies in other documents sometimes indicate the race of the soldiers.

Photo: Master/Slave Enlistment Agreement from the Revolutionary War that allows
Connecticut slave "Juba Negro" to join the Continental Army at half pay
- Juba would  
gain his freedom as well, as during his service,
he changed his name to "Juba Freeman." (June 2, 1777)

 

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James Armistead

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Eight slaves are known to have been granted freedom by the legislature for service in the Revolutionary War.

Among them was James Armistead, who had slipped out of Yorktown before the siege began and returned to Lafayette's service. When Cornwallis paid a courtesy call on the marquis, he was surprised to encounter a black man there he considered to be in his pay.

In October 1784, Lafayette penned a certificate declaring that James Armistead had done "Essential Service" in collecting "Intelligence from the Ennemy's Camp" and was therefore "Entitled to Every Reward His Situation Can Admit of." The document in hand, Armistead hurried to the legislature, where his manumission request came up in December. But more than two years would pass until his emancipation on January 9, 1787.

"At the peril of his life" he had "found means to frequent the British camp" and collect information essential to the American cause. Now he was free, while his master was compensated at the going auction-block figure.

In 1816, he bought 40 acres of land in New Kent County, where he raised his family. In 1819, Virginia granted him $60 relief money and put him on the regular pension roll at $40 a year. In 1824, the marquis and James Lafayette - as he now called himself - met one last time in Richmond, during Lafayette's triumphant tour of the United States.


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ROYAL PRINCE HANGED THREE TIMES

A royal prince hanged three times in revolutionary war
The Tenassee Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution honors two of Maury County’s African-American Revolutionary War Patriots. Benjamin "Daddy Ben" Scott Mayes died on March 10, 1829. He is a legendary figure in Maury County history because of his courage and loyalty. A royal prince among his people in Africa, he was brought as a slave to America. He became the property of a Colonel Scott who fought in the Revolution. In an attempt to find Scott, the British hanged Mayes 3 times until nearly dead, and still he refused to reveal where he had hidden the soldier. Mayes was later awarded a gold medal.
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HAITIANS IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Haitians fought alongside colonial soldiers in American Revolution


The Haitian American Historical Society is planning a monument in Savannah, Ga., to honor the Haitians who fought alongside colonial soldiers in the siege of Savannah during the War of American Independence. 500 free black men from the French colony, that became Haiti, volunteered with American colonists and French soldiers in October 1779 in a failed attempt to drive the British from Savannah. Their little-known part to America's struggle for independence is a point of national pride in Haiti. After returning home, Haitian veterans of the Revolutionary War led their own rebellion and in 1804 won Haiti's independence from France.

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RECOGNITION OF AFRICAN AMERICANS

Recognize African Americans Who Fought In Revolutionary War


Slave Jack Arabus thought he was getting a good deal when he signed up to fight with the American army in the Revolutionary War. He agreed to go in place of his master's son in return for being freed after the war.

Like many agreements this one went sour. Arabus won his freedom but had to do a lot more than fight as a soldier to get it. When he came back from the war, his master reneged on the deal and refused to let him go. Arabus ran away. When he was caught, his master sued to get him back. A judge ruled that Arabus had won his freedom when he left to fight in the war.

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A SLAVE NAMED JAMES

A slave helped win the war - spy who aided Lafayette Toward the end of the Revolutionary War, slaves were joining the British Army by the thousands, when promised freedom for fighting for the English king.

James, a slave, dreamed of freedom. But he volunteered to serve the only country he had ever known. In mid-1781, James got permission to serve with the Marquis de Lafayette, a French lieutenant-general. Patriot-turned-traitor Benedict Arnold was commander of the British Army in Virginia. Lafayette, with a small force, was determined to stop Arnold, and desperate for information about the British army of Lord Charles Cornwallis. Impressed by James' quickness to learn and memory, Lafayette asked him to be a spy.

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Black soldier's tale is told by historian

"I want to tell you about a real American hero," historian Bruce Harris told.

Peter Salem was a celebrated marksman and leader within his Colonial troop even though he was black. However, the soldier and other black and American Indian Minutemen were rebuffed by General George Washington when he arrived in July 1775 to take command of a "salt and pepper" army. While Washington - who owned 326 slaves - initially dismissed black Colonial soldiers, Salem was later allowed back in the army, where he was lauded by his compatriots for his sharpshooting skills - and given a wool Bounty Coat as an award of distinction.

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Britain, the Slaves, and the American Revolution

Britain, the Slaves, and the American Revolution "Seeing the Revolutionary War though the eyes of enslaved blacks turns its meaning upside down," Simon Schama writes; for a vast majority of slaves, "it was the royal, rather than the republican, road that seemed to offer a surer chance of liberty." An ambiguously worded 1772 court decision in London had widely, if wrongly, been perceived as ending slavery in England, and expectations ran high among Colonial slaves. Schama's pages are full of such unlikely tribunes, but also betrayals and setbacks, blood and courage, and shifts of fortune of ex-slaves. Most decisions affecting slaves were grounded in a savage pragmatism born out of military necessity.
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BLACK SOLDIER~JOHN REDMAN

Black soldier in the "Cavalry" Regiment of Light Dragoons

On June 11, 1823, John Redman applied for a pension, claiming to be a veteran of the Revolutionary War. He testified that he had been in the First Virginia Regiment of Light Dragoons. The Light Dragoons fought mainly on horseback, using sabers, pistols, and light carbines. A few weeks later, he was granted his pension. But his appeal was anything but ordinary: He was the rarest of breeds: a black patriot — both a free Negro in a nation of slaves and a black man who had fought in a white man’s war. Historians estimate that only 5,000 black men served in the Continental Army, whereas tens of thousands fled slavery to join the British.

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Re-enactors portray black patriots of the Revolutionary War

General George Washington. The Marquis de Lafayette. Hannah Till.

All 3 figures contributed to the American colonies' victory over Britain. But the story of Till, a slave who cooked for Washington and his troops during the grueling winter at Valley Forge, has gone untold, until now.

Every Saturday through Aug. 19, re-enactors will bring the stories of Till and other black colonials to life at the Valley Forge - the site of the Colonials' 1777-78 winter encampment. Severe cold and poor resources led to the death of nearly one-fifth of the men. 5,000 soldiers of African descent served in Washington's army, making it the most integrated US military until Truman desegregated the services after WWII.

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Cyrus Bustill

Cryus Bustill was born in Burlington in 1732, the son of an English attorney and an African slave. After learning the baker's trade from Thomas Prior, a local baker and member of the Friends Meeting, Bustill gained his freedom at age 36. During the Revolutionary War, he was commended for supplying American troops with baked goods at the Burlington docks, and reportedly given a silver piece by General Washington.


Bustill and his wife, the daughter of an Englishman and a Delaware Indian, later moved to Philadelphia where they and their eight children attended the Arch Street Friends Meeting. Bustill was an early member of Philadelphia's Free African Society, started in 1787. After retiring from baking, he started a school in Philadelphia. He died in 1806. His great-great-grandson, Paul Robeson, was valedictorian of his class at Rutgers University.

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Negro Soldiers in the Revolution

There is positive proof that at least two Negroes of Virginia, Israel Titus and Samuel Jenkins, fought under Braddock and Washington in the French and Indian war. The first died at Williamstown, Massachusetts, in 1855, about one hundred and ten years of age. A sketch of his life was published in the Springfield Republican of about that date. Samuel Jenkins is thought to have been about one hundred and fifteen years old when he died at Lancaster, Ohio, in 1849. The Lancaster Gazette of that period gave a brief sketch of his life, remarkable in many respects.

There were doubtless others in this war who lived and died unknown to fame, their names and records having been lost.

The protomartyr of the Revolutionary war was Crispus Attucks, a Negro, who was the leader in the Boston massacre on that memorable 5th of March, 1770. Attucks led the citizens in the charge, shouting, "The way to get rid of these idlers is to attack the main guard; strike at the root; this is the nest!" These were perhaps his last words, as his men threw a shower of clubs, stones and brickbats at the soldiers, which they returned with a galling fire. Attucks was the first to fall, being conspicuous on account of his height, which was six feet and two inches, and the still more important fact that he was in advance of his men. Two others, Samuel Gray and Jonas Caldwell, were killed, while Samuel Maverick and Patrick Carr, an Irishman, were mortally wounded. Attucks and Caldwell were buried from Faneuil Hall, afterwards called the "Cradle of Liberty," the other two from their homes, but all four in one common grave, with the following epitaph on their monument.

"Long as in freedom's cause the wise contend,
Dear to your country shall your fame extend;
While to the world the lettered stone shall tell,
Where Caldwell, Attucks, Gray and Maverick fell."

Crispus Attucks was a man of some learning, and sometime before his tragic death indited the following letter to the Tory Governor of Massachusetts:

Every schoolboy has read of Major Pitcairn, who commanded the British regulars in the fight at Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775, shouting to the militia: "Disperse, you rebels; lay down your arms and disperse!" And when they stood their ground, how he ordered his men to fire, which command they obeyed, killing seven of the patriots, the first martyrs of the Revolution. But it is not as well known that one of those who fell that day was a Negro; and that his death and that of his fellow martyrs was avenged by another Negro, the brave Peter Salem, who killed Major Pitcairn while leading his men in the charge at the battle of Bunker Hill. This Peter Salem was born and lived at Farmington, Massachusetts, and was probably a slave until the beginning of the Revolution. He served faithfully throughout the entire war.

There were quite a number of the sons of Africa fighting side by side with their countrymen of the white race at Bunker Hill, several of whom were conspicuous for their bravery, among them Salem Poor, Titus Coburn, Alexander Ames, Barzilai Lew, and Cato Howe each of whom received a pension. This fact is established by the painting of Colonel Trumbull, who witnessed this battle from Roxbury and reproduced it upon canvas in 1786. He reproduced several Negroes in the front ranks fighting valiantly, with visible results. Indeed, as Henry Wilson stated, "it is hardly too much to say that some of the most heroic deeds of the war of Independence were performed by black men."

The following incident is a case in point. When Major General Prescott commanded the British troops at Newport, Colonel Barton, with a black soldier named Prince, determined to capture him; and considering the fact that he was surrounded by his guard, with a large number of British soldiers quartered near, together with a fleet of ships, it was a remarkably successful stratagem. In company with "Black Prince," several other Negroes, and a detachment of the militia, Colonel Barton one dark night started in boats from a house about five miles above Newport. Muffling the oars, and avoiding the ships, they came on as noiselessly as possible, landing a short distance from the hotel, where he knew General Prescott had established his headquarters. It was arranged that Colonel Barton should take the lead, followed by Prince a short distance behind, while some of the other men brought up the rear.

When the Colonel drew near the hotel, the sentinel presented his gun and challenged him, but he continued to advance, throwing the sentinel off his guard by talking about rebel prisoners, and denouncing the rebels in general. Again the sentinel demanded the password; he replied that he did not have the password, but was loyal to his country. By this time he was near the sentinel, when, suddenly seizing his gun, he struck it to one side and wrenched it from his hand. Prince now seized the soldier in his vice-like grip, and having been bound and gagged he was handed over to the other men who had come up.

The Colonel and Prince now drew their weapons and rushed into the hotel office, where they met the landlord and demanded that he should show them General Prescott's room; he at first refused, but being threatened with instant death, he pointed to the room above. The Colonel and Prince now hurried up to this room, and finding it locked, the brave Negro burst in the door with his head, and seized General Prescott in bed. Seeing that resistance was useless and knowing that the slightest outcry meant death, he surrendered to his captors, was soon in the boat and conveyed within the American lines. He was afterwards exchanged for General Lee, an American officer of equal rank.

George W. Williams, the leading colored historian, estimates from official sources that there were not less than three thousand colored soldiers in the revolution, including Negro soldiers from every Northern colony, scattered throughout the white regiments; while Rhode Island raised a colored regiment commanded by Colonel Christopher Green, and Connecticut raised a black battalion of soldiers commanded in part by Colonel David Humphrey. But, as usual, Little Rhode Island was the most consistent of the thirteen colonies; she first made freemen of her black sons before permitting them to fight for freedom, and indeed it is not surprising that this regiment proved to have as gallant soldiers as any in the Revolution. The Negro troops turned the tide in the battle of Rhode Island, which was pronounced by Lafayelle "the best fought battle of the war."

Arnold, in his history of the above named state, thus referred to it: "It was in repelling these furious onsets that the newly raised black regiment under Colonel Green distinguished itself by deeds of valor. Posted behind a thicket in the valley, they three times drove back the Hessians who charged repeatedly down the hill to dislodge them."

One admirable trait that characterized this black regiment was devotion to their officers. This was nobly demonstrated in the attack made upon the American lines near Croton River, on the thirteenth of May, 1781. Colonel Green, their gallant commander, was cut down and mortally wounded; but the enemy's saber only reached him through the bodies of his faithful guard of blacks, who hovered over him to defend him and fought until every one of them was killed. Leonidas and the Spartans at Thermopylae did no more. Truly did Tristam Burgess say in Congress in 1828, "No braver men met the enemy in battle."

We are indebted to William C. Nell's work on Colored Patriots of the American Revolution, for valuable information, including the following address, which was delivered in 1842, before the Congregational and Presbyterian Anti-Slavery Society, at Francestown, New Hampshire, by Dr. Harris, a Revolutionary veteran. It is of great interest, because it is an eye-witness describing what he had actually seen. Said he, after giving some of his own exploits: "There was a black regiment, yes, a regiment of Negroes, fighting for our liberty and independence -- not a white man among them but the officers -- stationed at what was called a flanking position, that is, upon a place which the enemy must pass in order to come round in our rear, to drive us from the fort. This pass was everything, both to the enemy and us. Had the colored soldiers given way before the enemy or been unfaithful, all would have been lost.

"Three times in succession were they attacked, with most desperate valor and fury, by well disciplined and veteran troops, and three times did they successfully repel the assault, and thus preserved our army from capture. They fought through the war. They were brave, hardy troops. They helped to gain our liberty and independence.

Now, the war is over, our freedom is gained -- what is to be done with these colored soldiers, who have shed their best blood in its defense? Must they be sent off out of the country, because they are black? Or must they be sent back into slavery, now they have risked their lives and shed their blood to secure the freedom of their masters? I ask, what became of these noble colored soldiers? Many of them, I fear, were taken back to the South, and doomed to the fetter and the chain.

And why is it that the colored inhabitants of our nation, born in this country, and entitled to all the rights of freedom, are held in slavery? Why, but because they are black! I have often thought that, should God see fit, by a miracle, to change their color, straighten their hair, and give their features and complexion the appearance of the whites, slavery would not continue a year. No, you would then go and abolish it with the sword, if it were not speedily done without. But is it a suitable cause for making men slaves because God has given them such color, such hair and such features as he saw fit?"

Simon Lee, the grandfather of William Wells Brown, on his mother's side, was a slave in Virginia, and served in the Revolution; although honorably discharged with the other Virginia troops, at the close of the war, he was sent back to his master, where he spent the remainder of his life in toiling on a tobacco plantation. Such is the injustice toward the colored American, that, after serving in his country's struggle for freedom he is doomed to fill the grave of a slave!

La Fayette, in his letter to Clarkson, said: "I would never have drawn my sword in the cause of America, if I could have conceived that thereby I was founding a land of slavery."

The following incident from Theodore Parker shows that other black veterans of the Revolution were remanded to slavery, and doubtless there were many such cases. A sea-captain of Massachusetts who commanded a small brig, which plied between Carolina and the Gulf States, said to Mr. Parker, "One day at Charleston a man came and brought to me an old Negro slave. He was very old and had fought in the Revolution, and had been much distinguished for bravery and other soldierly qualities. If he had not been a Negro, he would have become a captain at least, perhaps a colonel. But in his old age, his master found no use for him, and said he could not afford to keep him. He asked me to take the Revolutionary soldier and carry him South and sell him. I carried him to Mobile and tried to get as good and kind a master for him as I could, for I didn't like to sell a man who had fought for his country.

"I sold the old Revolutionary veteran for a hundred dollars to a citizen of Mobile, who raised poultry, and he set him to tend a hen coop." Mr. Parker remarked that he supposed the South Carolina master, "a true gentleman," drew the pension till the soldier died. Then turning to the sea captain, whom he knew to be an anti-slavery man, he asked: "How could you do such a thing?" "If I had not done it," he replied, "I never could have received another bale of cotton, nor hogs-head of sugar, nor anything to carry from or to any Southern port."

Theodore Parker also stated that in his day workmen, while excavating for the foundations of the large dry goods stores of New York city, unearthed a large number of human skeletons. On investigation they proved to be the bones of colored American soldiers, who fell in the battle of Long Island in 1776. They were carted off to fill up a chasm, and thrown on the beach to make the foundations of warehouses, like any other rubbish of the city. Had they been white men they would have been buried anew, but as they were only Negroes who had died for their own and their masters' country, this was their fate.

Hon. Calvin Goddard, of Connecticut, states that he was instrumental in securing, under Act of 1818, the pensions of nineteen colored soldiers. "I cannot," he says, "refrain from mentioning one black man, Primus Babcock, who proudly presented to me an honorable discharge from service during the war, dated at the close of it, wholly in the handwriting of George Washington. Nor can Iforget the expression of his feelings when informed, after his discharge had been sent to the War Department, that it could not be returned. At his request it was written for, as he seemed inclined to spurn the pension and reclaim the discharge."

There is a pathetic anecdote told of Baron Steuben, at the time the American army disbanded. "A black soldier with his wounds unhealed, utterly destitute, stood on the wharf just as a vessel bound for his distant home was getting under way. The poor fellow gazed at the vessel with tears in his eyes, and gave himself up to utter despair. The warm-hearted foreigner noticed his emotions, and inquiring into the cause of it, took his last dollar from his purse and gave it to him, while tears of sympathy trickled down his cheeks. Overwhelmed with gratitude, the poor wounded soldier hailed the ship and was received on board. As it moved out of the wharf he cried back to his noble friend on shore, `God Almighty bless you, Master Baron.'"

We have already stated that Connecticut raised a battalion of colored soldiers, who were among the bravest in the American army. Some of them even immortalized their names as heroes "who were not born to die," as the following letter from Parker Pillsbury of New Hampshire, to William C. Nell, clearly indicates: "The names of the two brave men of color who fell with Ledyard at the storming of Fort Griswold, were Lambo Latham and Jordan Freeman. All the names of the slain at that time, are inscribed on a marble tablet, wrought into the monument -- the names of the colored soldiers last, and not only last, but a blank space is left between them and the whites; in genuine keeping with the "Negro Pew distinction -- setting them not only below all the others, but by themselves, even after that. And it is difficult to say why. They were not last in the fight.
"When Major Montgomery, one of the leaders in the expedition against the Americans, was lifted upon the walls of the fort by his soldiers, flourishing his sword and calling on them to follow him, Jordan Freeman received him on the point of a pike, and pinned him dead to the earth (see Historical Collections of Connecticut); and the name of Jordan Freeman stands away down last on the list of heroes -- perhaps the greatest hero of them all." But what of the other black hero who was with him? We will let a nephew of his, William Anderson, of New London, Connecticut, tell the story.

"September 6th, 1781, New London was taken by the British, under the command of that arch traitor, Benedict Arnold. The small band composing the garrison retreated to the fort opposite, in the town of Groton, and there resolved either to gain a victory or die for their country. The latter pledge was faithfully redeemed and by none more gallantly than the two colored men; and if the survivors of that day's carnage tell truly, they fought like tigers and were butchered after the gates were burst open. One of these men was the brother of my grandmother, by the name of Lambert, but called Lambo, since chiseled on the marble monument by the American classic appellation of`Sambo.' The name of the other black man was Jordan Freeman.

Lambert was living with a gentleman in Groton by the name of Latham; so of course he was called Lambert Latham. Mr. Latham and Lambert, on the day of the massacre, were working in a field at a distance from the house. On hearing the alarm upon the approach of the enemy, Mr. Latham started for home, leaving Lambert to drive the oxen up to the house. On arriving at the house, Lambert was told that Mr. Latham had gone up to the fort. Unyoking the oxen from the wagon and making all secure, he started for the point of defense, where he arrived before the British began the attack.

The assault on the part of the British was a deadly one, and manifestly resisted by the Americans, even to the clubbing of their muskets after their ammunition was expended; but finally the little garrison of brave defenders was reduced to a handful, and could hold out no longer.

On the entrance of the enemy, the British officer inquired, `Who commands this fort?' The gallant Ledyard replied, `I once did; you do now,' -- at the same time handing him his sword, which was seized, and immediately run through his body to the hilt by the officer. This was the commencement of an unparalleled slaughter.

Lambert, being near Colonel Ledyard when he was slain, retaliated upon the officer by thrusting his bayonet through his body. Lambert in return received from the enemy thirty-three bayonet wounds, and thus fell, nobly avenging the death of his commander. These facts were given me on the spot, at the time of the laying of the cornerstone, by two veterans who were present at the battle."

We learn from Kent's Commentary that the Legislature of New York passed an Act during the Revolutionary War granting freedom to all slaves who should serve in the army for three years, or until regularly discharged.

The Hartford Review for September, 1839, gives the following account of a colored man by the name of Hamet, living at that time in Middletown, Connecticut, who was formerly owned by Washington: -- "Hamet is, according to his own account, nearly one hundred years old. He draws a pension for his services in the Revolutionary war, and manufactures toy drums for his support. He has a white wife and one child His hair is white with age and hangs matted together in masses over his shoulders. He retains a perfect recollection of his Massa and Missus Washington, and has several mementoes of them. Among these there is a lock of the General's hair, and his service sword. He converses in three or four different languages, -- the French, Spanish and German, besides his native African tongue."

Another black veteran, Oliver Cromwell, served six years and nine months under Washington's immediate command, and received an honorable discharge in Washington's own handwriting, of which he was very proud. He received a pension of ninety-six dollars annually. Was in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Monmouth and Yorktown, at which place he claims to have seen the last man killed. He enlisted in a company
commanded by Captain Lowery, attached to the second New Jersey Regiment, under the command of Colonel Israel Shreve. He brought up seven sons and seven daughters, who reached the age of maturity. He was a man of strong natural ability -- never using tobacco or liquor in any form. He was more than a hundred years of age when he died at his native town, Columbus, New Jersey, January 24, 1853.

Another Revolutionary hero, Charles Bowles, was born in 1761, and at the age of twelve was placed in the family of a Tory. But he was too patriotic to be contented with his home, and two years later found him in the American army a servant to an officer. When sixteen years of age he became a regular soldier, serving faithfully to the end of the war. He then went to New Hampshire and engaged in farming. He obtained a pension, became a Baptist preacher of some prominence, and died in 1843, at the age of eighty two.

Rev. Henry F. Harrington wrote an article on General Washington and Primus Hall, body servant to Colonel Pickering, of Massachusetts, which was published in the June issue of Godey's Lady's Book, 1849. "On one occasion, the General was engaged in earnest conversation with Colonel Pickering in his tent, until after the night had fairly set in. Headquarters were at a considerable distance, and Washington signified his preference to stay with the Colonel over night, provided he had a spare blanket and straw. `O, yes,' said Primus, who was appealed to; `plenty of straw and blankets -- plenty.'


Upon this assurance, Washington continued his conference with the Colonel until it was time to retire to rest. Two humble beds were spread, side by side, in the tent, and the officers laid themselves down, while Primus seemed to be busy with duties that required his attention before he himself could sleep. He worked or appeared to work, until the breathing of the prostrate gentlemen satisfied him that they were sleeping; and then seating himself upon a box or stool, he leaned his head on his hands to obtain such repose as so inconvenient a position would allow. In the middle of the night Washington awoke. He looked about and descried the Negro as he sat. He gazed at him awhile, and then spoke. `Primus,' said he, calling; `Primus!' Primus started up and rubbed his eyes. `What, General?' said he.

Washington rose up in his bed. `Primus,' said he, `what did you mean by saying that you had blankets and straw enough? Here you have given up your blanket and straw to me, that I may sleep comfortably, while you are obliged to sit through the night.' `It's nothing, General,' said Primus. `It's nothing. I am well enough. Don't trouble yourself about me, General, but go to sleep again. No matter about me, I sleep very good.'

`But it is matter -- it is matter,' said Washington, earnestly. `I cannot do it, Primus. If either is to sit up, I will. But I think there is no need of either sitting up. The blanket is wide enough for two. Come and lie down here with me.' `Oh, no!' said Primus, starting, and protesting against the proposition. `No; let me sit here. I'll do very well on the stool.' `I say, come and lie down here!' said Washington authoritatively. `There is room for both, and I insist upon it!' He threw open the blanket as he spoke, and moved to one side of the straw. Primus professed to have been exceedingly shocked at the idea of lying under the same covering with the commander-in-chief, but his tone was so resolute and determined that he could not hesitate. He prepared himself, therefore, and laid himself down by Washington; and on the same straw, and under the same blanket, the General and the Negro servant slept until morning."

Seymour Burr lived in Connecticut; he was a slave to a brother of Colonel Aaron Burr, from whom he received his name. His master treated him kindly, but the slave sighed for freedom and was resolved, if possible, to obtain it. Persuading a number of other slaves to go with him, they seized a boat, intending to join the British army, that by so doing they might become freemen. Nevertheless their owners pursued and overtook them, and being heavily armed the slaves surrendered.

Mr. Burr did not punish Seymour, but asked him why he had left such a kind master. The Negro replied that he wanted his liberty. The master consented that the Negro should join the American army, on condition that the master should receive the bounty money and the slave be free at the close of the war. Accordingly he enlisted in the seventh regiment, commanded by Colonel Brooks of Medford.

He was with his company in the siege of Fort Catskill, where they endured great suffering from cold and starvation, until at last relieved by the arrival of General Washington, who was overjoyed on finding them unexpectedly alive, and holding the fort.

He served faithfully until the close of the war, receiving a pension. He afterwards married an Indian woman and established a home at Canton, Massachusetts. His wife survived him, dying in 1852, having lived more than five score years.

Jeremy Jonah (colored) also served valiantly in the same Regiment, afterwards obtaining a pension. He lived near Seymour Burr, and the two old comrades often made a night of it, after the manner of veterans, fighting their battles over again.

On August 16, 1777, the "Green Mountain Boys," aided by troops from New Hampshire and a few from Massachusetts, commanded by General Stark, captured the left wing of the British army near Bennington. When the prisoners, to the number of between seven and eight hundred, were collected to be tied on either side of a rope, it was found to be too short. The General called for more, but there was none at hand. In this emergency the patriotic wife of Hon. Moses Robinson stepped forward and said: "General, I will take down the last bedstead in the house and present the rope to you on one condition. When the prisoners are all tied to the rope, you shall permit my Negro man to harness up my old mare and hitch the rope to the whiffletree, mount the mare, and conduct the British and Tory prisoners out of town." The General willingly accepted Mrs.
[p. 137]
Robinson's proposition. The Negro mounted the mare, grinning from ear to ear, and thus conducted the left wing of the British army into Massachusetts, on their road to Boston.

The following instance of Negro wit is often told. After Cornwallis surrendered at York-town, an acquaintance of his, a colored soldier, stepped up to him quite elated, and remarked: "You used to be called Cornwallis, but it is Cornwallis no longer; it must now be Cobwallis, for General Washington has shelled off all the corn."

The gallant historian is proud to record the heroic deed of Molly Pitcher, whose husband was killed in the battle of Monmouth, and she took his place at the cannon, until the end of that battle. But here is the record of a black heroine who faithfully discharged all the duties of a soldier for nearly a year and a half.

The following extract is a copy of one of the Resolutions of the General Court of Massachusetts during the session of 1791-2: -- "XXIII. Resolution on the petition of Deborah Gannett, granting her £34 for services rendered in the Continental army.

"On the petition of Deborah Gannett, praying for compensation for services performed in the late army of the United States. Whereas, it appears to this Court that the said Deborah Gannett enlisted under the name of Robert Shurtliff in Captain Webb's company in the 4th Massachusetts Regiment, on May 20th, 1782, and did actually perform the duty of a soldier, in the late army of the United States, to the 23rd day of October, 1783, for which she has received no compensation; and whereas it further appears that the said Deborah Gannett exhibited an extraordinary instance of female heroism, by discharging the duties of a faithful, gallant soldier, and at the same time preserving the virtue and chastity of her sex unsuspected and unblemished, and was discharged from the service with a fair and honorable character therefore, Resolved, That the treasurer of this commonwealth be, and hereby is, directed to issue his note to the said Deborah for the sum of thirty-four pounds, bearing interest from October 23, 1788."

Prince Richards was a pensioned Revolutionary veteran, of East Bridgewater. When a slave he learned to write with a charred stick, thus showing a burning desire for learning, even against the command of his master, and perhaps, the law of the state.

At the close of the war, John Hancock presented the colored company called "The Bucks" with a beautiful and appropriate banner, bearing his initials, as a token of his appreciation of their courage and patriotism during the struggle. "The Bucks," under command of Colonel Middleton, marched through Boston, halting in front of the Hancock mansion on Beach Street, where the Governor and his son united in presenting the banner.

We also read of the brig on which Jack Grove (colored) was steward; while sailing from the West Indies to Portland in 1812, it was captured by a French vessel, whose commander placed a guard on board. Jack urged his commander to make an effort to retake the ship, but the captain saw no hope. Again he urged him, saying: "Captain McLellan, I can take her myself if you will only let me go ahead" But the captain was rather cowardly and checked him, warning him not to hint such a thing, as there was danger in it. But Jack, disappointed and disgusted with him, though not daunted, rallied the men on his own hook. Captain McLellan and the rest, inspired by his example of courage and leadership, joined them, and the attempt resulted in victory. They weighed anchor and took the vessel into Portland. The owner of the brig offered Jack fifty hogsheads of molasses for his brave deed; but Jack demanded one half of the brig, which being denied, he employed two Boston lawyers and brought suit. We were unable to learn how the case terminated.

The artist has vied with the historian in proclaiming the fact that the black men were among the bravest of the brave, with Perry in the squadron fight of Lake Erie, and Jackson at New Orleans. What student of history has not read Jackson's eloquent tribute to his brave colored fellow soldiers, after that glorious victory which they helped him to gain?

In the Chicago Tribune of February 26, 1894, Simon Young said in reply to the proposition of the Knights of Labor to deport the Negroes to Africa: "We are part and parcel of this country. Why, only to-day we buried from No. 3331 Dearborn Street old Captain Jackson, a Mexican war veteran, whose father fought in the war of 1812, and his grandfather worked a musket in the Revolutionary set-to. Our blood and brawn and brain helped to make this country. This is our home, and we're going to stay at home." Rev. Peter Williams of New York said on one occasion: "We are natives of this land; we ask only to be treated as well as foreigners. Not a few of our fathers suffered and bled to purchase its independence; we ask only to be treated as well as those who fought against it. We have toiled to cultivate it, and raise it to its present prosperous condition we ask only to share equal privileges with those who come from distant lands to enjoy the fruits of our labor."

 

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Soldiers From Virginia ~ Page One

Adam Armstrong was a Revolutionary War soldier from Henrico County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 29].

Burwell Artis was a free man of color from Southampton County who was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Court House [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 147; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 29].

James Ash was a "Mulatto" head of a Nansemond County household in Buxton's list for 1784 [VA:74]. In 1784 he was called James Ash of Isle of Wight County when he petitioned the Virginia Legislature for payment due him for eighteen months service as a Continental soldier in one of the Isle of Wight County divisions [Virginia State Library Legislative Petitions, 23 November 1784].

John Ashby, a "free Mulatto," died before 21 October 1776 when the York County court ordered the churchwardens of Bruton Parish to bind out his unnamed orphans and also (his son) Matt Ashby. On 15 June 1778 the court allowed (his widow) Sally Ashby, "wife of ___ Ashby" 12 pounds for the subsistence allowed wives, children and aged parents of poor soldiers serving in the Revolution. She was called the mother of a soldier when she received an allowance on 21 June 1779 and 17 July 1780 [Orders 1774-84, 127, 163, 219, 273].

Humphrey Baine was a soldier from Henrico County who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 29].

John Banks enlisted in Goochland County about 1779, served for two years, and was discharged at the barracks in Albemarle County. On 22 May 1822 when he applied for a pension, his family consisted of his wife Sally, his thirteen-year-old niece Mary Banks and his twelve-year-old nephew John Brown. He died before 19 August 1845 when his wife applied for and was granted a widow's pension. She stated that she was born about 1756 and that they were married about the spring of 1772 by Parson McLaerin in the Episcopal Church of Cumberland County, Virginia. On 6 February 1846 Walter D. Leake of Henrico County testified that Sally had a daughter living who was at least seventy years old [National Archives Pension File W.5763; Dorman, Virginia Revolutionary Pension Applications, IV:51].

Jacob Banks was living in Goochland County on 17 September 1832 when he made a declaration to obtain a pension for his Revolutionary War services. He was a "free man of Color" who served eighteen months as a wagoner [Dorman, Virginia Revolutionary Pension Applications, IV:51].

Charles Barnett was a "mulatto" who enlisted in Charlottesville in the 7th Virginia Regiment. Sharod Going testified that he was with him at Chesterfield Courthouse. In 1800 he moved to Carter County, Tennessee, then to Georgia, and to Granville County, North Carolina, about 1808 [Dorman, Virginia Revolutionary Pension Applications, IV:87]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Albemarle County on 2 August 1796: a Dark mullatto man aged about thirty years, of a yellow complexion, five feet seven and three quarter inches high, having proved to the satisfaction of this Court that he was born a free man within this County [Orders 1795-8, 137].

James Bass of Norfolk County moved to Bedford County, Tennessee about 1819 and received a pension for his services as a private in the Virginia Militia [National Archives file S1745].

Shadrack Battles was "a man of colour" who was about seventy-four years old on 11 October 1820 when he appeared in Albemarle County court to apply for a pension for his services in the Revolution. He testified that he enlisted while resident in Amherst County in 1777 and served for three years. He was a carpenter but was no longer able to support himself and his sixty-year-old wife. He owned 200 acres on the Hardware River in Amherst County which he sold in 1775 [M805-63, frames 183-9].

Solomon Beckett, a "Mulatto" taxable in Northampton County from 1782 to 1789 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 3, 73, 94], served in the Revolution from Northampton County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 147].

James Berry was one of the members of Captain Joseph Spencer's 7th Virginia Regiment who did not return from furlough in Gloucester Town. Spencer advertised a reward for their return in the 8 August 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette, describing James as "a mulatto fellow, about 30 years old, 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high; enlisted in Fredericksburg but served his time with Mr. Thomas Bell of Orange County" [Virginia Gazette, Purdie edition, p.4, col. 3].

Sylvester Beverly was a Revolutionary War soldier from Franklin County, Virginia, who enlisted in 1776 and served until the end of the War. He was eighty years old in 1822 when he petitioned the Legislature for a state pension [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 30].

Humphrey Bine was a soldier from Henrico County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 29].

Jacob Boon was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Isle of Wight County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 147].

Stephen Bowles served in the Revolution from Albemarle County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 31].

Zachariah Bowles, head of an Albemarle County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:185], was sixty-five years old on 30 March 1819 when he appeared in Henrico County court to apply for a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted on 19 January 1777 in Hanover County. He was a rough carpenter with a large family, 45 acres of very poor land, a work horse, cow and a few hogs and household furniture. His wife was fifty years old and they had three unnamed sons residing with them: twenty-four years old, twenty-two years old, and seventeen years old. He was placed on the Virginia Roll on 26 February 1819 [M850-109, frames 460-3].

James Bowman was a soldier in the Virginia Line who died before 6 October 1783 when an affidavit by Betty Morris, a "free Mulatto woman," that William Bowman was his brother and only surviving heir was certified by the Henrico County court [Orders 1781-4, 439].

James Bowser was a "free Mulatto" taxable in Isle of Wight County from 1782 to 1798 [PPTL 1782-1810, frames 4, 61, 89, 135, 181, 241, 331, 346, 418, 428, 491]. He was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Charles City County who was living in Nansemond County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148]. He made a nuncupative Isle of Wight County will on 5 September 1800 leaving his whole estate to his wife Bridget Bowzer [WB 11:284]. Bridget was a "F.N." taxable in Isle of Wight County from 1801 to 1813 [PPTL 1782-1810, frames 523, 577, 595, 652, 673, 715, 791]. Nathaniel and Thomas Bowser testified on 17 October 1833 that Nathaniel Bowser, Thomas Bowser, and Betsy Bowser, Moses Ash, Caroline Ash, Lydia Ash, Thomas Ash, and Curtis Ash were the only heirs of James Bowser who had served in the Revolution in 1782. In 1835 they received bounty land scrip for his service [M804-306, frame 0123].

Augustine Boyd was among a group of Revolutionary seamen who deserted and for whom a reward was offered in the 11 September 1779 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 31]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:973].

Thomas Brandon/ Brandom, head of a Mecklenburg County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820, was living in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 15 June 1833 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution, stating that he was born in Hanover County and was about eighty-seven years old. On 19 October 1840 his widow Margaret Walden Brandom made a deposition in order to obtain a survivor's pension for his services. She testified that they were married on 3 January 1771 and he died 17 December 1834. Her application included a copy of a book containing the family register which was provided by William J.B. Bedford of the Charlotte County courthouse [Dorman, Virginia Revolutionary Pension Applications, 9:74-75].

Abraham Brown was head of a Charles City County household of 10 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1810 [VA:957] and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:3]. He was a man of color from Charles City County who served in the Revolution [Charles City County Historical Society Newsletter 6:10-14 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

Edward Brown, head of a Charles City County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:957], was a man of color from Charles City County who served in the Revolution [Charles City County historical Society Newsletter 6:10-14 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

Freeman Brown, head of a Charles City County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:959], was a man of color from Charles City County who served in the Revolution [Charles City County historical Society Newsletter 6:10-14 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

George Brumagam, a taxable in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1787, enlisted as a soldier in the Revolution from Virginia: George Brumma, yellow complexioned, born in Australia [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

Francis Bunday, a "Free Negro" head of a Culpeper County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:7], was a sixty-year-old resident of Culpeper County on 21 April 1818 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution. According to his deposition of 17 October 1820 he was a sixty-seven or sixty-eight-year-old painter whose only family was a boy of about twelve or thirteen years [M805-139, frames 554-7].

William Bunday, a "Free Mulatto" head of a Culpeper County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 (called William Bunda) [VA:8], was a Revolutionary soldier who lived in Culpeper County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32].

Jack Butlers was a "mulatto" who was listed among seven deserters, drafted out of Prince George County, Virginia, for whom a reward was offered in the 28 November 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Purdie edition, p.3, col. 3], perhaps the "Buttlers Jack" who was head of a Martin County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:68].

William Cannady was presented for not listing his wife as a tithable in York County on 21 November 1765. He was a soldier in the Revolution on 17 August 1778 and 21 June 1779 when the York County court allowed his wife Frances Kennedy a subsistence payment [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 90, 126; Orders 1774-84, 170, 219].

James Carter, a six-year-old "negro" bound to Thomas Pettit in Northampton County, Virginia, on 14 August 1765 and bound to Anne Pettit, widow, on 13 January 1778 [Minutes 1765-71, 8, 33]. He was a soldier in the Revolution who enlisted in Northampton County, Virginia, and applied for a pension while living there [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32]. He was a "Mulatto" or "free Negro" taxable in Northampton County from 1787 to 1805, free from taxation in 1806, living in the Indian town of Northampton County in 1809 and 1810 [PPTL, 1782-1823, frames 64, 125, 207, 345, 408, 447, 467, 530]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Northampton County on 10 June 1794 [Orders 1789-95, 354]. James Carter, Sr., was head of a Northampton County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:217].

James Causey was a seaman from Northumberland County who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:975].

William1 Causey, born about 1747, enlisted in the Revolution for three years and was discharged on 16 February 1780 by the captain of the ship Dragon [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32]. He registered as a "free Negro" in Northumberland County on 12 January 1807: Mulatto, about 60 years old, 5 feet 9-1/4 Inches, Born free [Northumberland County Courthouse Register, no.27].

Charles Charity was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Surry County who enlisted in the Revolution in Dinwiddie County and later moved to Cumberland County, Virginia [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 148].

Anthony Chavis served in the Revolution in Virginia and died in Granville County, North Carolina, in May 1831 according to the survivor's pension application of his son Peter [M805, reel 180, frame 145].

Isaac Chavis was a "free man of color of Charlotte County" who enlisted in the 14th Virginia Regiment in March 1777 according to his heirs Jacob Chavos, William Chavos, Sally Brandom, and Patsy Scott who applied for a land grant on 1 May 1837 for his services in the Revolution [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 48].

John Chavis enlisted in the Fifth Virginia Regiment in December 1778 and served for three years. Captain Mayo Carrington, in a bounty warrant written in March 1783, certified that Chavis had "faithfully fulfilled [his duties] and is thereby entitled to all immunities granted to three year soldiers" [Mecklenburg County Legislative Petition of 14 December 1820]. On 20 April 1818 his sons John, Charles, and Randolph Chavis of Mecklenburg County gave their power of attorney to Melchizedek Roffe to collect money due to them from the State Treasurer for their father's service in the Revolution [Virginia Genealogist, p.153; Mecklenburg County DB 17:218-9]. William O. Goode, former member of the General Assembly from Mecklenburg County, wrote a letter on 12 January 1836 in support of the petition to the Legislature made by his son Randall. Goode stated that John and his brother Anthony Chavis were wagoners in the Revolution who were issued certificates of public debt at the end of the war, about 21 pounds for Anthony (signed by Captain Young) and 89 pounds for John (signed by Captain Carrington). These certificates were burnt in a fire in the Petersburg home of Charles Watts who was John Chavers' brother-in-law according to the testimony of Thomas Evans who had been a resident of Petersburg at the time of the fire [Mecklenburg County Legislative Petitions of 14 December 1820 and 19 January 1836, LVA].

John Chavis was called John Shivers on 16 November 1818 when he made a declaration in Southampton County court setting forth that he was a soldier in the Revolutionary War by voluntary enlistment [Minutes 1816-9, unpaged]. He was called Jack Chavis in 1810 when he was head of a Southampton County household of 3 "other free" [VA:77].

Ned Chavis served in the Revolution [Eckenrode, List of the Revolutionary Soldiers of Virginia, 324] and was taxable on one tithe in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, from 1786 to 1797 [Personal Tax List, frames 122, 368, 611, 634].

William Clark was sixty-four years old on 22 August 1820 when he appeared in Culpeper County court to apply for a pension for his services in the Revolution. According to his pension records, he died on 8 December 1827 and his children were Willis Clark, William Clark, Kitty Madden (wife of Willis Madden), and Nicholas Clark [Madden, We Were Always Free, 191-199].

Mason Collins was about sixty years old on 15 May 1818 when he made a declaration in King and Queen County court to obtain a pension for his services in the 11th Virginia Regiment. He declared that he had travelled north as bowman to an officer named Holt Richeson in 1777 and enlisted while in the state of Pennsylvania. He called himself an "illiterate Mulatto" on 11 December 1820 when he stated that he had a life estate in 85 acres and that his family consisted of a twenty-year-old woman named Maneroy, seventeen-year-old Mason, fifteen-year-old Mary and eleven-year-old Eliza.

James Cooper was a seventy-year-old "free man of color" who applied for a pension while residing in Augusta County, Virginia, on 26 June 1820. He stated that he had enlisted in Goochland County and that his family consisted of himself and Lukey Orchard, a free woman of color upwards of fifty years old, who lived with him. He owned a horse and was renting 4-5 acres. His application included a certificate dated October 1787 from a justice of the peace in Goochland County, describing him as a "molatto Free man," which was to be used as a pass to travel to North Carolina and Georgia [Dorman, Virginia Revolutionary Pension Applications, 20:76-7].

Francis Cousins enlisted in the Revolution from Goochland County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32] and was head of a Goochland County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:687].

John Cowigg was a soldier from Goochland County who served as a wagoner or in the service of supply [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 32].

 

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Soldiers From Virginia ~ Page Two

Moses Credit was a Northumberland County soldier [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 33].

Charles Cuffee was called the son of "free Negro" Sarah Coffe when he was bound apprentice to Nathaniel Sikes in Norfolk County on 19 May 1763 [Orders 1763-65, 15]. He was a "Free Black" head of a Princess Anne County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:445]. He enlisted in the Revolution in 1780 for eighteen months, and he applied for and was granted a pension while a resident of Princess Anne County on 7 June 1830 when he was seventy-five years old. He stated in court that he was living with his thirty-year-old wife Katy and his twelve or thirteen-year-old son Tom. His widow Catherine declared that she was about sixty years old when she applied for a survivor's pension on 28 August 1857. She further testified that her maiden name was Catherine Fuller, that they were married in Princess Anne County in 1815 by Samuel Brown, a Baptist Minister, and that her husband died on 1 Oct 1844. Her widow's pension was suspended during the Civil War, but it was reinstated based on her application of 3 June 1867 [National Archives Pension file W-9402]

William Cuffee was a man of color from Norfolk County who was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Daniel Cumbo served in the Revolution from James City County. Stephen Cumbo served in the Revolution from James City County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 34].

Fortune Cumbo was the mother of a poor soldier in the Continental Service on 17 December 1778, 20 May 1779 and 19 August 1779 when the Halifax County, Virginia court issued a certificate to the Treasurer that she had been provided with public assistance. She may have been the mother of Thomas Gimbo, a poor soldier whose wife and children received assistance in Halifax County on 21 August 1777 [Pleas 1774-9, 236, 384, 414; 1779-83, 65].

Michael Cumbo was a Revolutionary soldier from Charles City County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 34].

Peter Cumbo was a soldier from Charles City County who served in the Revolution [Gwathmey, Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution, 198].

Richard Cumbo was a soldier from Charles City County who served in the infantry during the Revolution [Gwathmey, Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution, 198].

Stephen3 Cumbo, born say 1755, was a soldier from James City County who served in the Revolution [Gwathmey, Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution, 198].

Abraham Cottiler (Cuttillo), a "free man of color" from York County, enlisted in the Revolution in 1779, served at the Battle of Yorktown, and died about thirty years previous leaving children: Nancy Cottiler, Betsy Cottiller (wife of, first, John Francis, then James Wallace), and John Cottiller [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 58].

Stephen Davenport was a soldier in the Revolution from York County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 34].

Daniel Davis, "a mulatto" born in Lancaster County, enlisted for the war and deserted from the ship Gloucester near Warwick with William Smith, a Creole born in Barbados, according to an advertisement in the 2 August 1780 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Virginia Genealogist 4:136].

George Day was a seaman from Northumberland County in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 34]. He was a "free negro" head of a Northumberland County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:976].

John Debrix was a "Negro" taxable in James City County in 1786 who served in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Charles Dobbins was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Prince Edward County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution in Dinwiddie County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149]. He was taxable in Powhatan County in 1794, 1795 and a "Mo" taxable there from 1802 to 1806 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 105, 117, 239, 255, 277, 293, 316].

Emanuel Driver was a soldier from Gloucester County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 35].

Luke Duncan, a "free Mulatto," was released from his indenture to Thomas Lowry by the Norfolk County court on 8 April 1782 [Orders 1782-3, 9]. He was a man of color from Norfolk County who enlisted in the Revolution between 1777 and 1783 [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Solomon Duncan, a "Free Black" head of a Princess Anne County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:450], was a yellow-complexioned blacksmith who was born in Pasquotank County, North Carolina, served in the Revolution, and was living in Princess Anne County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who joined at Chesterfield Courthouse [cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Wallace Dunstan was a soldier from Halifax County, Virginia, who deserted Captain Shem Cook's Second Georgia State Battalion. On 27 October 1777 Cook placed an advertisement in the Virginia Gazette offering "mulattoes" Wallace Dunstan and James Smith of Halifax County (and 10 other soldiers, including a sergeant) a pardon if they returned [Virginia Gazette, Purdie edition, p.3, col. 1].

John Epps, born 23 December 1763, was counted in the "List of Free Negroes & Mulattoes in the Lower District of Lunenburg County" in March 1802 with his wife Lucy and children [VSL, Lunenburg County, Free Negro, Slave Records, 1802-1830, p.1]. He was called Jack Epps in 1820 when he was head of a Wilkes County, North Carolina household of 9 "free colored" [NC:519]. He was seventy-one years old on 10 October 1834 when he made a declaration in Halifax County, Virginia Court to apply for a pension for Revolutionary War service. He stated that he was born in Lunenburg County. He was granted a pension while residing in Person County on 8 February 1836 [M805-306].

Charles Evans was listed as a "yellow" complexioned soldier, born in Petersburg and living in Mecklenburg County when he enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Another Charles Evans was in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 9 April 1782 when the court allowed his claim for providing 225 pounds of beef for the use of the Continental Army [Orders 1779-84, 127].

Thomas Evans, a "free man of Colour," was about sixty-three years of age on 23 December 1819 when he applied for a pension in Lunenburg County for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in September 1777 while resident in Mecklenburg County and served until 1780 [23 December 1819 Lunenburg County Legislative Petition, LVA].

Another Thomas Evans was living in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 9 April 1782 when the court allowed his claim for providing 225 pounds of beef for the use of the Continental Army [Orders 1779-84, 134].

John Farrar was a "yellow" complexioned soldier who enlisted in the Revolution from Goochland County (called John Farrow) [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149]. John Farrar was a "Mulatto" taxable in Powhatan County from 1788 to 1792 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 18, 32, 46, 60, 77].

John Fields, a "Mulatto" taxable in Buckingham County in 1774 [Woodson, Virginia Tithables From Burned Counties, 39], was a "free person of color" from Charles City County who enlisted in the Revolution in Amherst County [Register at Chesterfield Courthouse, cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

William Flora was taxable in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes, Norfolk County, from 1782 to 1817: taxable on 6 horses from 1795 to 1799; taxable on 2 free males; a slave under 16, 5 horses and 4 carriage wheels in 1800; counted in a list of "free Negroes" as a pedlar living in Portsmouth with (wife?) Gracy Flora in 1801; taxable on 3 riding chairs and 6 horses in 1802, 8 horses from 1804 to 1806; a stage wagon, 6 chairs and 6 horses in 1807 [PPTL, 1782-91, frames 392, 485, 567, 613, 643, 682; 1791-1812, frames 22, 82, 138, 172, 248, 354, 383, 463, 560, 646, 689, 742; 1813-24, frames 101, 251]. He fought in the battle at Great Bridge, Norfolk County, in the Revolution, prying loose the last board in the bridge to prevent the British from attacking his retreating comrades [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 34; WPA, The Negro in Virginia, 23].

John Fortune was a free man of color who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution from Amherst County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Lewis Fortune was a free man of color born in Caroline County but living in Essex County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149]. He was a "Mo" or "free Black" taxable in Powhatan County from 1792 to 1813 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 76, 105, 132, 184, 239, 294, 362, 438].

Samuel Fortune was a free man of color born in Caroline County but living in Powhatan County when he enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Christopher Francis was a soldier in the Revolution from York County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 35].

Charles Freeman was a "Mulatto Boy" living in Nottoway Parish, Amelia County, on 28 June 1759 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind him as an apprentice to John Howsing [Orders 1757-60, 224]. He was a free man of color from Amelia County who enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Nathan Fry was a man of color born free in Westmoreland County who enlisted in the Minute Service of the Revolutionary War in Henrico County, served as a drummer against the Creek Indians in Georgia and applied for a pension in Henrico County [National Archives pension file S39545 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 177-8]. He was a "F.N." taxable in the upper district of Henrico County from 1790 to 1813: listed with his unnamed wife in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1814, frames 376, 402, 444, 486, 532, 593, 636, 661, 757].

Dennis Garner was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Isle of Wight County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 149].

Samuel George was a seaman from James City County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 35].

Samuel Goff enlisted in the Virginia Continental Line on 15 September 1777 and was killed at Powles Hook on 16 August 1779 according to a certificate presented by his brother Abraham Goff in Cumberland County court [Orders 1779-84, 496].

Daniel Goff made a declaration in Boone County, Kentucky, on 4 February 1833 in order to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He was living in Chesterfield County when he enlisted in the 15th Virginia Regiment for three years. James Taylor testified that Daniel, a "poor colored man," came to live with him in Campbell County, Virginia, in 1793 as a gardener and laborer [M805-362, frame 97].

Zachariah Goff was a "Melatto" taxable in Campbell County from 1788 to 1792 [PPTL, 1785-1814, frames 84, 150, 212]. On 28 February 1796 the Cumberland County court ordered the clerk to issue a certificate of freedom "it appearing to the court that the said Zachariah by birth and parentage is intitled to the same" [Orders 1792-7, 613]. He was a Revolutionary War pensioner from Bedford County. He enlisted in Cumberland County in 1777 and served for three years. On 25 September 1851 his widow Betsy Goff, a "free Negroe," testified that they were married in June 1796, that her maiden name was Betsy Moss, and that her husband died in 1823 [M805-362, frames 288-295].

Abraham Goff, a "free man of Colour," was about seventy-seven years old on 28 August 1820 when he testified in Bedford County, Virginia court to obtain a pension for his service in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in Cumberland County, Virginia, in 1778 and served for four years. He had four children living with him: Matilda aged fourteen years, Ely aged twelve years, Samuel aged six years, and Mary aged three years [M805-362, frames 56-65]. He registered in Bedford County on 26 October 1820: aged 77, Mulatto, 5 feet 11 inches, Born free [Register of Free Negroes 1820-60, p.3].

Jacob Going, head of a Stokes County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:495], was about seventy years of age and living in Vermillion County, Illinois, on 7 June 1832 when applied for a Revolutionary War pension, stating that he was born in Henry County, Virginia, that he lived in Kentucky for about thirty years, then lived for seven years in Vincennes, Indiana [M805, reel 368, frame 0115, reel 368].

Charles Gowens was taxable in Henry County from 1783 to 1790 [PPTL, 1782-1830, frames 302, 352] and taxable in Patrick County from 1791 to 1795 [PPTL, 1791-1823, frames 151, 177, 207]. He was about seventy years old on 22 October 1833 when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension, stating that he had been born in Henry County, lived there until 1797, then moved to Kentucky and moved to Gallatin in 1815 [M805, reel 368, frame 0144]

David Gowen was head of Wythe County, Virginia household of 8 "other free" in 1810. He was about seventy-six years old on 26 February 1834 when he appeared in Hamilton County, Tennessee Court to apply for a pension for his services in the Revolution. He testified that he entered the service in Halifax County, Virginia, moved to Grayson County, Virginia, for three years, then to Wythe County for ten years, then to Grainger County, Tennessee, for fourteen years and lived in Hamilton County for one year. His younger brother Laban Goens testified on his behalf [M805-362, frames 27-30].

Drury Going was living in Greensville County, Virginia, on 12 March 1782 the court credited him with the value of a gun impressed for the public use (during the Revolution) [Orders 1781-9, 13-14].

Frederick Going was a "free man of Color" who stated that he was about seventy-eight years old on 21 March 1838 when he appeared in Lawrence County, Alabama court to apply for a pension for services in the militia during the Revolution. He stated that he was born on the Meherrin River in the part of Brunswick County, Virginia, from which Greensville was formed after the war, and he was about sixteen years old when drafted. He was in Illinois on 2 December 1842 when Daniel Hay wrote a letter enquiring about the status of his application [M805-362, frames 14-24].

Joshua Going was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Louisa County who was drafted in the Revolutionary War [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150].

Sherrod Going was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Louisa County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150]. He was head of an Albemarle County household of 12 "other free" in 1810 [VA:196] and 9 "free colored" in 1820. He received a pension for his service in the 14th Virginia Regiment during the Revolution. He owned 217 acres in Albemarle County when he made his pension application, describing himself to the court at Charlottesville as "a colored man and very illiterate" [National Archives pension file W7545; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 35].

Zephaniah Gowens was taxable in Henry County from 1783 to 1796 and in 1802: listed with 2 tithables in 1794 [PPTL, 1782-1830, frames 159, 302, 402, 428, 504], taxable in Patrick County from 1797 to 1799 [PPTL, 1791-1823, frames 234, 268]. He was about seventy-six years old and living in Hawkins County, Tennessee on 18 December 1834 when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension, stating that he had entered the service in Henry County [M805, reel 368, frame 0134].

William Guy called himself "a free man of Color" on 5 February 1833 when he made a declaration in Granville County court in order to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He testified that he was about seventy years old, was born in Brunswick County, Virginia, and lived in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, when he enlisted as a substitute for Jack Goode at Mecklenburg courthouse. He moved to Granville County about 1803. On 8 November 1842 his widow Abigail Guy, aged eighty years, testified in Granville County in order to obtain a widow's pension. She stated that she and William Guy were married on 12 June 1780, and her husband died on 30 January 1837. Her application included a copy of their 10 January 1780 Halifax County, North Carolina marriage bond: William Guy to Abigail Chavers (Chavis). It stated that William Guy and Charles Chavers provided the bond, but it was signed William Guy and Samuel Chavers (by mark) [M804-1149].

James Johns was a Revolutionary War soldier from Goochland County. In 1778 the Goochland County Court provided his wife "needy relief" while he was serving in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 37].

Peter Hacket was a Revolutionary soldier from Campbell County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 36], a "Free Negro" taxable in the northern district of Campbell County from 1787 to 1807 [PPTL, 1785-1814, frames 85, 119, 331, 459, 697] and head of a Campbell County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:869].

John Haithcock was living in Southampton County in 1779 when he enlisted in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 37]. He was head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:27] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:151].

Peter Haley registered as a "free Negro" in York County on 28 April 1802: a bright mulatto with woolly hair high forehead ... 5 feet 6-1/2 Inches high ... about 45 years of age [Register of Free Negroes 1798-1831, no.19]. He was head of a York County household of 2 "other free" in 1810. He was a soldier in the Revolution from York County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38].

Edward Harris enlisted in the Revolution while a resident of Amelia County and was granted a pension [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38].

James Harris was a resident of Charles City County when he enlisted in the 2nd Virginia Regiment. He applied for a pension in 1820 stating that he was a farmer with a fifty-eight-year-old wife who was sickly [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 36].

Another James Harris was born in Dinwiddie County according to his Revolutionary War pension file, enlisted in the service while resident in Orange County, North Carolina, in 1775. In 1781 he moved to the part of Henry County which later became Patrick County and applied for a pension from there in 1835. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Patrick County in 1799, listed with 2 tithes in 1799, 1804 and 1805 [PPTL, 1791-1823, frames 269, 398, 428, 460, 538, 598] and head of a Patrick County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830. His widow Keziah was head of a Patrick County household of 4 "free colored" in 1840 and was an eighty-year-old "Mulatto" woman, born in Virginia, counted in the 1850 census [VA:389]. She applied for a survivor's Revolutionary War pension in 1855 stating that her maiden name was Keziah Minor and that she and James had married in Rockingham County, North Carolina, in 1801.

 

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Soldiers From Virginia ~ Page Three

John Harris was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Prince George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution in Dinwiddie County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Dinwiddie County in 1790 and 1792 and a "free" taxable from 1794 to 1801 when he was listed as a cooper in the same district (Braddock Goodwyn's) as another "free" John Harris and a "free" Andrew Harris [PPTL 1801 B, p.7]. He was called a "free man of Colour" on 27 April 1818 when he made a declaration in Prince George County to obtain a pension for his services, stating that he enlisted in 1777 in the 15th Virginia Regiment. He was taken from the regiment and made a servant to President Monroe who was then the major of horse and aide-de-camp to Lord Sterling. He made a second declaration on 18 May 1821 in Petersburg court, stating that he was about sixty-nine years old and residing in Dinwiddie County in the immediate vicinity of Petersburg. He was a cooper by trade and his family consisted of himself and four children: three boys and a girl [M805-401, frame 0640].

Another John Harris was a soldier who enlisted in the Revolution in Petersburg. His children were living in Wilkes County, North Carolina, on 3 July 1852 when they applied for a pension for his services as a drummer. They declared that he and their mother Mary Walker were married by the Episcopal Minister in Dinwiddie County in October or November 1785. They moved to Randolph County, North Carolina, near the old courthouse, called Randolph Cross Roads, and lived there for five or six years, and then moved to Rowan County near Lexington (Davidson County) where their father died on 20 April 1806 [CR 104.923.2 by NCGSJ V:251-2].

William Harris was a deserter from Captain Thomas Massie's new recruits for the sixth Virginia Regiment. The 21 November 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette offered a reward for his return, describing him as: a mulatto fellow about five feet eleven inches high, the veins in his leg much broke, appear in knots, he was enlisted in New Kent, but expect he is lurking about Charles City [Virginia Gazette, Purdie's edition, p.3, col. 3].

Henry Hartless was living in Amherst County on 2 April 1782 when the court ordered that he be paid for providing 20 pounds of bacon and 275 pounds of beef to the Revolution [Orders 1773-82, 281].

Peter Hartless was about eighty years old on 1 November 1832 when he made a declaration in Amherst County court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He was born in Caroline County, enrolled in the militia in 1777 or 1778, drafted in 1781, and returned to Caroline County until 1787 when he moved to Amherst County. Bounty land was issued to Lawrence Mason for his services in the North Carolina Militia during the War of 1812 [M804-1210, frame 0249]. He was taxable in Lexington Parish, Amherst County, from 1787 to 1821: called a "man of color" in 1811 and 1812, a "Mulatto" in 1813, in a list of "Free Mulattoes & Negroes" in 1814, 1816, and 1818 [PPTL 1782-1803, frames 101, 167, 227, 349, 395, 452, 510, 588; 1804-23, frames 25, 108, 168, 213, 234, 256, 284, 403, 503, 539, 601]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:288].

William Hartless made a declaration in Amherst County court on 17 September 1832 to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was born in Caroline County, moved to Amherst County when he was twenty-three years old, entered the militia in Albemarle County in 1779, and was drafted from Amherst County in 1781 [M804-1210, frame 0260]. He was taxable in Lexington Parish, Amherst County, from 1782 to 1821: called a "man of color" in 1811 and 1812, a "Mulatto" in 1813 [PPTL 1782-1803, frames 9, 101, 197, 327, 555, 588; 1804-23, frames 24, 147, 213, 255, 503, 600]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 1 white (free) person in 1783 [VA:48] and 1785 [VA:85], 13 "other free" in 1810, and 6 "free colored" and a 26-44 year old white woman in 1820.

James Hawkins was about fifty-seven years old with no family living with him on 14 October 1820 when he made a declaration in Fluvanna County to obtain a pension for his service in the Revolution. He stated that "being a Coloured man," he was taken as a waiter to Major Chrogham. He received a land warrant for three years service [M804-1227, frame 0576].

Peter Haw(s) was head of a Lancaster County, Virginia household of 9 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:56] and 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:349]. He and his brother William1 Haw were seamen from Lancaster County in the Revolution. On 1 November 1834 Peter's four children: Rachel Haw, Peter Haw, Alice Haw, and Betsy Haw applied for bounty land for his services [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 104].

William Haws died in Revolutionary War service aboard the ship Dragon [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 104].

Ephraim Hearn was a "man of colour" about eighty-four years old on 8 August 1829 when he made a declaration in Gloucester County court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He was a weaver living with his wife Molly (more than sixty years old) and a twenty-year-old daughter Betsy [M804-1242, frame 0662]. He was head of a Gloucester County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:657].

Caleb Hill was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in King & Queen County who lived in King William County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150].

John Hobson/ Hopson was a soldier in the Revolution from York County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38].

Bartholomew Holmes was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in James City County who was living in King William County when he was listed in a register of soldiers who enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150].

William Holmes was listed as a soldier from King William County in the French and Indian War who deserted: a mulatto, age 45 years, 5'11" [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 31:93].

David Howell was a Revolutionary War soldier from Powhatan County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38]. He registered in Powhatan County on 19 December 1822: Age: 59; Color: Dark Brown; Stature: 5'6-1/2"; Born Free. (His wife) Patsy Howell registered the same day: Age: 47; Color: Yellow; Stature: 5'6"; Born Free [Register of Free Negroes, nos. 64, 65].

Isaac Howell was a man of color born in Powhatan County who later lived in Goochland County. He enlisted as a substitute and served as a waiter in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38].

Luke Hughes was listed among the slaves in Cadwelder Dade's estate inventory which was proved in Stafford County on 14 July 1761 "Luke...to serve till 31" [Wills, Liber O, 1748-63, 400]. He was a Revolutionary War soldier who was born in King George County and later lived in Culpeper County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38]. He registered in King George County on 27 October 1800: a dark molatto man with long grey hair, about sixty years, was born in this County, served Cadwellder Dade untill he was thirty one years of age [Register of Free Persons, no.16].

William Hughes was a "yellow" complexioned man who enlisted in the Revolution in Caroline County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150]. He was head of a Spotsylvania County household of 2 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [VA:113b].

Hardy Hunt was a "Negro" from Southampton County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted in the Revolution at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150]. He enlisted in the service in Southampton County with John Hathcock and petitioned the Legislature for compensation in 1792 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38].

William Jackson was a man of color from Amherst County who served in the Revolution and lived in Bedford County [National Archives pension file W7877 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150].

John Jeffries was taxable in Andrew Jeffries' Brunswick County, Virginia household in 1783 [PPTL 1782-98] and was charged with his own tax in Meherrin Parish, Greensville County, from 1788 to 1807 [PPTL 1782-1850, frames 65, 84, 108, 127, 138, 218, 245, 260, 274, 288, 303, 322, 337, 372]. He was head of an Orange County, North Carolina household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:342]. He was about sixty-seven years old and living in Orange County on 26 November 1832 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1780 and resided there until 1808 when he moved to Orange County. He made a second declaration in Orange County on 19 October 1837 that he had served in the place of his father Andrew Jeffreys. His widow Delilah was a resident of Alamance County on 19 November 1853 when she applied for a survivor's pension, testifying that they were married in 1822 and that her husband died on 15 April 1845. She was said to have been about eighty years old when she testified again in Alamance County on 11 April 1855 [M804-1409, frame 0363].

James Johns was a Revolutionary War soldier from Goochland County. In 1778 the Goochland County court provided his wife "needy relief" while he was serving in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 37].

Britton Jones was a Revolutionary soldier from Greensville County, Virginia [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 38], head of a Greensville County household of 2 persons in 1783 [VA:55], and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:262]. He registered as a "Free Negro" in Greensville County on 1 April 1825: free born of a Yellowish Complexion about Sixty-two years old, 5 feet 10-1/4 inches high ... a planter [Register, no.140].

Burwell Jones was a man of color from Lunenburg County who served in the Revolution [National Archives pension file R67SO cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 150].

 

____ Kee, born say 1700, was a soldier who was slain in the expedition against the Spaniards at Carthagena. His widow Elizabeth Kee, a "Mulatto," petitioned the Virginia House of Burgesses for a pension and was granted an allowance of five pounds on 26 May 1742 [McIlwaine, Journals of the House of Burgesses, 20, 37].

 

John Key was a Lunenburg County, Virginia soldier of dark complexion who was born free in King and Queen County in 1763. In 1853 his widow Faithy Lester Key began receiving a pension for his services in the Revolutionary War [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 39].

Jesse Kelly was a soldier in the Revolution from King William County, Virginia, who served as an apprentice to Lewis Lee [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 39]. John Crittendon and Luke Cannon, officers of the 15th Virginia Regiment, recruited Jesse Kelly to serve in the army. Kelly's master, Lewis Lee won a suit against them for 35 pounds for the loss of his servant. Their King William County petition to the General Assembly of Virginia for reimbursement was rejected [http://history.uncg.edu/slaverypetitions/documentary.html, PAR# 11679201].

Jesse registered in Surry County as a free Negro on 11 April 1799: a free born - mulatto man of a bright complexion...has a bushy head of hair [Hudgins, Register of Free Negroes, 6].

William Kersey was taxable in Southampton County from 1782 to 1797, a "M"(ulatto) taxable there in 1806 and 1807 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 504, 545, 641, 713, 820, 878; 1792-1806, frames 56, 164, 194, 267], head of a Warren County, North Carolina household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [NC:814], 11 in 1810 [NC:765], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:798]. He was called William Carsey in his pension application in which he stated that he was born in Southampton County in 1761, lived there and in Bute County, North Carolina, during the war, and married Polly Evans in Mecklenburg County in 1786. He died 26 June 1836 and his widow Mary died 14 September 1840 [M804-481].

Ambrose Lewis served in the Revolution from Spotsylvania County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 39-40].

 

Thomas Lively was taxable in Chesterfield County from 1793 to 1811, a "Mulatto" living with his 2 children on James Scott's land in 1809 and 1811 [PPTL, 1786-1811, frames 162, 198, 268, 301, 374, 563, 689, 738]. He was a "man of Colour," eighty four years of age on 31 May 1820 when he made a declaration in Petersburg to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution, stating that he enlisted in Chesterfield County in the 5th Virginia Regiment in 1777. On 27 August 1820 his family consisted of his twenty-three-year-old daughter Sally Freeman, her twenty-seven-year-old husband Kit Freeman and their seven-year-old son James [M804-1573, frame 0042].

Thomas Lockett was a soldier from Nelson County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40].

James Locus was a seaman in the Revolution from King George County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40]. He registered in King George County on 1 May 1800: a dark Mulatto man aged about ___ years, and about five feet ___ Inches, was bound to Thomas Massey, Senr. of this County to serve till the age of thirty one years [Register of Free Persons 1785-1799, no.12].

John Locus was a seaman in the Revolution from King George County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40].

Joseph2 Lucas was bound out as an apprentice in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 25 May 1761. He was a "yellow" complexioned man living in Powhatan County when he was listed as a soldier who served as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 151]. He registered as a free Negro in Goochland County on 18 July 1809: five feet nine and an half inches high, about forty five years of age, short curled hair intermingled with Grey...free born [Register of Free Negroes, p. 32].

Daniel Loney was a soldier from Hanover County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40].

Bennett McCoy was drafted into the service from Westmoreland County to serve in 1777. He was allowed a pension in 1818 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40]. In 1801 he was listed as a "free Molatto" farmer with Hannah McKey living on their own land in Westmoreland County [Virginia Genealogist 31:40]. He was head of a Westmoreland County household of 4 "other free" in 1810.

George McCoy was head of a Rockingham County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:130b]. According to his Revolutionary pension file, he died in the poorhouse in Rockingham County in 1821 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40].

James McCoy was listed as a "free Molatto" farmer living on his own land in Westmoreland County in 1801 ["A List of Free Mulattoes & Negroes in Westmoreland County" Virginia Genealogist, 31:40]. He was head of a Westmoreland County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 (called James McKoy). He received a pension for his service as a soldier in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40].

____ McGee was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from King George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 151].

Kingston Marshall was a seaman in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40].

Thomas Maclin was described as a "free mulatto" who lived near the lower Mecklenburg County store of Dinwiddie, Crawford, & Company and owed them 3 pounds on 1 September 1775 [Virginia Genealogist 15:291]. He may have been identical to John Macklin, "a poor soldier in the service of the United States," whose wife Frances was living in Mecklenburg County on 13 March 1780 when the court ordered Reuben Morgan to supply her with 2 barrels of corn for her support [Orders 1779-84, 19].

Thomas Mahorney was about 85 years old on 22 May 1818 when he made a declaration in Prince William County court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in January 1777 in Westmoreland County. He was called a "free man of colour," aged about ninety-one, on 3 October 1820 when he appeared in court again, declaring that his family residing with him was his wife Mima and son Jack, both slaves [M804-1615, frame 0568].

William Martin was a "yellow" complexioned man, who was born in Cumberland County and was living in Pittsylvania County when he was listed as a soldier who enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 151].

Thomas Mason, married Elizabeth Ailstock in Louisa County in April 1791 according to her application for a survivor's pension for his services in the Revolution. He was listed as a "Mulatto" shoemaker in a "List of free Negroes and Mulattoes" in Louisa County with his wife Elizabeth and children about 1801-3 [Abercrombie, Free Blacks of Louisa County, 20]. His widow Elizabeth applied for a pension in Campbell County on 1 May 1854, stating that her husband was a "colored" man who died in October 1832.

Saul Mathews was a spy from Norfolk County. He was a slave who entered the British camp at Portsmouth several times and brought back information. In 1792 he petitioned the Legislature and was granted his freedom [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 40]

James Mealy registered as a free Negro in Goochland County on 18 December 1822: about fifty eight years old, about five feet ten inches high ... yellowish complexion and was free born [Register of Free Negroes, pp.136, 223]. He was a soldier in the Revolution from Goochland County who received a pension in 1831 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

James Melton/ Milton, brother of Ann Melton Bowzer, enlisted in the Revolution and died of smallpox at Bunker Hill [Brown, Genealogical Abstracts, Revolutionary War Veterans Script Act, 1852, 139; Gwathmey, Historical Register of Virginians in the Revolution].

George Monoggon was a Gloucester County seaman [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41]

Ambrose Month received a pension for his services in the Revolution based on his application from Knox County, Tennessee, in 1834. He stated that he was born in Spotsylvania County and was a free man who was part Shawnee and part Negro [National Archives pension file cited by NSDAR, African American and American Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War, 138].

Thomas Morgan was a soldier from Suffolk, Virginia, in the French and Indian War who deserted from the Virginia Regiment in September 1757 and was described as: age 26, 5'7", mulatto [Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 31:96].

Charles Morris was a man of color from Charles City County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 151]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County from 1798 to 1810 [PPTL, 1786-1811, frames 358, 543, 620, 662, 717, 753, 799] and head of a Chesterfield County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:70/1062]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 8 August 1814: about forty eight years old, brown complexioned, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 224].

Francis Morris was a "yellow" complexioned man born in Henrico County who was living in Petersburg when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 151].

Anthony Morrison was a Lancaster County seaman. His daughter was granted a warrant for 200 acres for his services on board the Gloucester [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

Ezekiel Moses was a "Mulatto" delinquent taxable in Northampton County, Virginia, in 1786 [Virginia Genealogist 20:269] and was a Northampton County seaman [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

Henry Moss was taxable in Powhatan County from 1789 to 1791 and from 1803 to 1817: called a "Mullo" in 1790, called a "F.B." from 1813 to 1815 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 36, 48, 63, 262, 280, 321, 366, 443, 463, 488, 538]. He was about forty two years old on 1 July 1796 when he was described by the 1 July 1796 issue of a Virginia newspaper as: born a free Negro in one of the lower Counties of this state...his father was a black and his mother a mulatto, but he has turned white; he was in the Virginia Line in the last war [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers].

Edward Nickens served as a seaman aboard the Gloucester in the State Navy for which he received bounty land on 9 February 1784. He moved to New Kent County where he lived near James Lafayette [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

James Nickens was head of a Lancaster County household of 9 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:55] and a "F. Negroe" head of a Fauquier County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 (called James Nickens, Sr.) [VA:368]. On 3 September 1834 James Nickens, Elizabeth Nickens, and Judy Watkins appeared in Frederick County court to apply for the survivors' pension of their father James Nickens and their brother Hezekiah Nickens, a seaman in the Virginia State Navy who died during the war. They testified that their father died about 1825 and their mother Sally was also deceased, and they were their only heirs [Minutes 1834-38, 61].

Another James Nickens was head of a Prince William County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:506]. He was about fifty-nine years old and living in Falmouth when he applied for a pension on 27 April 1818. He was a sixty-two-year-old "Free Man of Color" living alone in Stafford County on 16 August 1820 when he applied for a pension. He testified that he enlisted in Lancaster County where he served aboard the ships Tempest, Revenge, and Hero, and then served in the army for two or three years [M805, reel 615, frame 0192].

Nathaniel Nickens was a Lancaster County seaman who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41] and head of a Lancaster County household of 3 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:55].

Richard Nickens served in the Revolution aboard the galley Hero and received 1,000 acres on 2 August 1783 for serving three years. He registered in Lancaster County on 17 October 1803: Age 52, Color mulatto...born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1]. He was said to be eighty-two years old when he applied for a pension in Lancaster County court on 17 December 1832 [M805, reel 0615, frame 0187].

Robert Nickens served as a soldier in the Revolution from Lancaster County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

 

William Nicken enlisted early in the Revolutionary War as a drummer, was in a short time made drum major, and returned to Northumberland County at the close of the war [Hopkins, Virginia Revolutionary War Land Grant Claims, 39].

William Oats was a Northumberland County seaman [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

Evan Payne was a "mulatto" listed among fourteen deserters from Lieutenant John Tankersley's troops. Tankersley offered a reward for their delivery to King George courthouse in the 3 October 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Purdie edition, p. 3, col. 1].

Benjamin Payne was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Buckingham County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 152]. He enlisted in Goochland County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 41].

Joshua Payne was a man of color born in Westmoreland County who was living in King George County when he was listed in a register of soldiers who served in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 152]. He was head of a Rockingham County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:491].

Joshua Perkins was a member of Captain Windsor Brown's Virginia Company of troops when Brown advertised in the 6 June 1777 issue of the Virginia Gazette that he had deserted. Brown described him as: a mulatto, about 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high, 24 or 25 years old, and is a straight made fellow; had on a short striped jacket, a felt hat bound round with French lace [Virginia Gazette, Purdie edition, p. 3, col. 3]. His only heir Sally Perkins applied for his pension in Accomack County on 29 March 1834 for Revolutionary War service as a seaman [Orders 1832-36, 21, 313].

Nimrod Perkins was a "Mulatto" taxable in Northampton County, Virginia, in 1787 [Schreiner-Yantis, 1787 Census of Virginia, 1259] and head of an Accomack County household of 2 "other free" and one white woman in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:13]. He was about seventy-two years old on 31 July 1832 when he testified in Accomack County Court that he enlisted as a drummer on board the galley Diligence from 1777 until 1781 and that he had received a Virginia Military Land Warrant for 100 acres [Orders 1828-32, 537]. In 1830 he was granted 666 -2/3 acres and in 1832 he was granted a pension. His heir Sally perkins applied but was rejected [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, ].

James Peters was a seaman from Culpeper County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42].

Jesse Peters registered as a "free Negro" in Surry County on 9 January 1796: son of Lucy Peters a free mulattoe, a resident of the county, a dark mulattoe man aged about 32 years, pretty well made short hair, 5'11" high [Back of Guardian Accounts Book 1783-1804, no.17]. He was called a "Free man of Color" in his application for a pension in May 1835 in which he stated that he was seventy-one years old and fought at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse under Captain John Lucas [National Archives File, R 8146].

Francis Pierce was a man of color born in Caroline County who enlisted as a soldier in the Revolution NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153].

John Pinn married Anne Cassady, 12 September 1785 Northumberland County, Virginia bond. He was living in Boston, Massachusetts on 28 October 1842 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that his father Robert Pin was a Mustee and his mother a Cherokee who were inhabitants of Lancaster County, Virginia, at a place called Indian Town near Carter's Creek. He and his father served in Captain William Yerby's Company of Artillery, he as a powder boy. He had moved to Boston about 1792 and married Nancy Coffin about ten years later. He testified that his brothers Jim and William also served and that Jim died in the service. He was described as "a coloured man - apparently of Indian Origin and is a person of good report amongst our mercantile community both here and at Salem" [M804-1938, frames 0637-51].

Rawley Pinn was a "Mulatto" taxable in Buckingham County in 1774 [Woodson, Virginia Tithables From Burned Counties], head of an Amherst County household of 7 persons in 1783 [VA:47], and 8 "Mulattos" in 1785 [VA:84]. He was a free man of color who served in the Revolution from Amherst County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 152].

Obediah Plumly was a yellow complexioned soldier from New Kent County, Virginia, who served as a substitute in the Revolution [Register & description of Noncommissioned Officers & Privates at Chesterfield Court House, cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153]. He was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:76], 11 in 1800 [NC:469] and 3 in 1810 [NC:739].

James Pompey was a "Negro planter" from Sussex County, Virginia, listed in the Size Roll of Captain Thomas Waggener's Company at Fort Holland in August 1757 [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 463]

David Pugh, the two-year-old minor of Sarah Pugh, a "Mulatto," was bound to James Jones in Bertie County on 26 July 1759 to be a cooper [NCGSJ XIII:169]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 and was listed in the roster of soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution.

Arthur Pugh, a "Mulatto bastard of Sarah Pugh," was bound as an apprentice cooper to James Holley in Bertie County on 30 March 1767 [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, III:765]. He was listed in the roster of soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution.

John Ralls/ Rolls, born in Caroline County, was a "free man of colour" living in Culpeper County in 1779 when he enlisted in the Revolution. He was about eighty-two years old and had been living alone in Shenandoah County for "some years" before 9 January 1821 when he made a declaration to obtain a pension. David Jamison, a justice of the peace in Culpeper County, testified for him, noting that John had been one of four brothers and a sister in the county, and that he had had a wife and children living there while he was in the service [M804-2079, frame 0520; Revolutionary Army, vol. 1, Register 1777-1783, LVA accession number 24296, cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153].

 

 

Added by bgill

Soldiers From Virginia~Page Five

Joseph Rantger was an African American seaman in the Revolution from Northumberland County who moved to Elizabeth City County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. Joseph Ranger was in a list of "free negroes & mulattoes" in Elizabeth City County in 1813 [Waldrep, 1813 Tax List].

John Redcross was a soldier in the Revolutionary War from York County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. He was taxable in York County in 1784 [Fothergill, Virginia Tax Payers, 103] and a "Mulatto" taxable on himself and a horse in Hanover County in 1785 and 1786 [Cocke, Hanover County Taxpayers, St. Paul's Parish, 105].

John Redman was a "Free Negro" taxable on 3 persons and 2 horses in Hardy County in 1810 [Yantis, A Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia, H-7]. At the age of sixty years on 11 June 1820, he made a declaration in Hardy County Court on 11 June 1820 to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in Winchester, Virginia. His widow Sarah applied for a survivor's pension on 9 August 1838 stating that her husband died on 8 October 1836. Their son Nimrod was fifty-one years old on 26 May 1849 when he appeared in Hardy County Court stating that he was the son of John and Sarah who died 4 November 1848 [M805-679, frame 0611].

Richard Redman applied for a pension while living in Hardy County on 10 February 1829. He enlisted about 1780 at Fauquier courthouse. His unnamed wife was sixty-five years old in 1829 [M805-679, frame 0630]. He was listed as a "yellow" complexioned soldier in the size roll of troops who enlisted in the Revolution [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153].

William Rich was a soldier in the Revolution from Lancaster County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42] and head of a Lancaster County household of 5 "Blacks" in 1783 [VA:55].

Hezekiah Roberts was head of a St. George Parish, Accomack County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 (called Kiah) [Virginia Genealogist 2:160]. He was a soldier who served in the Revolution from Accomack County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42].

Reuben Ross was a soldier from Culpeper County who served in the Revolutionary War [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. He was a "Ma." taxable on a horse in Culpeper County in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 16:277] and a "F. Mo." head of a Culpeper County household of 9 "other free" and one white woman in 1810 [VA:68].

David Ross was a soldier from Culpeper County who served in the Revolutionary War [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42].

Peter Rouse enlisted in the 2nd Virginia Regiment under Captain William Campbell in Dinwiddie County according to his application for a pension in Greene County, Pennsylvania, on 10 September 1832 [M805-706, frame 0545]. He was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [NC:473].

John Rowe, a "free man of Colour," was about sixty-one years old on 8 August 1820 when he made a declaration in Botetourt County court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in 1778 with Colonel Fabeger in the 2nd Regiment in New Jersey [M804-2072, frame 0209]. He was head of a Fluvanna County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:478]. He registered in Nottoway County on 5 November 1818 and again in Botetourt County on 13 March 1820: 58 years, Black Colour, 5 feet 8 inches [Free Negroes Registered in the Clerks Office of Botetourt County, no.29].

George Russell enlisted in the Revolution while resident in Brunswick County, Virginia [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. He was head of a Wake County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:103] and 4 in 1800 [NC:791]. He was allowed a pension while resident in Smith County, Tennessee [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 43].

John Saunders was a free man of color born in Hanover County who served in the Revolution from Henrico County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153]. He was head of a Henrico County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:980].

Jesse Scott registered in Petersburg on 16 August 1794: a light Mulatto man five feet six & 1/2 inches high who served as a Soldier & a free man during the American Revolution about thirty four years old [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 9].

Nicholas Scott was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in Henrico County but living in Charles City County when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 153].

William Scott registered in Petersburg on 16 August 1794: a light Mulatto man five feet six inches high, about forty one years old, who served in the American Army during the Revolution [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 10].

Johnson Smith was a soldier from Albemarle County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 43].

Thomas Sorrell was listed among the "Free Molattoes" living on Thomas Rowand's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:41]. He was a sixty-two-year-old resident of Westmoreland County living with his forty-five-year-old wife and eleven-year-old daughter in 1820 when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension [M804-2246, frame 0992].

Abel Spriggs and Thomas Wood were "mulattoes" listed among the deserters from the ship Dragon who were allowed until 20 July 1779 to return without punishment according to the 3 July 1779 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Dixon's edition, p. 3, col. 2].

"Captain" Starlins was a pilot, a slave and native African [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 43].

Dempsey Stewart on DAR list should be Brunswick County--not Northumberland.

Samuel Stewart was head of a Surry County, Virginia household of 6 "free colored" in 1830. He enlisted in the Revolution in Brunswick County, Virginia, in 1777 and was granted a pension while resident in Surry County, Virginia, in 1832. His widow Lucy received a grant for 160 acres in 1855 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44].

Nathan Tanner was a soldier from Bedford County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44].

Elijah Smith was bound apprentice to Benjamin Britt by the churchwardens of St. Brides Parish in Norfolk County on 19 February 1767 [Orders 1766-68, 73]. He was described as a "Black Indian" who was a substitute from Norfolk County in a register of soldiers who enlisted in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154]. He was taxable in St. Bride's Parish, Norfolk County, from 1788 to 1794 and was included in the "List of Free Negroes and Mulattoes" from 1801 to 1814 [PPTL, 1782-1791, frame 614; 1791-1812, frames 11, 127, 400, 456, 548; 1813-24, frame 67]. He was head of a Norfolk County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:793], perhaps the same Elijah Smith who was counted as a "Free Black" head of a household of 8 "other free" in 1810 in neighboring Princess Anne County [VA:475]. He registered in Norfolk County on 19 June 1815: 5 feet 6 1/4 inches of a light complexion...Born free (no age noted) [Register of Free Negroes, 1809-52, no.99].

James Smith was a man of color born in Prince George County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution from Bedford County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

Joseph Smith was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Dinwiddie County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

Lewis Smith was a man of color born in Prince George County who was living in Dinwiddie County when he enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution [National Archives pension file S6112 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

William Smothers was a man of color born in Albemarle County, Virginia, who enlisted in the Revolution from Powhatan County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154]. He was taxable in Powhatan County from 1793 to 1804, called a "Mo" in 1793 and 1803 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 98, 123, 111, 138, 170, 193, 230, 266, 282].

 

Edward Sorrell was seventy-nine years old when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension in Northumberland County court on 14 August 1832 [M804-2246, frame 0911]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:996]. His widow Dorcas moved to Baltimore about 1846 where she applied for and received a survivor's pension on 21 November 1853 [M804-2246, frame 0927].

James Sorrell was head of a Northumberland County household of 6 "Black" persons in 1782 [VA:37] and was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:996]. During the Revolution he served as a gunner's mate aboard the Hero and the Larter [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 43].

Thomas Sorrell was listed among the "Free Molattoes" living on Thomas Rowand's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 with his wife Elizabeth and children William and Libby Sorrell [Virginia Genealogist 31:41]. He was a sixty-two-year-old resident of Westmoreland County living with his forty-five-year-old wife and eleven-year-old daughter in 1820 when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension [M804-2246, frame 0992].

Isaac Stephens served as a Northumberland County soldier in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 43].

Simon and Stephen Stephens were seaman aboard the Accomac. Simon served as a cook and Stephen as regular seaman. In 1832 their heirs made unsuccessful attempts to obtain pensions [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 43].

Jesse Tate was a seaman in the Revolution aboard the Dragon from 1777 to 1779 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44] and head of a Richmond County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:395].

Jacob Teague was a resident of Accomack County who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44]. He was head of an Accomack County household of 7 "other free" in St. George's Parish in 1800 [Virginia Genealogist 2:164] and 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:65].

Buckner Thomas was a man of color from Dinwiddie County who served in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

James Thomas enlisted in Norfolk County and served for three years as a seaman in the Revolution. James Barron, Jr., later a commodore in the U.S. Navy, described him as: a fellow of daring and though a man of color was respected by all the officers who served with him. In 1813 Nancy Bell, his sole heir, received two land warrants of 1,333 acres each for his services [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44].

John Thomas was a "yellow" complexioned man born in Prince George County who was living in Caroline County when he was listed in a register of soldiers who enlisted in the Revolution [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

Jack Thomas served in the Revolution from Northampton County, Virginia [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44].

Spencer Thomas was a soldier in the Revolution from Charles City. He was allowed a pension in 1818 [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 44]. He registered in the District of Columbia Court in Alexandria on 1 April 1803: a yellow man about 53 years of age was free born in the family of the grandfather of the deponent and that he served in Northumberland County until he became thirty-one years of age. William Lewis, Justice of the Peace [Arlington County Register of Free Negroes, 1797-1861, p. 4]. He was a "free mulatto" head of a Northumberland County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:996].

William Thomas was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Charles City County listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted at Chesterfield Courthouse [The Chesterfield Supplement; National Archives pension file S38435 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154]. He was taxable in Upper Westover Precinct of Charles City County in 1784, taxable on 2 horses from 1788 to 1793, a "Mulattoe" taxable in 1813 and 1814 [PPTL, 1788-1814] and head of a household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:11].

George Tyler registered as a free Negro in Goochland County on 16 December 1814: a free man of color about Sixty years old, about five feet six inches high, yellow complexion, short curled hair intermixed with grey...free born [Register of Free Negroes, p.84, no.159]. He was about sixty-one years old on 20 July 1818 when he applied for a pension in Goochland County for eighteen months service in 1781, stating that he was farming on rented land with his 100 year-old wife Nancy Cooper [M804-2432, frame 0669]. He was a "yellow" complexioned soldier who was born in Louisa County, lived in Goochland County, and was listed in the size roll of troops who joined at Chesterfield Courthouse after 1 September 1780 [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

Anthony Valentine was a thirty-three-year- old "Black" complexioned soldier who was born in Charles City County and residing there when he was listed in the size roll of troops who enlisted after 1 September 1780 [The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154; Virginia Genealogical Society Bulletin 6:76].

Charles Valentine was listed in a 13 March 1779 offer of a reward in the Virginia Gazette for deserters from the infantry of the Virginia State Garrison Regiment stationed near Williamsburg. The advertisement described him as: a mulatto, born in Surry County, Virginia, 28 years old, 5 feet 9 inches high, well made [Dixon's edition, p. 2, col. 2]. He enlisted in Chesterfield County and was living in Sussex County after 1 September 1780 [Virginia Genealogical Society Bulletin, 6:58 (Chesterfield Supplement at Va. Lib.]. He was head of a Brunswick County, Virginia household of a "free colored" man over forty-five years of age in 1820 [VA:672].

Edward Valentine was living in Dinwiddie County when he applied for a pension for Revolutionary War service [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 45].

Isham Valentine was mentioned in William Cabell's Commonplace Book (of Amherst and Buckingham Counties) on 9 March 1780: Sent by Isham Valentine a free Negro, 1 pr. Silver mounted Pistols and Bullet Moulds to Col. Sam. J. Cabell. Also all his Clothes, etc., Consisting of one Blue Broad Cloth Coat, one white ditto Vest & Pr. Breeches with Silver oval buttons, 1 pr. mosquito Curtains Seven shirts 5 of which ruffled at the Hands, 1 pr. Sheets, 2 Towels [McLeRoy, Strangers in Their Midst, 210]. He was living in Dinwiddie County when he applied for a pension for Revolutionary War service [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 45].

Sam Valentine, a taxable in Wm Totty's Dinwiddie County household in 1792 [PPTL, 1782-90 (1792 A, p.16)], was a "Black" complexioned soldier who was enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution from Dinwiddie County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

Benjmain Viers was a "free coloured man" who enlisted in Revolutionary War service in Henry County, Virginia, in October 1775. He married Betsy Long in Amherst County and lived there for five years before moving to Gallia County, Ohio, in September 1827 [M804-2459, frame 2].

Robert Walden was a "yellow" complexioned soldier from Dinwiddie County who enlisted as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154],

James Wallace, born in New Kent County, made a declaration in James City County on 13 August 1832 to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. "Being a Coloured man," he acted as a cook for Colonel Porterfield and guarded prisoners. He enlisted in James City County and returned there after the war [M804-2479, frame 0558; The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154]. He was taxable in James City County from 1786 to 1813: listed as a "Mulatto" in 1805 and 1806, taxable on 2 tithables in 1806, 3 in 1809, 2 in 1810, taxable on 2 tithables and a "free person of colour" (probably his wife) in 1813 [PPTL 1782-99; 1800-15].

Joseph Wallace was a man of color who served in the Revolution from Bedford County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

Aaron Weaver was head of a Lancaster County household of 3 free persons and one slave in 1783 [VA:55]. He was a Lancaster County seaman in the Revolutionary War who made application for a pension while resident in Princess Anne County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 45]. He was a "F.B." head of a Princess Anne County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:479].

Elijah Weaver registered as a "free Negro" in Lancaster County on 18 July 1803: Age 66, Color dark ... born free. His wife Dorcas Weaver registered the same day: wf/o Elijah, Age 62, Color mulatto ... born free [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1]. He was a Revolutionary War veteran who died intestate in Lancaster County before 15 September 1834 when his heirs were named in court. They were Spencer, Elijah2, Mary Pinn, Agatha Bell, Betsy, and Polly, wife of Armstead Nicken [Orders 1834-41, p.37].

Elisha Weaver was as Seaman from Lancaster County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 45].

John Weaver registered as a "free Negro" in Lancaster County on 19 September 1808: Age 48, Color yellow, Height 5'3-1/4. His wife Dorcas, born about 1754, registered on 18 July 1803: wf/o John, Age 49, Color dark, Height 4'11, Served till 31 years of age [Burkett, Lancaster County Register of Free Negroes, 1]. He was a Revolutionary war veteran who died before 19 May 1834 when his only heir Betty Weaver was named in Lancaster County Court [Orders 1834-41, 7].

Henry Welch was a "yellow" complexioned soldier born in King George County, Virginia, who was living in Culpeper County between 1777 and 1783 when he enlisted in the Revolution as a substitute [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154].

James West was head of a Spotsylvania County household of 10 "other free" in 1810. He was a soldier in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 46].

Alexander West was a "Negro" who served in the Revolution from Middlesex County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 46].

Alexander/ Sawney Whistler, born free in Middlesex County in 1762, was a man of dark complexion who served in the Revolution for three years and received a warrant for 200 acres which he assigned to Richard Smith on 30 July 179_. He served in the Revolution from Middlesex County as a substitute [M804-2549, frame 0028; NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 46]. He was a "Black" taxable in the lower district of King and Queen County in 1801 [PPTL, 1782-1803]. He registered in Middlesex County on 26 June 1805: born free; 40 years of age; Black complexion [Register of Free Negroes 1800-60, p.15].

Edward Wilkerson was a soldier from Chesterfield County [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 46].

Matthew Williams registered in Southampton County on 12 July 1810: age 55, Blk, 5 feet 7-1/2 inches, free born. He was called a "free person of colour" on 16 November 1818 when he made a declaration in Southampton County court setting forth that he was a soldier in the Revolutionary War by voluntary enlistment [Minutes 1816-9, unpaged].

Jesse Wood, born about 1760 in Hanover County, was a "yellow" complexioned soldier who enlisted for three years service in the Revolutionary War while resident in King William County in 1778. He lived in Fluvanna County for more than fifty years [National Archives pension file S7962; The Chesterfield Supplement cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154; Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 45]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in the upper district of Goochland County from 1804 to 1813: a groom at George Holman's in 1804, a farmer on David Ross's land in 1810, charged with Jack Wood's tithe in 1812, a carpenter at James Cockran's in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1809, frames 698; 1810-32, frames 20, 88, 112, 177]. He was head of a Goochland County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:722].

Philip Wood was a seaman from Lancaster County who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 46].

Thomas Wood was a seaman from Lancaster County who served in the Revolution [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 46]. He and Abel Spriggs were "mulattoes" listed among the deserters from the ship Dragon who were allowed until 20 July 1779 to return without punishment according to the 3 July 1779 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Dixon's edition, p. 3,

 

 

Added by bgill

Revolutionary War Soldiers From North Carolina ~ Page One

Josiah Abshier was head of an Anson County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:57] and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:12]. He was a corporal who received a pension of $345.97 [Crow, Black Experience, 97].

Caleb Archer was head of a Hertford County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26] and 9 in 1800 in Captain Lewis' District. He was allowed 26 pounds pay for service in the Revolution from 10 November 1777 to 10 August 1778 [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, vol.II, Book 2, 280]. On 7 June 1792 he appointed James Carraway of Cumberland County his attorney to receive his payment for services in the Continental line in 1778 and 1779 [NCGSJ VIII:98].

Evans Archer was head of a Hertford County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:25], 3 in 1800, and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:186]. He was sixty-nine years old on 27 September 1823 when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension in Hertford County Court, stating that he enlisted in Portsmouth, Virginia, for eighteen months until January 1782 [M805-25, frame 0001]. In 1835 he was listed as a Revolutionary War pensioner in a report to Congress [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XXII:571].

Archibald Artis died before November 1782 when Stephen Powell was granted administration of his estate in Johnston County, North Carolina Court on a bond of 200 pounds. The account of sales of the estate totalled a little over 43 pounds [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, III:232]. He was mentioned in the Revolutionary War pension application of Holiday Haithcock which had a testimonial by William Bryan, a Justice of the Peace

... that in the times of our Revolutionary War free negroes and mulattoes mustered in the ranks with white men in said State ..This affiant has frequently mustered in company with said free negroes and mulattoes ...That class of persons were equally liable to draft - and frequently volunteered in the public Service. This affiant was in the army a short time at Wilmington at the time Craig was near that place and remembers that one mulatto was in his company as a common soldier whose name Archibald Artis - Sworn to and subscribed this 21 day November 1834.

John Artis enlisted in 1781 in Abraham Shepard's Tenth Regiment, Colonel Hall's Company. He left the service on 1 November 1782 [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, 17:190, 16:1007, 15:609].

James Baltrip was a Continental soldier from Bute County who enlisted on 3 September 1778: 5 feet 4" high, 20 years old, dark hair, dark eyes [NCAr:Troop Returns by NCGSJ XV:109].

William Barber, born on 17 May 1745 in Dinwiddie County, was living in Surry County, North Carolina, on 2 January 1833 when he made a declaration in court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension. He stated that he was living in Halifax County, Virginia, when called into the service and moved to Surry County about 1805 [M805-48]. He was head of a Surry County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:697] and 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:670].

Samuel Bell was living in Sampson County, North Carolina, in February 1782 when he volunteered in Captain Coleman's Company under Major Griffith McRae and Colonel Lytle. He marched to Wilmington, to Georgetown, and to Charleston, but was never in any engagement. After the war, he lived in Sampson County until about 1807 when he moved to Robeson County where he applied for and was granted a pension on 31 August 1832 [M804-0207, frame 0489]. He was head of a Sampson County household of 10 "other free" in 1790, 15 in 1800 [NC:509], 5 in Robeson County in 1810 [NC:234], and 2 "free colored" in Robeson County in 1820 [NC:309].

Edmund Bibby was listed among the Continental soldiers from Bute County who enlisted for nine months on 3 September 1778: Edmon Bibby, Place of Abode Bute County, born N.C., 5'4", 20 years old, Dark Fair, Dark Eyes [NCAr:Troop Returns, Box 4, by NCGSJ XV:109]. He was the son of a "Mulatto" woman named Mary Bibby [Chamberlayne, Register of Bristol Parish, 36; CR 44.701.19; CR 015.70001; Bute County WB A:218, 226, 227, 232, 233].

Martin Black enlisted for three years in Stevenson's Company of the North Carolina Continental Line on 16 May 1777. He was in Valley Forge and West Point and reenlisted for eighteen months in Evans Company in 1782 [M805-92, frame 0147]. He was head of a Carteret County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:128] and an Onslow County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:143].

Benjamin Blango was a soldier from Beaufort County whose estate was administered before June 1792 by Sarah Blango [NCGSJ XVIII:72].

John Braveboy was a "Black" tithable in Tyrrell County in 1755 [T.O. 105, box 1], head of a Beaufort County household of 1 "other free" and 6 slaves in 1790 [NC:127], 1 "other free" in 1800 [NC:4], and 1 in 1810 [NC:116]. He volunteered as a soldier in Carteret County in 1778 [The North Carolinian VI:728]. He enlisted on 27 August 1778 for three years in Captain Ballard's Company in the North Carolina Continental Line but was listed as a deserter a little over a year later on 29 October 1779 [Clark, State Records, XVI:1020].

Jacob Braveboy was called a "bastard Mulattoe aged about 15" by the May 1774 Bertie County court when it ordered him bound as an apprentice bricklayer [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, IV:74]. He enlisted for two and one-half years as a private in Fifth Regiment, William's Company of the N.C. Continental Line on 9 May 1776 and was discharged 10 November 1778 [N.C. Historical & Genealogical Register, II:181]. He was head of a Martin County household of 3 free males and 3 free females in William Barden's District no. 5 for the state census in 1787 and head of a Martin County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [NC:387].

John Brooks was a Revolutionary War pensioner from North Carolina [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XXII:571]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:367] and 7 in 1810 [NC:147]. He claimed to be ninety-five or ninety-six years old on 30 May 1853 when he applied for a pension for service in the Revolution and was still living in Robeson County on 22 March 1858 when he applied for (and received) bounty land [Pension File S-6732].

David Burnett, a "man of color," served as a soldier in Blount's Company [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 98]. He enlisted on 2 April 1776 but was omitted from Blount's Company in 1778 [N.C. Historical & Genealogical Register II:181]. He died without heirs and his land warrant was escheated.

William Burnett was head of a Dobbs County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:137]. He was twenty-three years old in 1778 when he was listed in the Militia Returns for Dobbs County [The North Carolinian VI:730]. He was a "Mulatto" who enlisted with the 10th Regiment in 1780 and was said to have died without heirs [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 98].

John Butler was a taxable "Mollato" in William Butler's household in the 1774 Bertie County tax list of Humphrey Nichols [NC Archives file CR 10.702.1]. He was living in Bertie County on 17 November 1820 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution, stating that he enlisted in May 1776 at Windsor, Bertie County, in the North Carolina Line. He was sixty-six years old and owned 220 acres of poor land that he lived on with his wife Milly, fifty years old, and four children [NCGSJ XI:22].

Moses Byrd enlisted as a musician in Lewis' Company of the North Carolina Continental Line in Halifax County in 1776 and was omitted in January 1778 [N.C. DAR, Roster of Soldiers from N.C. in the Revolution, 112]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1802 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 546].

Reuben Byrd applied for a pension in Powhatan County on 15 June 1820 at the age of fifty-six years. He testified that he had enlisted in Hillsborough, North Carolina, and served in Captain James Gunn's regiment of dragoons. Benjamin Sublett testified that he met Reuben, a sixteen or seventeen-year-old "Mulatto boy," while serving in the Revolution in May 1780. Gabriel Gray testified that Reuben served as "Boman" for his brother Lieutenant William Gray. In 1820 Reuben's family consisted of his 37 year-old wife and a seven-year-old girl [M804-243, frame 0362]. He was head of a Petersburg household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:121b]. He registered in Petersburg on 9 June 1810: a brown Mulatto man, five feet seven inches high, forty seven years old, born free in Essex County, a stone mason [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 576].

Isaac Carter, called a "Mulatto" in his Revolutionary War pension application, enlisted in the 8th North Carolina Regiment on 1 September 1777, was taken prisoner, and was discharged on 20 February 1780 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 98]. He was head of a Craven County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131].

John Carter enlisted in Captain Quinn's Tenth Regiment. He was engaged in skirmishes near West Point and Kings Ferry. He made a declaration in September Term 1820 Craven County court to obtain a pension. He was a cooper, living with his sister Margaret Fenner when he made his declaration in 1820. Asa Spelman testified on his behalf. He died before 30 July 1821 [M805-166, frame 497]. He was head of an "other free" Carteret County household in 1790 [NC:128, 129].

Joshua Carter, head of a Craven County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:130], received 4 pounds pay for forty days service in the Craven County Militia under Major John Tillman in an expedition to Wilmington [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, Journal "A", 141].

Moses Carter was a "man of color" who enlisted as a private in Captain Joseph Rhodes' 1st Regiment on 19 July 1782 until 1 July 1783. He made a declaration to obtain a pension in Sampson County on 25 October 1820 [M805-167, frame 0077]. He was head of a Sampson County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:52], 8 in 1800 [NC:515] and 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:278].

Jonathan Case, born say 1737, served in the Revolution in Alexander Whitehall's Company of North Carolina Militia commanded by Colonel Samuel Jarvis [Saunders, Colonial and State Records, XVII:1054]. He was living in Currituck County on 2 June 1791 when he applied for a pension for eighteen months service as a Continental soldier [NCGSJ VIII:213]. He was head of a Currituck County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:21] and 10 in 1800 [NC:138].

Joseph Case was head of a Currituck County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:138]. He made a declaration in Currituck County Court on 10 May 1820 to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolutionary War [M805-168, S41472].

Caesar Chavis received pay for his services in the Revolution [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, vol.II, Book 2:280]. He was head of a Bertie County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 (Cezar Chevat) [NC:12].

Drury Chavis was a "Negro" who enlisted 25 May 1781 for 12 months' service. He died without heirs and his land warrant was escheated [Crow, Black Experience, 98].

Henry Chavis was a soldier who served in the Revolution from November 1778 to August 1779. His widow Peggy made a deposition in Hertford County on 14 July 1792 to obtain his pay. William Manly attested to her statement [NCGSJ VIII:214].

Cato Copeland was head of a Craven County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134] and 2 in Halifax County in 1810 [NC:12]. While a resident of Halifax County he applied for and was granted a pension for three years service in the 2nd North Carolina Regiment. According to the pension application he married Nancy Mitchell, 11 December 1778 Halifax County bond, 16 December 1778 marriage. Cato died in 1827 and his wife Nancy Copeland applied for a survivor's pension on 21 November 1842 [M805-219, frame 0072].

Cubit was described as a "free black man" who was a drummer. He enlisted in 1777 and was believed to have died in Wilmington. His land warrant for 1,000 acres was escheated [Crow, Black Experience, 99].

Richard Davis was head of a Brunswick County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [NC:13], probably the R. Davis who was head of a Brunswick County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:236]. In 1791 he petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly claiming that he had been an artilleryman in the Revolution, his wife had been emancipated by her master in 1784, and he asked that his children be also emancipated [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 99].

John Day was a "man of color" who enlisted in Granville County, North Carolina, in the 2nd North Carolina Regiment. He was said to have died in Valley Forge on 14 January 1778 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 99].

Allen Demery was a taxable "Black Male" in Matthew Moore's Bladen County household in 1770 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:50] and head of an Anson County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:35] and 5 in 1800 [NC:203]. He enlisted in the 10th North Carolina Regiment [Clark, Colonial and State Records, 16:1047].

William Dove received 4 pounds pay for 40 days service in the Craven County, North Carolina Militia under Major John Tillman in an expedition to Wilmington [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, Journal "A", 141]. He was head of a Craven County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131].

Thomas Dring served in Allen's Company in the Revolutionary War and died 11 September 1777 [Clark, Colonial and State Records, XVI:1040].

Lucy Dunston was one of the "Mollatto Children of Patience Dunstan" who were bound to John Howell in Lunenburg County Court in April 1757 [Orders 1755-57, 278]. Her son Charles Dunston was bound apprentice in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 13 April 1772 [Orders 1771-73, 184]. He purchased 230 acres in Wake County on both sides of Little Lick Creek on 21 September 1787 [DB H:221]. He was living in Orange County, North Carolina, when he received his final settlement for his service in the Revolutionary War [The North Carolinian VI:755].

William Dunstan, "Molatto" son of Patience Dunstan, was one of the Continental soldiers from Bute County who volunteered for nine months [Militia Returns cited by NCGSJ XV:109].

John Ellis, born about 1754 in Virginia, moved with his mother to Nutbush District in North Carolina when he was a child and later moved to Wake County where he enlisted in the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Line on 27 April 1776. He was a "man of Colour" who made a declaration for a pension in Wake County court on 27 July 1820. He resided in Franklin County, Illinois, on 12 September 1837 when he made another declaration to obtain a pension. He died on 21 October 1850, and his only surviving heirs James Ellis, William Ellis, Polly Ellis, Mahalah Ellis and

Henry Ellis received survivors' benefits in 1852 [M804-916, frame 0427]. He was head of a Wake County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:103]. He sold the land which was due him for his service to Thomas Henderson, Jr., of Raleigh for $114 [N.C. Archives, Wake County folder #339].

Benjamin Flood was living in Halifax County, North Carolina, on 4 August 1789 when he deposed that he had served as an eighteen months soldier in the North Carolina Continental line and assigned all that was due to him for the service to John Eaton [NCGSJ IX:153]. He sold 640 acres in Davidson County, Tennessee, on the south side of the Cumberland River, a grant for his services in the Revolution, by Halifax County deed on 31 August 1801 [DB 18:806 & Franklin County DB 6:89]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:308], 6 in 1810 [NC:19], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:148].

William Foster was a "man of colour" who enlisted for 18 months [Crow, Black Experience, 99].

Charles and Ambrose Franklin, sons of Martha Walden, died while serving in the Revolutionary War. Their heirs were granted land warrants for 228 acres. They were also granted an additional 412 acres to be released when there was additional proof of their death. The additional land was released on 13 December 1805 when Micajah Walden presented the testimony of Samuel Parker, Henry Parker, and James Bradley, Captain of the North Carolina Regiment of Halifax [NCGSJ III].

Anthony Garner was head of a Hertford County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26]. He served in the Revolution from Hertford County (called Anthony Garnes) [National Archives pension file S38723 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 165].

Jeffrey Garnes was a six-year-old bound by the Lunenburg County court to William Cocke to be a planter on 8 May 1765. In the 1778 Militia Returns for Captain Richard Taylor's Company of Granville County, North Carolina, he was listed as "a black man," twenty years old, (serving) in place of William Edwards Cock [Mil. T.R. 4-40 by Granville County Genealogical Society, Granville Connections, vol.1, no.1, 10].

Charles Gibson was living in Wayne County, North Carolina, in August 1818 when he made a declaration to obtain a pension for Revolutionary War service. He claimed that he enlisted for nine months in the Tenth Regiment at the courthouse in Northampton County, North Carolina. However, there was no record of his discharge or service. Perhaps he was the same Charles Gibson who applied for a pension from Hawkins County, Tennessee, at the age of ninety-two on 19 January 1839. He stated that he was born in Louisa County, Virginia, on 19 January 1739 and entered into the service in Salisbury, North Carolina. His neighbors, Jordan and Jonathan Gibson and Benjamin Collins, testified on his behalf [M805-355, frames 55, 62].

Edward Gowens/ Goins was listed in 1779 among the continental soldiers from Bute County who served for nine months: Edward Going private, born Virginia, 5'7", 35 years old Black Fair; black eyes [NCGSJ XV:109]. He was head of a Person County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:599]. He and Jenkins Goins sold their claims for Revolutionary War pay to John Hall of Hyco, Caswell County, on 27 April 1791 [NCGSJ IX:224].

Jenkins Goins was a seventeen-year-old "mullato" who enlisted in Captain John Rust's Company of Granville County militia in 1778 [The North Carolinian VI:726 (Mil. TR 4-40)].

Reeps Goins was taxable in the Granville County household of his father Edward Goins in 1761 (with his brother Edward). He was called Rapes Going when he enlisted in the Second South Carolina Regiment under Captain Thomas Hall on 1 July 1779 [Moss, Roster of S.C. Patriots in the American Revolution, 367].

Ezekiel Graves was head of a Northampton County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:72] and 3 in 1800 [NC:447]. On 22 November 1787 he applied for compensation for twelve months service as a soldier in Captain Troughton's North Carolina Company [NCGSJ V:161].

John Gregory was head of a Craven County, North Carolina household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:130] and 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:65]. He was seventy-four years old on 15 August 1832 when he made a declaration in Craven County Court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was living in Brunswick County, North Carolina, when he was drafted, and had two severe cuts from a sword which extended from his eyelid to the crown of his head [NCGSJ XII:186 (CR 28.301.29)].

Ned Griffin was the slave of William Kitchen. He served as a substitute for his master. The N.C. General Assembly granted him his freedom [Crow, Black Experience, 100; also recorded on first page of Edgecombe County Court Minutes 1772-1784].

Aaron Haithcock was probably an elderly man on 1 January 1796 when he and Batt Chavis sold their household goods to John Walden in Northampton County [DB 11:42]. He was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:449]. He was allowed pay to 5 June 1781 for his services in the Revolution [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, vol. II, Book 1, 273].

Frederick Haithcock served in the Revolution from Halifax County, North Carolina [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 165]. He was head of Halifax county household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:61] and 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:151].

Holiday Haithcock was head of a Johnston County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:142] and 6 in Orange County in 1800 [NC:569]. He had returned to Johnston County on 23 February 1836 when he made his application for a pension for his Revolutionary War service. He gave an account of his service in his application before the court and stated that he volunteered in Johnston County, spent about a year in Fayetteville, and spent about twenty years in Orange County. His application was not approved, but several prominent Johnston County citizens did their best for him. William Bryan, a Justice of the Peace, testified for him and Thompson Venable wrote to the Commissioner of Pensions in Washington, "On examining the case of Holliday Hethcock of N.C. for pension under act of June 7, 1832, we find that his services and identity are fully proven by three witnesses, and that his case has been suspended merely because he was a free man of color. As we understand that several cases of this sort have been admitted, you will oblige us by having it admitted."

Isaac Hammond was the son of Isaac Hammond and Margaret Akin, "free Negroes." He was baptized on 21 September 1755 at St. Thomas and St. Dennis Parish, South Carolina [Parochial Register of the Parishes of St. Thomas & St. Denis, n.p. (alphabetical listing under H)]. He was "a man of color" and a fifer in the 10th North Carolina Regiment for twelve months [M805, reel 393, S.8654]. He was head of a Fayetteville, Cumberland County, household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:42].

Edward Harris was taxable in Granville County, North Carolina in 1768. He died before 14 July 1792 when his brother Gibson Harris, as "Eldest Brother & heir at law to Edward Harris decd.," gave power of attorney to Philemon Hodges to receive his pay for service in the Revolution. His brothers, Sherwood and Solomon Harris, made a similar deposition confirming Gibson's statement on 22 July 1792 [NCGSJ X:111].

Gibson Harris was listed in the 1778 Granville County Militia Returns for Captain Abraham Potter's Company as a seventeen-year-old "black man," occupation: planter [The North Carolinian VI:726 (Mil. TR 4-40)]. He was head of a Surry County, North Carolina household of 12 "other free" in 1810 [NC:684].

Henry Hawkins served in the Revolution from Halifax County [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 165]. He made a deposition in Halifax County on 23 November 1812 that he was in the service with Nathan Scott and that Scott died in the hospital in Philadelphia [LP 262, by NCGSJ VI:15].

Benjamin Hawley was underage when he enlisted for nine months in the Continental Line according to the deposition of his father Joseph Hawley who was living in Granville County on 7 June 1791 when he gave Thomas Beavan his power of attorney to collect wages due to Benjamin for service in the Revolution [NCGSJ X:112].

Joseph Hawley and his wife were taxables in Granville County in 1750 in the list of Jonathan White, and in 1754 he and his wife "Marthew" (Martha) were taxables in John Sallis' list. (Free African American women were taxable in North Carolina). He was taxable on two "black" tithes in 1755 (himself and wife Pat) and eight "black" tithes in 1769 [CR 44.701.19]. On 25 May 1791 he gave Thomas Bevan his power of attorney to receive the wages due him for three years service as a Continental soldier [NCGSJ X:112].

Peter Hedgepeth was head of a Wake County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1790. He was living in Wake County on 21 March when he gave William Fearel power of attorney to collect his final settlement for his service in the Revolution [NCGSJ X:235].

 

Added by bgill

Colored Soldiers~North Carolina~Page Two

Micajah Hicks made a declaration for a Revolutionary War pension in Orange County, North Carolina, on 27 May 1829. He claimed to have been in the battles of Gilford and Eutaw Springs, and he stated that he was a farmer with no family [NCGSJ XIII:38]. He was head of a Chatham County household of 4 "other free" in 1800. His wife Mary, aged eighty-six years old, was living in Wilkes County on 12 September 1843 when she made a declaration to obtain his pension. She stated that they were married 10 December 1780 in Chatham County on the Tar River. Her husband died on 30 December 1837 [File W-7738, by N.C. Genealogy XVIII:2715].

Charles Hood was a sixty-five-year-old "Man of Colour" living with his forty-year-old wife when he made a declaration in Orange County court to obtain a pension on 27 May 1820 [M804-1320, frame 70-78]

William Hood was a "mulatto boy" who ran away from Henry Minson of Charles City County and was taken up in Halifax County, North Carolina, according to the 21 December 1769 issue of the Virginia Gazette [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers, 169]. He was a "Mulatto" counted in the 1786 North Carolina State Census for the Caswell District of Caswell County and head of a Rockingham County, North Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:491]. He was about sixty-five years old in 1818 and living in Jefferson County, Indiana, when he applied for a pension. He died on 8 April 1829, and his wife Catherine Frances was awarded a survivor's pension at the age of seventy in July 1855 [M804-1320, frame 644-672].

David Hunt was "a black man" listed in the Militia Returns of Captain Samuel Walker of Granville County in 1778 [The North Carolinian VI:726 (Mil. TR 4-40)].

David Ivey was a "man of color," musician and wagoner who enlisted in the 10th North Carolina Regiment for a three-year term. His wife Nancy applied for a widow's pension and bounty land from Perry County, Tennessee, in September 1855 at the age of ninety-one [M804-1396, frame 0486].

Francis Jack was a "man of colour" who enlisted for 18 months and died in the service. His land warrant was escheated in 1821 [Crow, Black Experience, 100].

Ezekiah Jacobs was head of a Brunswick County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:13], and 8 in 1810 [NC:236]. He recorded a certificate of his discharge from his service as a soldier in the North Carolina Line on 18 February 1788 in New Hanover County [NCGSJ XI:114].

Primus Jacobs was head of a New Hanover County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:194] and 7 "other free," one white woman, and one white boy 5-15 years old in 1800 [NC:314]. On 15 August 1820, aged about sixty years, he made a declaration in New Hanover County Court to obtain a pension. He stated that he served in Colonel Archd. Lytle's Regiment of the North Carolina Line in Captain Joseph Rhodes' Company [New Hanover County Court Minutes by NCGSJ XIII:154]. His wife Ann Jacobs appeared in Cumberland County Court on 6 December 1834 and proved to the satisfaction of the court that he was a pensioner and that he died in New Hanover County on 23 July 1834 [Minutes 1831-35].

Zachariah2 Jacobs was born on 4 October 1753 according to his Revolutionary War pension application in New Hanover County on 13 December 1832 [M805-466, frame 0444]. He was a "Black" taxable in Brunswick County in 1772 [N.C. Archives file GA 11.1] and was head of a New Hanover County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:194], 10 in 1800 [NC:313], and 5 in Richland District, South Carolina, in 1810 [SC:175a]. He enlisted in October 1781 from Brunswick County, North Carolina, and left the service about a year later. He was in a skirmish near Dorchester, South Carolina, and was wounded in the leg at Guilford Court House. He married Sally Jacobs in New Hanover County in October 1791 according to her application for a pension as his surviving widow [M805-466, frame 0444]. He assigned his right to his final pay for twelve months service in the Continental Line to Isaac Cole in New Hanover County on 6 December 1791 [NCGSJ XI:114].

Benjamin James and his brother Jeremiah James gave Seth Peebles of Northampton County power of attorney to obtain settlement of their Revolutionary War service pay [NCGSJ XI:114]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:68], 7 in 1800 [NC:322], 7 in 1810 [NC:29], and 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:153].

Elisha James was listed among the militiamen from Northampton County who were paroled by Lord Cornwallis in Halifax in 1781, probably captured during the events surrounding the Battle of Guilford Court House on 15 March 1781 [NCGSJ IV:149]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 2 males and 3 females in Captain Winborne's District for the state census in 1786. In 1788, 1790, 1800, and 1802 he was a Halifax County taxable on one free poll in District 14 which bordered Northampton County. He was head of a Halifax County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:65], 7 in 1800 [NC:320], 4 in 1810 [NC:29], 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:152], and 9 "free colored" in 1830. He made a declaration in Halifax County Court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension on 16 November 1824 stating that he was sixty-five years old.

Isaac James was a private in Pearson's 7th North Carolina Regiment in the Revolutionary War. He was head of a Hertford County household of one "other free" in 1800.

Jeremiah James was head of a Northampton County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:73] and 6 in 1800 [NC:453]. His estate, administered in Northampton County on 3 December 1805, named his widow Rebecca James. She was granted a survivor's Revolutionary War pension from Maury County, Tennessee, after giving evidence that he had entered the service in Bertie County in Captain Blount's Company of the 10th Regiment for nine months on 20 July 1778 and again as a private in Captain Raiford's Company from 17 May 1781 to 15 April 1782. She was born in Virginia in May 1758 and married Jeremiah in Northampton County about February or March 1790. Jeremiah died on 1 October 1805, and she married Isham Scott about a year later. After Scott died, she moved to Maury County, Tennessee.

Thomas James was the six-year-old son of Betty James, a "Free Mulatoe," ordered bound to John Moore in Bertie County in May 1763. Humphrey Hardy was granted administration on his estate on 6 August 1792 with 500 pounds security [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, VI:957]. The administrator had a certificate from the Board of Army Accounts that wages due were settled at Halifax in the amount of 69 pounds [Bertie Estate Papers].

Jacob Jeffries was head of an Orange County, North Carolina household of 9 "other free" in 1800 [NC:514]. He recorded a certificate in Orange County on 24 July 1791 that he was the "Mulatto Jacob" who received a discharge for twelve months service as a soldier in the Revolution [NCGSJ XI:115].

John Jeffries was listed as a volunteer Continental soldier from Bute County in 1779: born about 1759 in North Carolina, 5'6" tall, dark hair and dark eyes [NCGSJ XV:109].

Another John Jeffries was the father of Thomas Jeffries who appeared in Orange County, North Carolina court on 26 May 1837 to obtain a pension for his father's services in the Revolution. He stated that his father was born in Halifax County, Virginia, in 1733 (perhaps date in error and place meant to be Halifax County, North Carolina), was drafted in the fall of the years 1780 and 1781, that his father was very infirm and blind in December 1832 when he moved him to Orange County, and that his father died 4 December 1834 leaving no widow [M804-1409, frames 350-1].

Francis Jones was a "Black" member of Captain James Fason's colonial Northampton County, North Carolina Militia [N.C. Archives Troop Returns, 1-3]. He was head of a Wake County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:103] and 8 "free colored" in Caswell County in 1820 [NC:66]. On 6 June 1818 he testified on behalf of Allen Sweat in Wake County Court that he had served with him in the Revolutionary War [M804-2332].

Philip Jones was head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:65] and 2 in 1800 (called Philip, Senr.) [NC:322]. He made a deposition in Northampton County Court on 26 March 1791 that he enlisted and served as a soldier in the Continental Army [NCGSJ XI:118]. He may have been the Philip Jones who sometime before 7 September 1787 sold Bounty Land in Davidson County, Tennessee, which he received for his services in the War [Franklin County DB 6:89].

James Kersey was born about 1764 according to the 1782 Militia Returns for Bladen County [The North Carolinian VI:751]. He was head of a Robeson County household of one "other free" in 1800 [NC:388]. On 24 February 1834 he made a declaration in Robeson County Court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was born in 1762, volunteered in a company of militia on 1 August 1782 in what was then Bladen County in the town of Elizabeth. He marched to Charleston, South Carolina, to James Island, and received his discharge in Wilmington on 1 August 1783. He was inscribed in the Roll of North Carolina on 4 March 1831 [M804-1477, S-8788].

Morgan Lewis was head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62], 3 in 1800 [NC:324], and 4 in 1810 [NC:33]. He was seventy years old on 22 August 1821 when he made a declaration in Halifax County court to obtain a pension for his services as a private in the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Line. His family at that time consisted of his seventy-year-old wife, two daughters, and a two-year-old grandson [M804-1558].

Job Lott enlisted in 1777 for two and one-half years, but died in June 1777. He served in the 5th Regiment [Crow, Black Experience, 101].

William Lomack was head of a Robeson County household of 10 "other free" in 1810. He was a Revolutionary War veteran [NCGSJ XIV:45].

Billing Lucas, a "man of color," enlisted for nine months in the 10th North Carolina Regiment and died September 5, 1779 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 101].

Moses Manly enlisted with Colonel Lytle in the Tenth North Carolina Regiment for nine months in August 1781. He made a declaration in Hertford County Court for a pension on 17 August 1819 and a second declaration in Halifax County Court on 26 October 1821 [M805, reel 549, frame 703]. He was head of a Bertie County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:14] and a Halifax County household of 5 in 1800 [NC:328], 7 in 1810 [NC:36], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:157]. On 18 August 1834 his widow Chloe Manley applied to the Halifax County Court to receive her husband's Revolutionary War pension and proved to the Court's satisfaction that "said Chloe is the widow of said Moses & that said Moses departed this life on 16 May 1834."

Moses Manly's son Arthur, head of a Halifax County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:157], was in the First Company detached from the Halifax County Regiment in the War of 1812 [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812 from the Militia of North Carolina, 19]. He was living in Weldon in May 1844 when he made a declaration in Halifax County Court to obtain the pension of Moses Manly, deceased [M805, reel 807, frame 712].

Christopher Manuel a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:75], 11 in Sampson County in 1800 [NC:517] and 6 "free colored" in Sampson County in 1820 [NC:308]. He was about eighty years old on 19 November 1832 when he made a declaration in Sampson County court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was born in Halifax County, North Carolina, and moved to the part of Duplin County which became Sampson County before the war [M804-1627].

Jesse Manuel was head of a Sampson County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:51]. He made a declaration in Sampson County Court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension. He received his final settlement certificate as a twelve months soldier on 25 December 1787 [NCGSJ XIII:93].

Nicholas Manuel was head of a Sampson County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:51], 9 in 1800, was counted as white in 1810 [NC:472], and was a "sleymaker," head of a Sampson County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820. His widow Milly Manuel was about eighty-eight years old on 11 November 1845 when she made a declaration in Sampson County court to obtain a widow's pension for her husband's services in the Revolution. She stated that they were married by Fleet Cooper, Esq., in Duplin County and that her son Shadrack Manuel was born the day (Corn)Wallis was captured. Her husband died on 27 March 1835. Milly died before 30 March 1855 when Shadrack, heir at law of Nicholas Manuel, appointed attorneys to receive his survivor's pension [M804-1627].

Absalom Martin enlisted in the town of Beaufort, North Carolina, for twelve months in Captain William Dennis' Company in the 1st North Carolina Regiment in April 1781. He made a declaration in Carteret County court to obtain a pension on 22 August 1820. He owned 140 acres of "barren pine land." He died eight years later on 20 September 1828 [M805, reel 0555, frame 20]. He was head of a Carteret County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:128], 12 in 1800, 16 in 1810 [NC:443], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:121].

Jesse Martin enlisted for nine months in 1780 in Captain Arthur Gatling's regiment of the North Carolina Line commanded by Colonel Armstrong. He was discharged in Stono, South Carolina, in 1781. He was an infirm farmer with no family except his wife Sarah when he made a declaration to obtain a pension in Gates County court on 15 August 1825 [M805, reel 883, frame 836]. He was head of a Gates County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:23], 9 in 1800 [NC:273], 7 in 1810 [NC:842], and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:162].

John Martin was head of a New Hanover County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:194] and 11 in 1800 [NC:310]. He gave power of attorney to Thomas Nuse to receive his final settlement for service in the Continental Line on 9 September 1791. John Williams, a justice of the peace for New Hanover County, attested that he served in 1782 [NCGSJ XIII:94].

Patrick Mason was head of a Person County household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:613] and 10 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:498]. He made a declaration in Person County Court on 12 May 1828 to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was born about 1762 and enlisted for twelve months on 1 April 1780 [NCGSJ XIV:172].

Daniel Mills was listed in the Militia Returns of Halifax County, North Carolina, as a twenty-year-old planter born in Halifax County [The North Carolinian VI:727]. He appointed Benjamin Hawkins of Warren County his attorney to receive his final settlement pay for service in the North Carolina Continental Line on 23 March 1791 [NCGSJ XIII:98].

Mingo enlisted in June 1776 in the North Carolina Line. He was listed as a pensioner in 1835 [Crow, Black Experience, 101].

Simeon Moore was charged in Craven County court on 13 September 1782 with having joined the British. He was released when he consented to join the Continental Army [Minutes 1779-84, 47b]. He was head of a Jones County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [NC:270].

Isaac Morgan was sixteen years old in 1782 when he was a "Mulatto" listed among the Drafts & Substitutes from Edgecombe County in the Revolutionary War [The North Carolinian VI:752]. He was a "Mulatto" head of an Edgecombe County household of 6 "other free" and one white woman in 1800 [NC:223].

Mark Murray was head of a Halifax County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:64], and he was also counted with 9 in his household in Martin County in 1790 [NC:69]. On 23 October 1832 he testified in Halifax County Court to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was about seventy-two years old, born and raised in Caroline County, Virginia, moved from there to Hanover County and from there to Halifax County, North Carolina, about 1792. He gave his age as eighty-nine years on 5 May 1845 when he applied for a pension while living in Wilson County, Tennessee. He stated that he enlisted in 1780, but had no record of his service because he left his discharge papers with his father who died shortly after the Revolution. His application was rejected [M840-1796, frames 1-57].

Ethelred Newsom was a soldier in the Tenth Regiment of the North Carolina Continental Line [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1126], called "Netheneldred Newsom of Robeson County" on 18 April 1792 when he appointed Jacob Rhodes his attorney to receive his final settlement for serving in the war [NCGSJ XIV:111]. He was head of a Robeson County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:50], 3 in 1800 [NC:408], and 4 in 1810 [NC:241].

Carter Nickens was taxable in Hertford County on one person in 1768 and 1769, on two persons in 1770, and taxable on 2 horses and 2 cattle in the 1779 Hertford County property tax list filed with the central government [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 13; GA 30.1]. He was paid for services to the Revolution [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, vol. I, Book 4:232].

Edward Nickens was a soldier in the Revolutionary War who was deceased by 5 December 1792 when a petition by his son and heir Richard Nickens was placed before the North Carolina General Assembly [LP 117 by NCGSJ IV:174].

Malachi Nickens was living in Hertford County in 1781 when he enlisted as a private in Colonel Armstrong's North Carolina Regiment. He was about fifty-six years old on 13 November 1821 when he testified in Hertford County court that he was a common laborer living with his wife Margaret and a seventeen-month-old child Manuel Murfee. James Smith testified on his behalf [M805, frame 0198]. Malachi was head of a Hertford County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26], 3 in 1800, and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:190].

Jacob Norton was a "man of colour" who died in Revolutionary War service and left no heirs according to a deposition by Charles Hood in Orange County, North Carolina, in 1820 [The North Carolinian, p. 2578].

Obed Norwood, a "Molato" boy of Nan Norwood, was bound to Keziah Shackleford in Carteret County on 6 September 1759 [Minutes 1747-64, 259]. His age was estimated at thirteen years in June 1770 when James Shackleford asked that he be bound to him as a cooper [Minutes 1764-77, 388]. He was called Obid Norward in the 1778 Carteret County Militia Returns [The North Carolinian VI:728].

Theophilus/Foy Norwood was a six-year-old "Molato" boy of Nan Norwood, a "Molato" woman, ordered bound to Keziah Shackleford in Carteret County on 6 September 1759 [Minutes 1747-64, 251]. His age was estimated at fifteen years in June 1770 when he consented to his indenture to William Fulford [Minutes 1764-77, 388]. He was twenty-seven years old in 1778 when he was listed in the Carteret County Militia Returns [The North Carolinian VI:728].

John Overton was a soldier in the North Carolina Line who died before 16 July 1791 when Titus Overton was appointed administrator of his Cumberland County estate [NCGSJ XIV:115-6]. Titus was head of a Cumberland County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31], 7 in 1800, and 1 in 1810 [NC:600].

Lemuel Overton was head of Perquimans County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31]. He was the husband of a slave named Rose and children John and Burdock who were emancipated by order of the North Carolina General Assembly. They were probably his slaves since the owner's name was not stated [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 298]. He was living in Pasquotank County on 10 July 1820 when he appointed James Freeman his attorney to obtain a land warrant for his services as a soldier in the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Line [NCGSJ VII:93].

Samuel Overton was a "Molatto" Perquimans County taxable in 1771 [CR 77.701.1]. and head of a Pasquotank County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:31], 4 in 1800 [NC:634], and 13 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:277]. He was called a "free man of Colour" on 8 March 1825 when he made a declaration in Pasquotank County court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension. He claimed that he was ninety-six years old, the father of a five-year-old boy David and that he had lost all his property by a fire in July 1824 [M804-1854, frame 0826].

Titus Overton was taxable on 2 "Mulatto" tithes in Cumberland County in 1767, was taxable with his wife ("Mulatoes") in Bladen County from 1770 to 1776 and was taxable in Bladen County on 500 acres, 3 horses, and 3 head of cattle in 1779 [SS 837; N.C. Genealogy XXI:3136; Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:32, 89, 123; II:90, 146]. He received 2 pounds, 2 shillings for twenty-one days service in the Bladen County Militia between 1775 and 1776 under Captain James Council [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, Journal "A", 22].

Elisha Parker, a "man of color," was about eighty years old on 20 November 1832 when he made a declaration in Gates County, North Carolina, to obtain a pension for his services in the Revolution. He stated that he was born in Nansemond County, Virginia, near the North Carolina line about 1752. He was said to have been about seventy-five years old on 10 February 1834 when he made a similar declaration in Nansemond County court, stating that he entered the service in Gates County about 1779 as a substitute for Francis Speight and had been a resident of Nansemond County for the previous forty-five years [M804-1871, frame 0787]. He was head of a Gates County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:23] and 3 "free colored" in Nansemond County in 1820 [VA:79].

Isaac Perkins was head of a Craven County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131] and 2 "free colored" in Craven County in 1820 [NC:67]. He made a declaration in Craven County Court to obtain a Revolutionary War pension on 13 May 1829. He testified that he enlisted for three years in May 1778 and was granted pension certificate no. 4666 on 30 November 1818. His lawyer, Samuel Gerock, called him a "Negroe Man, and Old Soldier of the Revolutionary Army" when he appealed for the restoration of his pension [National Archives Inv. File 41.953].

Drury Pettiford was head of a Stokes County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [NC:607]. In his application for a pension on 25 August 1820 he stated that he enlisted in Virginia, that his age was sixty-nine years, and the age of his wife Dicy was sixty-six [CR 099.928.11 by NCGSJ XV:162].

George Pettiford was head of a Granville County household of 7 "other free" in 1800. At the age of sixty-three on 10 February 1821 he made a declaration in Granville County Court in order to obtain a Revolutionary War pension [NCGSJ XV:162].

Philip Pettiford was head of an Oxford District household of 5 male and 3 female "Blacks" and one white male in 1786 for the state census. He had moved to Cumberland County by 1790 where he was head of a household of 9 "other free" [NC:40]. On 5 September 1820 in Granville County Court he applied for a Revolutionary War pension [NCGSJ XV:162]. His final pension payment papers recorded his death on 13 April 1825 [National Archives].

William Pettiford was listed in the 1778 Militia Returns for Granville County in Captain William Gill's Company as a seventeen-year-old "black man" [The North Carolinian VI:726 (Mil. TR 4-40)].

Israel Pierce was a "free colored" head of a Tyrrell County household of 3 free males and 3 free females in 1790 [NC:34], 7 "other free" in Hyde County in 1800 [NC:374], 11 in Hyde County in 1810 [NC:119] and 8 "free colored" in Beaufort County in 1820 [NC:32]. He was in Tyrrell County on 21 June 1791 when he gave power of attorney to Samuel Warren, an attorney, to receive his final settlement due him as a soldier in the North Carolina Continental Line [NCGSJ XIV:230].

William Pierce died before 13 June 1795 when "Thomas Pierce of Tyrrell County, administrator of William Pierce," gave power of attorney to Samuel Warren, an attorney, to receive the final settlement due for his service in the North Carolina Continental Line [NCGSJ XIV:230]. (Thomas Pierce was a "free colored" head of a Tyrrell County household of 4 free males and 4 free females in 1790 [NC:34]).

Arthur Pugh, born about 1761, was described as a Mulatto bastard of Sarah when he was bound as an apprentice cooper to James Holley in Bertie County on 30 March 1767 [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, III:765]. He was listed in the roster of soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution.

David Pugh was head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1800. He was listed in the roster of soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution.

William Redman was head of a Lincoln County, North Carolina household of 11 "other free" in 1800 [NC:900] and 4 "other free" and a white woman in Rutherford County in 1810 [NC:431]. He made a declaration in Buncombe County Court on 7 April 1820 to obtain a Revolutionary War pension. He stated that he was about sixty-nine years old and enlisted in 1775 [M805-679, frame 0652].

Jacob Reed served in the Revolutionary War. He died before 23 May 1792 when the Gates County Court appointed (his mother?) Rachel Reid, administratrix of his estate. On 4 August 1792 in Gates County she gave her son Benjamin power of attorney to settle the balance of his army wages from 20 November 1778 to June 1779 [NCGSJ XV:103]. Rachel was a "mixt Blood" taxable in Hertford County on one person in 1768 and 1769 and on two persons in 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 50]. She was head of a Gates County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Rachel Rude) [NC:24] and 5 "free colored" in Edenton, Chowan County, in 1820 [NC:130].

Benjamin Reed enlisted with Colonel Murfree for the term of the war. He made a declaration in Gates County Court to obtain a pension on 19 November 1821, saying he had a stiff arm from a wound, and he had a sixty-two-year-old wife named Treasey [M805, reel 680, frame 89]. He was head of a Gates County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 (abstracted as Rude) [NC:22], 3 in 1810 [NC:842], and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:154].

Dempsey Reed was listed in the Revolutionary War accounts, hired as a substitute by Nathaniel Harris in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 101]. He was head of a Warren County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:78], 13 in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, in 1800 [NC:534], and 12 "free colored" in Cabarrus County in 1820 [NC:160].

Isaac Reed was taxed as a "Negro man" with a "Negro" woman in an untitled 1766 Chowan tax list, and in 1768 and 1769 he and his wife Margaret were taxables in Timothy Walton's list for Chowan County [CR 24.701.2]. His land on the east side of Bennett's Creek was mentioned in an 8 June 1799 Gates County deed [DB 4:345 by Taylor, Abstracts of Deed Books A-5, 188]. The Gates County Court appointed him administrator of the estate of Jacob Reid on 22 May 1792 [Fouts, Minutes of County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 1787-93, 110]. As administrator of the estate he appointed Samuel Smith attorney to settle the Continental Army Accounts of (his son?) Jacob Reid, Jr., from 10 December 1778 to 10 April 1779. On 5 June 1792 Captain Arthur Gatling testified in Northampton County, North Carolina Court that Jacob was a soldier in a company of new levies on the Continental Establishment which he marched from Hertford to South Carolina from November 1778 to March 1779, and Jacob died in the service in South Carolina [NCGSJ XV:102]. Isaac was head of a Gates County household of 4 "other free," one white woman, and one white male over sixteen years of age in 1790 [NC:23].

Jacob Reed served in the Revolutionary War and died before 23 May 1792 when the Gates County court appointed (his mother) Rachel Reid, administratrix of his estate. On 4 August 1792 in Gates County she gave her son Benjamin power of attorney to settle the balance of his army wages from 20 November 1778 to June 1779 [NCGSJ XV:103].

Micajah Reed was head of a Gates County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:24], 8 in 1800 [NC:277], 10 in 1810 [NC:853], and 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:155]. In August 1817 he proved to the Gates County Court that he was the lawful heir of Nathaniel Hall, who died in Revolutionary War service. Nathaniel may have been the father of Nathaniel Hall, a "Molatto Boy," born about 1786, bound an apprentice cooper in Gates County in May 1806 [Fouts, Minutes of Gates County, IV:1001; III:499].

Benjamin Richardson, married Mary Bass, widow of Elijah Bass, 13 February 1783 Granville County bond with Philip Pettiford as bondsman. She was also called Mary Bass on her 13 February 1777 Bute County marriage bond to Elijah Bass [M804-2038, frame 0533]. Mary made an application on 11 October 1841 application for his Revolutionary War pension. He "went out of Halifax and Warren Counties" and enlisted in the militia in September 1780 [M804-2038, frame 0520]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 10 "other free" in 1800 [NC:338]. John King of Franklin County and David King of Warren County testified on her behalf that they also served in the Revolution and were acquainted with both her husbands. J.R.J. Daniel of Halifax County called their family, "free persons of color & generally ... industrious & well behaved people" on 24 May 1855 when he wrote an affidavit for the pension application of Benjamin and Mary's children [M804-2038, frames 525-7, 0537].

Jonathan Roberts received 18 shillings, 8 pence pay for 7 days service in the Northampton County, North Carolina Militia under Colonel Allen Jones in 1775-1776 [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, Journal "A", 20]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:73], 10 in 1800 [NC:473], and 8 in 1810 [NC:743].

Ishmael Roberts was head of a Robeson County household of 10 "other free" in 1790 [NC:50], 15 in 1800 [NC:415], and 14 in Chatham County in 1810 [NC:195]. He received pay for Revolutionary War service from 3 June 1777 to 3 June 1778 as a private in Colonel Abraham Shepherd's Company. Colonel Shepherd gave him a certificate which stated that he was furloughed at Head Quarters Valley Forge to come home with me who was Inlisted in my Regement for the Term of three years - and Returned Home with me [NCGSJ XV:105].

Jack Rock was a "man of colour" and soldier in the Continental Army. His land warrant was escheated in 1821 [Crow, Black Experience, 102].

Charles Randolph Rowe, born about 1759 in Virginia, one of the Continental soldiers who volunteered in Bute County in 1779 (abstracted as Charles Kons[?] in NCGSJ): 5'8" tall, dark hair and dark eyes [NCGSJ XV:109 & The North Carolinian VI:727]. He was called Randolph Rowe when he married Susannah Stewart, 17 December 1793 Warren County bond with Richard Evans bondsman, and he was called Charles Rowe when he married, second, Elizabeth Taborn, 11 December 1797 Granville County bond, Solomon Harris bondsman. He was head of a Wake County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:793], 5 in Chatham County in 1810 (called Randolf Roe) [NC:201], and 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:209]. He received a pension in 1832 when he was seventy-eight years old [M804-2072].

James Rowe was granted land for service in the Revolution [Franklin County, North Carolina DB 6:780].

Caesar Santee enlisted in the 2nd Regiment. He was granted a land warrant for 640 acres in 1783 [Crow, Black Experience, 102].

Hill Scipio served from 1781 to April 22, 1782 [Crow, Black Experience, 102].

Emanuel Scott made a deposition in Halifax County Court on 22 August 1789 that he was a twelve months soldier in the Continental Line [NCGSJ XV:232]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1790, 2 in 1800 [NC:342], and 6 in Cumberland County in 1810 [NC:599].

Isham Scott was head of a Halifax County household of 8 "other free" in 1800 [NC:342] and 8 in 1810 [NC:49]. He made a declaration in order to obtain a Revolutionary War pension before the Halifax County Court at the age of sixty on 19 May 1823. He stated that he was a servant to Major Hogg and was at the skirmish at Halifax.

Lewis Simms was a "black man" listed in the militia returns for Granville County, North Carolina, in 1778 [N.C. Archives Troop Returns 4-40; The North Carolinian, 1960, p.727].

James Smith was head of a Hertford County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [NC:25], 4 in Captain Moore's District in 1800, and 11 "free colored" in 1820. He enlisted in the 10th North Carolina Regiment for three years and reenlisted for twelve more months in December 1781 [Crow, Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 102].

Aaron Spelman, born about 1753, was about nine years old when he was bound out by the April 1762 Craven County Court [Minutes 1761-62, 104b]. He was head of Craven County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134], called Aaron Spelmore on 18 January 1791 when he assigned his right to his final settlement for services in the "Twelve Months Draftees" in the Revolution [T&C, Box 22, by NCGSJ XVI:234]. He was called Aaron Spelmore on 12 September 1820 when he made a declaration in Craven County Court to obtain a pension for his service under Captain Sharpe in the Tenth North Carolina Regiment [Minutes 1820 and 1821, 125-6, 262-3, by NCGSJ XV:33].

Asa Spelman was head of a Craven County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:134] and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:72]. He was called Asa Spelmore alias Spelman on 13 September 1820 when he made a declaration in Craven County court to obtain a pension for service with Captain Quinn in the tenth North Carolina Regiment. He stated that during his nine months service he was engaged in a skirmish at West Point and at Kings Ferry in Jersey. Isaac Perkins testified that he had seen Asa while they were both on duty in White Plains, New York. John Carter testified that Asa and he were in the same regiment. Asa was a cooper with no family but his unnamed brother (Aaron?) who he was living with in 1820 [Craven County Minutes, September 1820, 136-8; 1821, 185; and May 1822, 16 by NCGSJ XVII:33].

Dempsey Stewart, born about 1764, enlisted in the 1st North Carolina Regiment for eighteen months while residing in Northampton County, North Carolina. He was taxable in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, Virginia, from 1793 to 1815: listed as a "Free Person of Colour" in 1810 and 1811, a "Free Negro" from 1813 to 1815 [PPTL 1782-1798, frames 401, 497, 543; 1799-1815, frames 197, 259, 295, 349, 394, 478, 520, 559, 637, 675, 733]. He registered in Petersburg on 9 November 1805: a brown Free Negro man, five feet ten inches high, thin made, about forty one years old, Born free p. register from the Clk of Brunswick County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 368]. He was head of a Free Town, Brunswick County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770], 2 "free colored" over forty-five years old in 1820 [VA:670], and 5 in 1830 [VA:249]. He was about fifty-seven years old on 27 January 1823 when he made a declaration in Brunswick County court, stating that he had entered the service in 1782, that his property included 60 acres of land, and that his family consisted of his wife who was about fifty-six [M804-2290, frame 0162].

Edward Stewart was a "yellow" complexioned man born in Chesterfield County who was living in Dinwiddie County when he was listed as a substitute in the Revolution [NSDAR, African American Patriots, 154]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable on a tithe and 2-3 horses in Chesterfield County from 1791 to 1811: called "Edward Stewart, Jr." from 1796 to 1801, a farmer taxable on 2 tithes and 4 horses in 1809 when he was living at Booker's shop, and living on Jones's land with 3 in his family in 1811 [PPTL, 1786-1811, frames 92, 205, 272, 343, 488, 529, 604, 642, 689, 738, 824]. He obtained a certificate of freedom in Chesterfield County on 11 June 1810: forty eight years old, yellow complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 131].

Jordan Stewart, born about 1765 in Dinwiddie County, was head of a Chatham County, North Carolina household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:193]. He was in Wake County in 1849 when he applied for a pension for his services in the Revolution.

Thomas Stewart was born about 1742 in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. He enlisted in Captain Dawson's Company in Lunenburg County under General Gibson and was at Valley Forge and Guilford Court House. He and his wife Sarah were married by James Yancey of Granville County, North Carolina, in the fall of the year 1791 [M805-772, frame 69]. He was head of a Person County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:598] and 11 in 1810 [NC:632]. His 30 January 1818 Person County will, proved in May 1818, named his wife Sarah and children [WB 8:77]. His wife Sarah was living in Person County on 4 March 1843 when she received a pension for his services [M805-772, frame 69].

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Colored Soldiers~North Carolina~Page Three

William Stewart was "a Colored man ... free born" about 1759 in Brunswick County, Virginia, according to his Revolutionary War pension file. He enlisted in 1777 under Major Hardy Murphy in Northampton County, North Carolina, and marched to West Point and Valley Forge. After the war he returned to Northampton County. He was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:479]. He moved with his family to Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, where he had been living from 1814 until 19 May 1835 when he made his pension application. Nancy Scott, a "Colored woman," who came to Pennsylvania with the Stewart family, testified on his behalf [M805-773, frame 400].

Hezekiah Stringer was in Craven County on 20 March 1787 when he registered his furlough papers before the Justice of the Peace. His papers, dated 26 May 1783, granted him a leave of absence from the 1st North Carolina Regiment until his final discharge [NCGSJ XVI:238]. He was called Kiah Stringer in 1800, head of a New Hanover County household of 5 "other free" [NC:316].

Mingo Stringer served in Sharp's Company of the 10th North Carolina Regiment between 5 May 1781 and 5 April 1782 [Clark, State Records, XVI:1166]. He was head of a Craven County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131].

Abraham Sweat served in Raiford's Company of the 10th North Carolina Regiment between 25 April 1781 and 25 April 1782 [Clark, State Records, XVI:1162]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62], 6 in 1800 [NC:344], and 4 in 1810 [NC:50].

Allen Sweat was about fifty-two years old on 7 June 1818 when he made a declaration in Wake County court to obtain a pension. He stated that he enlisted in Halifax County, North Carolina, about 1782. Exum Scott testified that he had known him since his infancy while living on Scott's plantation in Roanoke. And Francis Jones testified on his behalf. He later moved to McNairy County, Tennessee, where his wife received a survivor's pension. She testified that they were married on 28 January 1792 and her husband died 29 March 1844 [M804-2332].

George Sweat received army pay for service to the Revolution [Clark, State Records, XVII:250]. He was taxable on one free poll in Halifax County in 1790 and head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62].

William Sweat was taxable in District 10 of Halifax County in 1782 and head of a household of 1 free male and 3 females in District 8 of Halifax County for the 1786 state census. He received a 640 acre grant for his services in the Revolution [mentioned in Franklin County DB 6:89].

Allen Taborn enlisted in Baker's Company in the 10th North Carolina Regiment on 20 July 1778 but deserted three days later [Saunders, Colonial and State Records XVI:1173]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1780 [NC:73].

Burrell Taborn was a resident of Nash County in 1781 when he enlisted in Captain Lytle's Company for twelve months. He was head of a Nash County household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [NC:122], 10 in 1810 [NC:668], and 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:445]. He died on 9 January 1842. His children were mentioned in the survivor's pension application of his son Hardimon [M804-2335, frame 744].

Joel Taborn was living in Nash County in 1776 when he enlisted in the company of Captain Tarrent under Colonel Lytle. "Being a very young person of color" he was first employed as a servant to the officers before being placed in the ranks a short time after his arrival in Charleston. He was discharged in Charleston in 1783. He assigned his right to a 100 acre land warrant to William Cheatham in Northampton County on 29 May 1797. He was a resident of Wake County on 10 February 1821 when he made his declaration in Granville County Court in order to obtain a pension [M804-2335, frame 0772].

William Taborn was living in Granville County in 1778 when Colonel William Taylor and Captain James Saunders requisitioned his wagon and team of horses for use as a baggage wagon for the soldiers. He made an agreement with John Davis to look after his crop in exchange for Davis looking after his wagon. He was later drafted as a soldier and received a pension. He served in South Carolina under Colonel Lytle, who placed him under guard for getting drunk and cursing him. Fowler Jones, Sr., one of the witnesses for his pension application, testified that William served for a while as cook to General Butler. Another witness, Zachariah Hester, testified that he was a "Brother Soldier" with him in the expedition to the Savannah River. Jacob Anderson testified that he lived near him in Granville County when his wagon was requisitioned [M804-2335, frame 0798]. He was listed in Captain Satterwhite's Company in the Granville County Militia Returns for 1778: 19 years old, 5 feet 8 inches high, Darkish coloured hair & complexion, planter [Mil. TR 4-40 by Granville County Genealogical Society, Granville Connections, vol.1, no.1, 15]. He was head of a Granville County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [NC:898].

Benjamin Tann received 9 pounds from the controller's office on 10 June 1783 [N.C. Archives Army Accounts, Specie certificate no. 1859].

Drury Tann enlisted as a private in Hadley's Company of the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Continental Line on 1 August 1782, but there was no record of his service [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1175]. He was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household 4 "other free" in Northampton County in 1790 [NC:74], 3 in Hertford County in 1800 [NC:722], and 2 "free colored" in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1820: a man and woman over 45 years of age. He was taxable in Southampton County as a "free Negro" laborer in 1813 and 1814, living on Arthur Carr's land in 1820 [PPTL 1807-21, frame 326]. He made an application for a Revolutionary War pension in Southampton County court on 7 March 1834 in which he stated that he had been stolen from his parents when a small boy by persons who planned to sell him into slavery but had been rescued by a magistrate in Wake County, North Carolina.

Ephraim Tann was a private in Baker's Company. He enlisted on 20 July 1778 for nine months. His heirs received 640 acres for his services in the North Carolina Continental Line [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1173; N.C. Archives file T&C Rev. War Army Accts. Vol III:73, folio 3 & VII:108, folio 3].

James Tann was a soldier who died in the service in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War. He enlisted on 20 July 1778 and was omitted in 1779 [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1173]. Jesse Boothe, executor of Benjamin Tann's Nash County will, deposed on 20 June 1821 that James' rightful heir was Hannah Tann, daughter of his brother Jesse Tann [S.S. 460.1]. She received a land warrant for 640 acres for her uncle's service [S.S. 460.1, 460.2, 460.3, 460.12].

Joseph Tann served in the Revolution. His heirs received 640 acres for his services in the North Carolina Continental Line.

Arthur Toney, born about 1764 in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, lived there until he was ten years old when he moved to Halifax County, North Carolina. He took the place of his brother John Toney in the Revolutionary War in Warren County and marched to Bacon's Bridge in South Carolina where he reenlisted. He was not involved in any battles since he was assigned to the baggage wagon. When he returned in 1782, he moved to Caswell County and made his declaration to obtain a pension in Caswell County court fifty years later on 9 October 1832. He was head of a Caswell County household of 10 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:90]. He was in Halifax County on 1 April 1847 when he made another declaration for a pension. His widow, formerly Elizabeth Edwell, born about 1780, was living in Caswell County on 10 November 1854 when she appeared before the Hustings Court in Virginia to obtain a survivor's pension. She stated that they were married in December 1799 in Caswell County, and her husband died there in his own house on 19 July 1847 [M805-807, frame 582].

John Toney was a "Free Mulatto" added to Wood Jones' list of tithables for Amelia County on 27 November 1766 [Orders 1766-9, 24]. He enlisted in the 10th Regiment of the North Carolina Continental Line. He fought at the battle of Guilford Courthouse and "ran home and was taken and made to serve to the end of the war." He died in November 1823 [M805, reel 807, frame 623]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 7 "other free" in 1790 [NC:62], 16 in 1800 [NC:344], 11 in 1810 [NC:51], and 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:167].

Pompey Terry enlisted in the 10th Regiment on 1 August 1782 for 18 months [Crow, Black Experience, 102].

Charles Turner made a declaration in Pasquotank County Court on 4 March 1834 to obtain a pension for his service in the North Carolina Continental Line [NCGSJ XVII:160]. He was head of a Pasquotank County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:29] and 9 in 1810 [NC:933].

Bartlet Tyler was taxable Granville County in 1768 in the list of Robert Harris, head of a household with his unnamed wife and sister Jane, and taxable on two "black" tithes in 1769 [CR 44.701.20]. On 5 August 1778 he complained to the Granville County Court that he was forced into Revolutionary War service on the pretence that he was a vagrant [Owen, Granville County Notes, vol. V].

Asa Tyner, born about 1744, was taxable with his unnamed wife in Bute County in 1771 [CR 015.70001]. She was Keziah Chavis, born about 1742, still taxable in the Granville County household of her father William Chavis in 1764 but not in 1766 [CR 44.701.19]. On 10 November 1778 he was brought into Granville County Court as a vagrant and "delivered to a Continental Officer and to serve as the Law directs" [Minutes 1773-83, 142]. He was listed among the volunteers for nine months service as a Continental soldier from Bute County on 3 September 1778, "Asea Tyner, Place of Abode Bute County, born N.C., 5'8", 34 years of Age, Dark Fair, Dark Eyes" [NCGSJ XV:109 (N.C. Archives Troop Returns, Box 4)]. His wife Keziah was head of a Granville County household of 4 "other free" in 1800.

Daniel Valentine was the brother of Peter and Polly Valentine according to the declaration of Polly's children on 21 May 1835 in Halifax County, North Carolina Court. A military land warrant was issued on 3 November 1834 for his service as a soldier under Captain Bradley in the Tenth North Carolina Regiment [M805-820, frame 0119].

Peter Valentine was head of a Chesterfield County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:1062]. He served in the Revolution and received a warrant for bounty land according to the application for a survivor's pension which his nephews Daniel and Sarah made while living in Halifax County, North Carolina [M805-820, frame 0119].

Drury Walden was a Revolutionary War pensioner from Northampton County, North Carolina. He made a declaration in Northampton County Court to obtain a pension on 4 September 1832. He stated that he was living in Bute County in 1779 when he was called into the service. He served three tours as a musician and private, the last one in 1781. He marched to Augusta on his first tour and on his second tour made gun carriages for the cannon and canteens for the soldiers. William Hardee, Clergyman, testified that Drury "was for years a preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Charles R. Kee, executor of Drury's will, testified that, "no man; no, not Jas K. Polk himself, is of better moral character [National Archives File R11014]. He was also in the Third Company detached from the Northampton County Regiment in the War of 1812 [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812, 20]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 8 other free in 1790 [NC:73], 9 in 1800 [NC:483], 12 in 1810 [NC:752], 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:266], and 4 "free colored" in 1830.

John Weaver, born about 1753, was the six-year-old son of "Free Mullattoe" Amey Weaver bound by the Bertie County Court to William Witherington to learn the trade of shoe making in July 1759 [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, II:491]. He was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:750], 5 "free colored" in Hertford County in 1820 [NC:206] and 3 "free colored" in Hertford County in 1830. On 28 November 1823 he testified in Hertford County Court for Evans Archer saying that he was in the same regiment with him, stationed in South Carolina. He made a declaration in Hertford County Court for his own pension on 13 October 1828, stating that he was born about 1752 [M805-845, frame 272].

Arthur Wiggins was born in Bertie County about 1758 according to his pension application. He was living in Bertie County in 1779 when he was drafted in the town of Winton, Hertford County. In his pension application in Bertie County Court on 13 February 1833 he mentioned his brother Matthew [M804-2572, frame 0377]. He was head of a Bertie household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:86], 4 in 1810 [NC:163], and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:114].

Henry Wiggins was a "man of colour" who enlisted for 2-1/2 years on 11 April 1777. He was said to have died on James Island, South Carolina. His land warrant for 640 acres was escheated in 1821 [Crow, Black Experience, 102].

Matthew Wiggins was a "free Mulatto" taxable in the Bertie County list of Cullen Pollock in 1769 and taxable as Matthias in the 1774 list of Samuel Granberry. He was called Mathias Wiggins (a Mulatto) when he married Prissey Tabert, 3 January 1786 Bertie County bond. Matthew was head of an Edgecombe County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:55]. He died before 13 February 1833 when his brother Arthur applied for a pension in Bertie County Court.

John Wilkinson was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 6 "other free" in 1800 [NC:485] and head of a Halifax County household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:169]. He was living in Northampton County when he gave Presly Prichard his power of attorney to receive his final settlement certificate for his services in the Revolution [NCGSJ XVIII:99].

John Womble was a carpenter who enlisted in the 10th North Carolina Regiment on 1 June 1779 in Halifax County. He was captured in the siege of Charleston and remained on parole for the remainder of the war. He married his wife Catherine in Edgecombe County in 1798 [M805, reel 883, frame 836]. He was head of an Edgecombe County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 and 11 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:112].

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Colored Soldiers~South Carolina~Page One

John Biddie, was head of a Union District, South Carolina household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [SC:230]. He made a declaration in Union District Court on 30 October 1832 to obtain a pension for his service in the Revolution. He stated that he was born in Lunenburg County, Virginia, on 17 July 1762 and lived in Union District when he volunteered. He moved to Marshall County, Alabama, by 26 December 1837 when he applied to have his pension paid there. His widow Sarah applied for a survivor's pension on 5 November 1842. Elizabeth Lee testified for her, stating that they were married in Union District at the house of Presley Williams, Esq., and that John died on 14 October 1841 [M805-85, frame 0372].

John Chavis, "a free black," petitioned the South Carolina Legislature for a pension in 1823 based on wounds he received in the Revolutionary War [South Carolina Archives series S108092, reel 22, frames 125, 128].

Lazarus Chavis enlisted with Captain Moon in South Carolina for fourteen months in 1778 under General Andrew Williamson. He was in the battles of Stono and Savannah. He applied for and received a pension in Orangeburg on 4 March 1835. A lawyer contacted the pension office in Washington on 12 November 1859 stating that it was highly important to prove that Lazarus Chavis received a pension [M805, reel 180, frame 153]. He was head of an Orangeburg District household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [SC:100].

Gideon Griffin was head of a Richland District, South Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [SC:175a]. He was living in Richland District on 29 November 1826 when he petitioned the legislature for a pension for his services in the Revolution. His petition mentioned the services of Morgan Griffin [S.C. Archives S108092, reel 61, frame 18].

Morgan Griffin petitioned the South Carolina legislature in 1816 for compensation for his service in the Revolution [S.C. Archives S213190, vol. 14, p.250; series S108; series S108092, reel 61, frame 104].

George Perkins was born on 22 March 1754 in Liberty County (present-day Marion County), South Carolina, according to his pension application [National Archives Pension File RF-8113]. He applied for a pension while living in Lawrence County, Kentucky, on 15 March 1834. He was living in South Carolina when he entered the service in Charleston. He served four tours of ten days each in the militia under Lieutenant Richard Whittington in 1780. He lived for about twenty-six years (1787-1813) on the Watauga River in the part of North Carolina which later became Washington County, Tennessee, and lived in Lawrence County, Kentucky, for another twenty-one years (1813-34). A copy of his 5 April 1780 Bladen County, North Carolina marriage bond to Keziah Manning, with John Cade (one of the captains he served under) as bondsman, was included in Keziah's application for a widow's pension [RF-8113]. George died in Lee County, Iowa, on 16 November 1840 and Keziah died on 12 August 1849 according to their only surviving child Ann Graves [National Archives Pension File RF-8113]. He and Jacob Perkins were sons of Joshua Perkins, a "Mulato" taxable in Bladen County with his wife and sons George and Isaac in 1768 and 1769 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:7, 17]. Joshua and his children's race and color were described in detail in an 1858 Johnson County, Tennessee trial in which his great-grandson, Jacob F. Perkins, unsuccessfully sued John R. White for slander because he called him a "free Negro." Deponents at the trial named Joshua's children George, Jacob, Joshua, Isaac, Lewis, and Polly [The Perkins File in the T.A.R. Nelson Papers in the Calvin M. McClung Collection at the East Tennessee Historical Center, depositions of Anna Graves and John J. Wilson].

Jacob Perkins served in the Revolution from South Carolina. Johnson Hampton testified for the pension application of his son Jacob Perkins that Jacob Perkins came to Carter County, Tennessee, about 1802 and that Jacob told him he had lived in South Carolina near the Little Pee Dee River during the time of the Revolution. Jacob served in the Revolution under General Marion and "was [a] respectfully up right honest man and was considered by his neighbors" [National Archives Pension File R-8105].

Shadrack Reed was head of a South Orangeburg District, South Carolina household of 7 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1790. He received a little over 7 pounds on 9 January 1785 for supplying beef to the state commissary [South Carolina Archives, Accounts Audited for Revolutionary War Service, AA 6307].

Willis Reed was head of a South Orangeburg District household of one "other free" in 1790. He was paid a little over 35 pounds for militia duty as a horseman from 15 April 1781 to 15 February 1782 [South Carolina Archives, Accounts Audited for Revolutionary War Service, AA 6309].

Cornelius Rouse was a "Molato" taxable in Bladen County, North Carolina, with (his brother?) John Rouse in 1771 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:61]. He was a "Negroe" head of a Cheraw District, South Carolina household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [SC:46], 15 in Barnwell District in 1800 [SC:62], and 9 in Abbeville District in 1810 [SC:84]. He was called Neale Rous when he received pay for thirty days duty in the militia in 1782 [S.C. Archives Accounts Audited For Revolutionary War Services, AA6636, frame 466, roll #128].

Abraham Scott, head of a South Orangeburg District household of 9 "other free" in 1790, was a man of color who served in the Revolution [Moss, Roster of South Carolina Patriots, 1849; NSDAR, African American Patriots, 183].

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Colored Soldiers~Maryland~Page One

Joseph Hastings complained to the Orange County, North Carolina County Court that four "Black Persons being Soldiers, VIZT. Thomas Thompson, Leonard Turner, Valentine Murrin & John Adams" of the Maryland Line broke into his home and stole gold and silver coin and garments. However, the Continental Army rescued them from the court and would not allow them to be tried [Orange County Court Minutes, 1777-1788, Part I, Dec. 19 and 23, 1780, North Carolina State Archives, cited by Jeffrey Crow, "The Black Experience in Revolutionary North Carolina, 68].

Adam Adams, a "free black resident of Charles County," enlisted May 1777 in Captain Henry Gaither's Company of the 1st Maryland Regiment commanded by General William Smallwood. He received his discharge in November 1783. He was head of a Charles County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 and 2 in 1800 [MD:551]. He made a declaration in the First Judicial District Court in Charles County on 28 March 1818 and 5 June 1820 to obtain a pension. He was living at the time with his wife Ann and six children: Pamelia, Eleanor, John, Robert, Richard, and Lydia. He received a pension and 50 acres of bounty land for his service [National Archives pension file #534623 cited by NSDAR, African American Patriots, 121; and http://southerncampaign.org/pen/s34623.pdf].

Moses Grimes was a "mulatto" who served in the Virginia Regiment commanded by Colonel Gibson and waited on Colonel Brent during the Revolution. He was married to a forty-five-year-old "mulatto" woman named Jane Wilson on 2 October 1779 when Cuthbert Bullitt of Dumfries, Virginia, placed an ad in the Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser which stated that she had run away, perhaps to her husband or to the plantation of her former master, Colonel George Mason, or to Mrs. Page, among whose slaves she had a number of relations [Windley, Runaway Slave Advertisements II:232-3].

Benjamin Grinnage served in the Revolution as a substitute from Queen Anne's County [Archives of Maryland 48:11]. He was taxable in Island District of Queen Anne's County in 1783 [MSA S1161-8-10, p.65], a "free Negro" head of a Queen Anne's County, Maryland household of 6 "other free" and one white woman in 1790 and 5 "other free" and 2 white women in 1800 [1800 MD census, p. 345].

Lazarous Harman served in the 6th Company of the 1st Maryland Regiment from 1 August 1780 to 15 November 1783 [Archives of Maryland 18:356, 539]. He was head of a Worcester County, Maryland household of 6 "other free" in 1790 [MD:124], 9 in 1800 [MD:745] and 7 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [MD:623]. He made a declaration in Worcester County Court on 10 April 1818 to obtain a pension for his service in the Revolution. On 28 July 1821 he stated that he was about sixty years old and was living with his wife Betty and their sons John, aged 18 years, and Joseph, aged 12 years [National Archives Pension Application M805-399].

Charles Proctor was called "Charles Proctor (of William)" when he was counted in the 1778 Constable's Census for Charles County [Liber X-3:630-40]. He may have been the Charles Proctor who died while serving in the Revolutionary War [Archives of Maryland 18:150]. William Proctor was a taxable head of a Trinity Parish Upper Hundred, Charles County household in 1758. He took the oath of fidelity in Charles County in 1778. He was a "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 and 5 "other free" and a slave in 1800 [MD:512].

Henry Proctor was counted in the Constable's Census for Charles County in 1778 and was a "Mulatto" head of a Charles County household of 6 "other free" in 1790 and 11 in 1810 [MD:315]. He served in the Revolutionary War and was discharged on 3 December 1781 [Archives of Maryland 48:10].

Henry Butler was head of a Charles County household of 8 "other free" and 4 slaves in 1800 [MD:530] and 9 "other free" and a slave in 1810 [MD:342]. He was one of the drafts and substitutes from Charles County who were discharged from service in the Revolutionary War on 3 December 1781 [Archives of Maryland 48:10].

Ephraim Game was a recruit from Dorchester County in the Revolutionary War on 25 July 1780 [Archives of Maryland 18:339]. I don't know of any white members of the Game family. To my knowledge all in that area of Maryland were free African American.

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Colonel Tye 1753 - 1780

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Colonel Tye, the most feared and respected guerrilla commander of the Revolution, was one of the many enslaved Africans who escaped and fought for the British.

Known in his youth as Titus, he was one of four young men owned by John Corlies of Shrewsbury, in the eastern part of Monmouth County, New Jersey. Shrewsbury Quakers, under increasing pressure from their Philadelphia-influenced counterparts to the west, finally began to end slavery among themselves in the 1760s. Corlies did not follow the local practice of educating his slaves or of freeing them on their 21st birthdays, and by 1775, he was one of the few remaining Quaker slaveholders in Monmouth County.

In November 1775, the day after Dunmore's Proclamation was issued, 22-year old Titus fled from his cruel, quick-tempered master, joining the flood of Monmouth County blacks who sought refuge with the British as soldiers, sailors and workers. Titus changed his name, gaining notoriety three years later as Captain Tye, the pride of Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment.

While not formally commissioning black officers, the British army often bestowed titles out of respect, and Tye quickly earned their respect. In his first known military incursion, the June, 1778 Battle of Monmouth (in which not a single black from the county fought for the patriots), Tye captured a captain in the Monmouth militia.

In July, 1779, Tye's band launched a raid on Shrewsbury, and carried away clothing, furniture, horses, cattle, and two of the town's inhabitants. With his "motley crew" of blacks and white refugees known as "cow-boys," Tye continued to attack and plunder patriot homes, using his knowledge of Monmouth County's swamps, rivers and inlets to strike suddenly and disappear quickly. These raids, often aimed at former masters and their friends, were a combination of banditry, reprisal, and commission; Tye and his men were well-paid by the British, sometimes earning five gold guineas.

During the harsh winter of 1779, Tye was among an elite group of twenty-four black Loyalists, known as the Black Brigade, who joined with the Queen's Rangers, a British guerrilla unit, to protect New York City and to conduct raids for food and fuel.

By 1780, Colonel Tye had become an important military force. Within one week in June, he led three actions in Monmouth County. On June 9, Tye and his men murdered Joseph Murray, hated by the Loyalists for his summary execution of captured Tories under a local vigilante law. On June 12, while the British attacked Washington's dwindling troops, Tye and his band launched a daring attack on the home of Barnes Smock, capturing the militia leader and twelve of his men, destroying their cannon, depriving Washington of needed reinforcements, and striking fear into the hearts of local patriots.

In response, Governor Livingston, who had tried two years before to abolish slavery in New Jersey, invoked martial law -- a measure which proved totally ineffective -- even as large numbers of blacks, heartened by news of Tye's feats, fled to British-held New York.

In a series of raids throughout the summer, Tye continued to debilitate and demoralize the patriot forces. In a single day, he and his band captured eight militiamen (including the second in command), plundered their homes, and took them to imprisonment in New York, virtually undetected and without suffering a single casualty.

In September, 1780 Tye led a surprise attack on the home of Captain Josiah Huddy, whom Loyalists had tried to capture for years. Amazingly, Huddy and his friend Lucretia Emmons managed to hold off their attackers for two hours, until the Loyalists flushed them out by setting the house afire. During the battle, Tye was shot in the wrist, and days later, what was thought to be minor wound turned fatal when lockjaw set in.

After Tye's death, Colonel Stephen Blucke of the Black Pioneers replaced him as leader of the raiders, continuing their attacks well after the British defeat at Yorktown. Tye's reputation lived on, among his comrades as well as the Patriots, who argued that the war would have been won much sooner had Tye been enlisted on their side.

RUNAWAY AD FOR TITUS

THREE POUNDS Reward.
RUN away from the fubfcriber, living in Shrewfbury, in the county of Monmouth, New-Jerfey, a NEGROE man, named TITUS, but may probably change his name; he is about 21 years of age, not very black, near 6 feet high; had on a grey homefpun coat, brown breeches, blue and white flockings, and took with him a wallet, drawn up at one end with a ftring, in which was a quantity of clothes. Whoever takes up faid Negroe, and fecures him in any goal, or brings him to me, fhall be entitled to the above reward of Three Pounds proc. and all reafonable charges, paid by Nov. 8, 1775. JOHN CORLIS.


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Free Black Patriots

A number of free black men from the North fought on the American side of the Revolutionary war. Several of them were sons of former slaves who had bought themselves (and in some cases, their children) out of slavery.

Cuff Smith was born into slavery in Rhode Island. In 1769, Cuff's freedom was purchased by his father, Venture Smith, for $200. The family settled in Haddam Neck, Connecticut. When he was in his early 20s, Cuff enlisted in the Continental army, where he served from January, 1781 to January, 1784. After the war, Cuff returned to his family.

Cesar Prince, born in 1757, and his brother Festus, born in 1763, were the eldest sons of Abijah Terry and Lucy Terry Prince. Their father was a free black man who owned land in Deerfield, Massachusetts, where they were both born, and in Guilford, Vermont, where the family moved in the 1760s. Their mother was a gifted speaker and the author of the first poem known to be written by an African American woman. Cesar and Festus went to Massachusetts to enlist in the Continental army. After the war, Festus returned to Vermont, married, and began farming.

James Forten was born into a free Philadelphia family in 1766. Forten's great-grandfather was an enslaved African who had been brought to the Delaware Valley before the arrival of the English, and his grandfather was one of the first slaves in Pennsylvania to purchase his own freedom. At the age of 14, Forten enlisted as a powder boy on the Royal Louis, a privateer commissioned by Pennsylvania. After a month at sea, the ship was captured by the British. Instead of being sold into slavery in the West Indies, Forten was sent to a prison ship, where he spent seven months before being released in a prisoner exchange.
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"Colored Patriots" of New Hampshire

By W.C. Nell, 1855

JUDE HALL was born at Exeter, N. H., and was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, under General Poor. He served faithfully eight years, and fought in most all the battles, beginning at Bunker Hill. He was called a great soldier, and was known in New Hampshire to the day of his death by the name of "Old Rock."

Singular to relate, three of his sons have been kidnapped at different times, and reduced to slavery. James was put on board a New Orleans vessel; Aaron was stolen from Providence, in 1807; William went to sea in the bark Hannibal, from Newburyport, and was sold in the West Indies, from whence he escaped after ten years of slavery, and sailed as captain of a collier from Newcastle to London.

The anecdote of the slave of Gen. Sullivan, of New Hampshire, is well known. When his master told him that they were on the point of starting for the army, to fight for liberty, he shrewdly suggested, that it would be a great satisfaction to know that he was indeed going to fight for his liberty. Struck with the reasonableness and justice of this suggestion, Gen. S. at once gave him his freedom.

It is not very surprising, that in the time of the Revolutionary War, when so much was said of freedom, equality, and the rights of man, the poor African should think that he had some rights, and should seek that freedom which others valued so highly. There were slaves then, even in New Hampshire, and their owners, like the Egyptians of old, and the Carolinians now, were unwilling to let them go." Here is an extract from the Journal of New Hampshire, touching this matter, showing how justice and humanity were postponed, as repentance often is, to a more convenient opportunity:-

"JUNE 9, 1780. Agreeable to order of the day, the petition of Negro Brewster and others, negro slaves, praying to be set free from slavery, being read, considered, and argued by counsel for petitioners before this House, it appears that at this time this house is not ripe for a determination in this matter. Therefore, ordered, That the further consideration of the matter be postponed till a more convenient opportunity."

Senator Morrill, of New Hampshire, in his speech at Washington, in 1820, on the Missouri question, alluded to a colored man in his own State, by the name of Cheswell, who, with his family, were respectable in point of property, ability, and character. He held some of the first offices of the town in which he resided, was appointed Justice of the Peace for the county, and was perfectly competent to perform all the duties of his various offices in the most prompt, accurate, and acceptable manner.

"In New Hampshire," says Dr. Belknap, in 1795, " those blacks who enlisted into the army for three years, were entitled to the same bounty as the whites. This bounty their masters received as the price of their liberty, and then delivered up their bills of sale, and gave them a certificate of manumission. Several of these bills and certificates were deposited in my hands; and those who survived the three years service were free." *

New Hampshire papers of a quite recent date record the death, at Hanover, of Mrs. JANE E. WENTWORTH a colored woman, at the age of three score and ten. Graduates at Dartmouth will recollect her as Aunt Jenny, the wash-woman, and nurse in sickness. Her parents were slaves, kidnapped when very young, and came by inheritance in possession of the family of Mrs. House, of Hanover. They were subsequently sold to a gentleman in Salem, NH, where they remained until they were emancipated by the laws of the State. Jenny was born in Hanover, in 1777, was sold with her parents, and upon becoming free, she married Charles Wentworth, a slave of Gov. Wentworth. They then removed to Hanover, where they remained till their death. Jenny outlived her husband several years, and was one of the last of the African race who in our early history were held in bondage in New England.

* Massachusetts Historical Collection, Vol. IV., p. 203.

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Prince Hall 1735 - 1807

Prince Hall, one of Boston's most prominent citizens during the revolutionary period, was the founder of the African Lodge of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons of Boston, the world's first lodge of black Freemasonry and the first society in American history devoted to social, political, and economic improvement.

Not much is known of Hall's life before the Revolution. He was born in 1735 and was the slave of William Hall of Boston. His son, Primus, was born in 1756 to Delia, a servant in another household. In 1762, at the age of 27, Hall joined the Congregational Church, and soon after, married an enslaved woman named Sarah Ritchie. Eight years later, after Sarah's death, he married Flora Gibbs of Gloucester.

A month after the Boston Massacre, William Hall freed Prince; his certificate of manumission read that he was "no longer Reckoned a slave, but [had] always accounted as a free man." Hall made his living as a huckster (peddler), caterer and leather dresser, and was listed as a voter and a taxpayer. He owned a small house and leather workshop in Boston.

It is believed that he was one of the six black men of Massachusetts named Prince Hall listed in military records of the Revolution, and he may well have fought at Bunker Hill. A bill he sent to a Colonel Crafts indicates that he crafted five leather drumheads for the Boston Regiment of Artillery in April, 1777.

In 1775, Hall and fourteen other free blacks joined a British army lodge of Masons who were stationed in Boston. After the British departed, they formed their own lodge, African Lodge No. 1, though it would be twelve years before they received a permanent charter. Hall became the lodge's first Grand Master.

Hall was active in the affairs of Boston's black community, using his position as "Worshipful Master" of the black Masons to speak out against slavery and the denial of black rights. For years, he protested the lack of schools for black children and finally established one in his own home.

In his last published speech, his charge to the African Lodge in June 1797, Hall spoke of mob violence against blacks: "Patience, I say; for were we not possessed of a great measure of it, we could not bear up under the daily insults we meet with in the streets of Boston, much more on public days of recreation. How, at such times, are we shamefully abused, and that to such a degree, that we may truly be said to carry our lives in our hands, and the arrows of death are flying about our heads....tis not for want of courage in you, for they know that they dare not face you man for man, but in a mob, which we despise..."

Prince Hall died in 1807 at the age of 72. A year later, his lodge honored him by changing its name to Prince Hall Grand Lodge.

Prince Hall was one of Boston's most prominent citizens during the revolutionary period. It is believed that he was one of the six black Prince Halls of Massachusetts listed in military records of the Revolution, and he may well have fought at Bunker Hill.Tax records for the period show that Hall was a leather dresser who owned a leather workshop. In April, 1777, Hall submitted a bill to a Colonel Craft of the Patriot forces. It survives today, and indicates that he crafted five leather drumheads for the Boston Regiment of Artillery


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Bill of Sale for drumheads, Prince Hall to Boston Regiment

Boston April 24 1777

Col Crafts Regt of Artilery
To Prince Hall for to 5 drumheads blieved at Sunday times to 9th may
11-19-8

Rec'd above mention'd drumheads for use of Louis Reg't
James Rofs --- Major

Boston 28 may 1777
This certifys that the above drumheads are now in possession of use of the Rgt of Art'y
J Sivan May Drain
11.19.0
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Lemuel Haynes~1753 - 1833

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Lemuel Haynes was probably the first African American ordained by a mainstream Protestant Church in the United States.

Haynes, the abandoned child of an African father and "a white woman of respectable ancestry," was born in 1753 at West Hartford, Connecticut. Five months later, he was bound to service until the age of 21 to David Rose of Middle Granville, Massachusetts.

With only a rudimentary formal education, Haynes developed a passion for books, especially the Bible and books on theology. As an adolescent, he frequently conducted services at the town parish, sometimes reading sermons of his own.

When his indenture ended in 1774, Haynes enlisted as a "Minuteman" in the local militia. While serving in the militia, he wrote a lengthy ballad-sermon about the April, 1775 Battle of Lexington. In the title of the poem, he refers to himself as "Lemuel a young Mollato who obtained what little knowledge he possesses, by his own Application to Letters." Although the poem emphasized the conflict between slavery and freedom, it did not directly address black slavery.

After the war, Haynes turned down the opportunity to study at Dartmouth College, instead choosing to study Latin and Greek with clergymen in Connecticut. In 1780 he was licensed to preach. He accepted a position with a white congregation in Middle Granville and later married a young white schoolteacher, Elizabeth Babbitt. In 1785, Haynes was officially ordained as a Congregational minister.

Haynes held three pastorships after his ordination. The first was with an all-white congregation in Torrington, Connecticut, where he left after two years due to the active prejudice of several members.

His second call to the pulpit, from a mostly white church in Rutland, Vermont that had a few "poor Africans," lasted for 30 years. During that time, Haynes developed an international reputation as a preacher and writer. In 1804, he received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Middlebury College, the first ever bestowed upon an African American. In 1801, he published a tract called "The Nature and Importance of True Republicanism..." which contained his only public statement on the subject of race or slavery.

Haynes was a lifelong admirer of George Washington and an ardent Federalist. In 1818, conflicts with his congregation, ostensibly over politics and style, led to a parting; there was some speculation, however, that the church's displeasure with Haynes stemmed from racism. Haynes himself was known to say that "he lived with the people of Rutland thirty years, and they were so sagacious that at the end of that time they found out that he was a nigger, and so turned him away."

His last appointment was in Manchester, Vermont, where he counseled two men convicted of murder; they narrowly escaped hanging when the alleged "victim" reappeared. Haynes's writings on the seven-year ordeal became a bestseller for a decade.

For the last eleven years of his life, Haynes ministered to a congregation in upstate New York. He died in 1833, at the age of 80.

Nearly 150 years after his death, a manuscript written by Haynes around 1776 was discovered, in which he boldly stated "That an African... has an undeniable right to his Liberty." The treatise went on to condemn slavery as sin, and pointed out the irony of slaveowners fighting for their own liberty while denying it to others.

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"A List of the Names of Provincials..."

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Despite initial resistance to their participation, black soldiers fought for the patriot cause in every major battle of the Revolutionary War, including the military engagement that began it on April 19, 1775 -- the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Prince Easterbrooks (also referred to as Estabrook) served in nearly every major campaign of the war. An undated broadside identifying him as " a Negro Man" lists Easterbrooks among the wounded from Lexington "in the late Engagement with His Majesty's Troops at Concord, &c." Easterbrooks had enlisted in the company of Captain John Parker, the first to engage the British at Lexington.

Peter Salem, whose Framingham masters had freed him so that he could enlist, was also among the dozen or more black men, slave and free, who fought that day. Salem and Cuff Whitemore later gained fame and commendation for their parts in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

Lemuel Haynes, a free black man who would later become a renowned minister, did not join the battle against the British until late in April; nevertheless, he wrote a poem about the battle at Lexington.
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