Stories

Sergeant Henry Parker

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Sergeant Henry Parker:

Escaped Slave, Civil War & Buffalo Soldiers Veteran


Civil War
101st Regiment U.S. Col'd Infantry

Sergeant Henry Parker, and the U.S. army were a part of the Plains Indian's nightmare. As an American soldier, he served his country under the worst of conditions, showing the courage and bravery that has been the tradition of all fighting men, no matter their cause, no matter their sacrifice.  It should be noted, that Regimental returns show that the Buffalo Soldiers were not involved in Indian massacres, though they were camped near the sites of two incidents and assisted those who survived. It is this author's stated belief, that the Buffalo Soldiers did not mistreat Native-Americans and were not responsible for their removal from reservations. 

After escaping from his slavemaster in Apton Valley, Kentucky, he joined the 101st Regiment United States Colored Infantry, at 18 years of age. He served three years as a private in the Civil War. Action was seen at White's Ranch, Boyd's Station and Stevenson's Gap, and at Scottsborough and Larkinsville, Alabama.

Henry Parker enlisted in the U.S. Cavalry on May 18, 1867 in Memphis, Tennessee by Captain Davis for a period of five years. He was 21 years old and listed his occupation as a groom. His description included black eyes, black hair and a complexion listed as mulatto. Henry's height was recorded as 5'9 1/2". He was assigned to Company D of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry and was discharged on May 18, 1872 at Ft. Sill, Indian Territory as a private.

On June 6, 1872, Henry Parker re-en1isted in the army at Fort Sill for another five years. His height, however, was now listed as 5' 11 1/2". He was again assigned to Company D of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry. When discharged at Fort Conch, Texas on June 6, 1877.

Born: Dec. 25, 1843 Aptonville, Ky

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Sancho Mazique

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Sancho Mazique was born on June 10, 1849, in Columbia, South Carolina. He was born a slave. He and his family were owned by " the Widow Green." Just prior to the Civil War, " the Widow Green" gave Sancho, his mother and six brothers and sisters to her nephew, Dr. Edward Fleming as a wedding present. Sancho Mazique and his family lived in Spartanburg, South Carolina until the war ended. After the war, he returned to Columbia.

Sancho enlisted in the army on February 23, 1875. He was placed in the 10th black cavalry regiment in Company E. He listed his previous occupation as being a carpenter. Mazique was sent to Jefferson Barracks near St. Loius, Missouri to receive training before being transferred to Fort Concho, Texas.

Upon his arrival at Fort Concho, Mazique was assigned to the carpenter's shop of the Quartermaster's section.

Sancho Mazique was honorably discharged from the Army on February 24, 1880, at Fort Concho. He remained in the area to work as a carpenter until the jobs ran out. He moved from Texas to New Mexico to find work. Mazique eventually returned to San Angelo where he stayed until his death.

On April 20, 1951 Sancho Mazique died in a local hospital at the age of 101 years old. Mazique had fallen and fractured his arm and he was placed in the hospital. He died of pneumonia which he contracted while he was there. Sancho Mazique had seen the transformation of San Angelo from a rough town of huts into a respectable city of over 60,000 people. His son, Edward, lived with him and took care of him until he died. The funeral services were conducted by Reverend L. C. Young of the St. Paul's AME church. Stark's Funeral Home took care of all the arrangements for Mazique's funeral.

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SEMINOLE-NEGRO INDIAN SCOUTS

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Adam Paine, Isaac Payne, John Ward and Pompey Factor were Mascogos, or Black Seminoles, the descendants of slaves and free Africans who joined the Seminole Indians in Florida in the 1700's and 1800's. Some of these black members integrated fully into the Seminole society, intermarrying and becoming full Seminoles, while others lived in their own villages, blending their African heritage with Seminole customs but remaining separate. Nominally slaves to the Seminoles, in truth they were autonomous and self-governing allies whose only sign of slavery was a small tithe from their harvests paid to the Seminole Chief.

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Pvt. Adam Paine, September 20, 1874. The Staked Plains, Texas.  Sept. 26-27, 1874. Inducted: Fort Duncan, Texas. Born: Florida. Issued: Oct 13, 1875.  Citation: Rendered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry., during this engagement.

Adam Paine was born in Florida sometime around 1843. His real name was Adam Payne, but it was misspelled in his citation for the Medal of Honor, and so he has been called Paine in most records since. It is unlikely that he was related to Isaac Payne. Payne was a common name in the Mascogo community. In Mexico Adam took the last name Morillo, while Isaac went by Mariscal. However, Adam and Isaac were known to have been close and spent a lot of time together.

Adam was known as a "bad man" within the Mascogo community because of his ferocity in battle and perhaps some of his habits. He often wore a Comanche buffalo horn helmet and was said to have been an impressive and frightening figure. He was also given great accolades for his skill and bravery by Colonel Mackenzie who said "This man has, I believe, more cool daring than any scout I have known". 1843~1877

BURIED: Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery
Brackettville
Kinney County
Texas
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PVT. POMPEY FACTOR (1849 ~ 1928)
Pvt. Pompey Factor, April 25,1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas.  Issued March 15, 1875.  Citation: With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol. Pompey Factor, one of the Black Seminole scouts and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in 1849 in Arkansas. He was cited for gallantry in action. Near the Pecos River on April 25, 1875, under the command of Lt. John Lapham Bullis, Twenty-fourth United States Infantry, Private Factor and two other scouts were pursuing a band of twenty-five or thirty Comanche Indians. The scouts dismounted, crept up on the Indians, and opened fire. They killed three, wounded another, and after three-quarters of an hour were in danger of being surrounded. They withdrew to the horses, where Bullis was unable to mount because his horse had broken away. The three scouts turned back into the face of hostile Indian fire, mounted Bullis behind them, and alternately carried him to safety. All three were awarded the Medal of Honor. Factor died in 1928 and is buried in the Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery 
at Brackettville, Texas.  Factor never received his military pension. He was told there was no record of his service.

In 1877, Factor deserted the Army and went home to Mexico, possibly motivated by the death of scout and Medal of Honor recipient Adam Payne at the hands of Deputy Claron Windus, also a Medal of Honor recipient. Factor later requested a pardon and rejoined the Army, eventually being discharged on November 19, 1880.

After leaving the Army, Factor worked as a farm laborer in Bracketville, Rio Grande City, and Musquiz, Mexico. Eventually a disability kept him from making a living as a farm worker, and since his military records were destroyed in a fire, his attorney submitted his Medal of Honor as proof of service to receive a disability pension.
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Pvt. Isaac Payne, April 25, 1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas. April 25, 1875.  Born: Mexico. Issued: May 25, 1875. Citation: With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol. Died:  January 12, 1904 at the age of 50

BURIED: Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery
Brackettville
Kinney County
Texas, USA

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Brackettville, near the Texas/Mexico border. This tiny town has the unusual distinction of being graced by the gravestones of five Congressional Medal of Honor winners. It is also the site of the only known killing of one Medal of Honor winner by another.

On New Years Eve 1876, Claron Windus killed ex-scout Adam Paine during a botched attempt to arrest him. It is said that Paine was shot in the back with a shotgun, at such close range that his clothing caught on fire. It is almost certain that the other three Medal of Honor winners witnessed this shooting.

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Sgt. John Ward, April 25,1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas.  April 25, 1875. Entered service at. Fort Duncan, Tex. Born: Arkansas. Issued: May 28, 1875. Citation.  With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol.

Born:  1847 at Arkansas.  Died:  May 24, 1911 at the age of 64

BURIED: Seminole Indian Scout Cemetery
Brackettville
Kinney County
Texas

It was a rare daylight ambush. The lieutenant and three men moved carefully through the bush to within yards of the enemy. Confident of their numbers, the four American soldiers opened fire, killing three men. Immediately, they found themselves outnumbered. Deciding to withdraw, the three enlisted men had almost reached safety when suddenly they realized their lieutenant was not with them.

Turning, Sergeant Ward hollered, "We can't leave the lieutenant, boys!" The sergeant dashed back with his comrades close behind him. A bullet cut the sling of Ward's weapon as he reached his officer. Another bullet shattered his rifle stock. Now firing left and right, the lieutenant and his three men fought their way back through the enemy's ranks. All escaped without injury.

This inspiring feat of bravery earned the three enlisted men the Medal of Honor, perhaps the only time in the history of the United States Army that multiple Medals of Honor have been awarded.

The year was 1875. The date was 25 April. The men were Sergeant John Ward, Trumpeter Isaac Payne  and Trooper Pompey Factor and they were members of the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts of the United States Cavalry. Their officer was Lieutenant John Lapham Bullis, for whom Camp Bullis, situated just northwest of San Antonio, is named.

Serving in one of the most effective fighting forces ever fielded in the State of Texas, these Seminole-Negro Scouts of the U.S. Cavalry fought the Apaches and Comanches from the 1870s until the early 1900s. Led by the very able Lieutenant Bullis, both officer and men could stay in the field for months at a time. (While Indians could be legally hired as scouts, Blacks could not, and so developed the unit's name official name: Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts.

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BLANQUET~MEDAL OF HONOR

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BLANQUET

Medal of Honor

Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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CHIQUITO

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CHIQUITO

MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1871-73. Entered service at: ------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

 

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CO-RUX-TE-CHOD-ISH (Mad Bear)

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CO-RUX-TE-CHOD-ISH (Mad Bear)

 MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Pawnee Scouts, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Republican River, Kans., 8 July 1869. Entered service at: ------. Birth: Nebraska. Date of issue: 24 August 1869. Citation: Ran out from the command in pursuit of a dismounted Indian; was shot down and badly wounded by a bullet from his own command.

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ELSATSOOSH

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ELSATSOOSU

MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Corporal, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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KOSOHA

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KOSOHA

MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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MACHOL

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MACHOL

MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Private, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona, 1872-73. Entered service at: ------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaign and engagements with Apaches.

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NANNASADDIE

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NANNASADDIE

MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: 1872-73. Entered service at:------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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NANTAJE (NANTAHE)

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NANTAJE (NANTAHE)

MEDAL OF HONOR

Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: 1872-73. Entered service at:------. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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JIM

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Jim.

Sergeant, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1871-73. Entry of service date unknown. Birth: Arizona Territory. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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ROWDY

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Rowdy. Sergeant, Company A, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona, 7 March 1890. Entry of service date unknown. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 15 May 1890. Citation: Bravery in action with Apache Indians.
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THE LOUISIANA NATIVE GUARDS

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The story of the Native Guards began with their enrollment as part of the Louisiana militia and ended with their participation in the civil rights movement during Reconstruction. As a militia unit, the Native Guards paraded with Confederate troops and sought to contribute to the Southern cause in other ways. After the fall of New Orleans, many of the officers and some of the men embraced the Old Flag by forming the first officially-sanctioned black regiment in the Union Army. During the war, the Native Guards fought at Port Hudson, Mansura, and Mobile. They also guarded prisoners, built fortifications, and contributed to the Union war effort in numerous other ways. Their service in the Union Army was as honorable as it was controversial. When the war ended, veterans of the Native Guards entered a third phase of their unusual career when they took up the struggle for black civil rights.

The war and its aftermath provided the men of Louisiana's Native Guards with the opportunity to earn the right to be treated as equals in a free society. However, at every turn their attempt to achieve equality was rebuffed. The Confederate authorities used them to counter northern propaganda, but never intended to let them fight. The Union Army let them fight, but made them dig ditches when their capacity for fighting became evident. During reconstruction, whites accepted them for their labor, but repudiated their quest for equal rights. Pawns of three governments, the men of the Native Guards worked hard and did their duty.

It should be noted that the Civil War's celebrated Massachusetts 54th Regiment was not the first African American infantry unit in the Union Army. (Style, Sep. 17). Not fully organized until May 13,1863, the 54th was pre-dated by other bodies of black troops raised independently the spring, summer, and fall of 1862 in Kansas and in the Federally- occupied areas of South Carolina and Louisiana.

Although there had been earlier skirmishes in which black soldiers performed well, it was the valorous performance of the Louisiana Native Guards at Port Hudson, Louisiana, May 27, 1863, that opened the eyes of white "sneerers"--proving that blacks could and would fight in this war. Made up of free men of mixed racial ancestry from the New Orleans area and runaway slaves from surrounding plantations now free within Union lines, two of the three original Native Guard regiments were the first black troops in the war to experience a battle of any size.

 

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SHERIFF CLARON WINDUS~KILLED ADAM PAINE

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Claron "Gus" Windus was also given the Medal of Honor for his bravery under fire.

Born in 1851 in Wisconsin to a family of German immigrants, he was 13 when he ran away from home to become a drummer boy for the Union army in the Civil War. He never returned home again, and after the war somehow managed to join the Regular Army at the age of 15. In 1867 he had had enough. With the help of a friend, he stole four army horses and deserted. He was caught thirteen days later and condemned to hard labor for a year. After his release his records show only commendations for good behavior.

In July 1870 he was Bugler and Orderly at the Battle of the Little Wichita River against Kicking Bird and the Kiowa. His command was almost wiped out, when he and two others volunteered to try to make it through the surrounding Indians and bring help. They succeeded and Windus was awarded the Medal of Honor for his bravery.

In 1871 Windus left the army and became a teamster and mail agent. In July of 1875 he arrived in Brackettville and was appointed Deputy Sheriff under Sheriff L.C. Crowell. He was a young man moving up in the world, not only Deputy Sheriff but also Constable and Deputy Tax collector. By December 1876 he was engaged to be married to Agnes Ballantyne, daughter of Kinney County Inspector of Hides and Animals, James B. Ballantyne, one of the most prominent men in the region.

SOURCE: http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/SNIS_KW.HTM

BORN: Jan. 10, 1850

DIED: Oct. 18, 1927

BURIED: Masonic Cemetery
Brackettville
Kinney County
Texas

 

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KELSAY MEDAL OF HONOR

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Rank and Organization: Indian Scouts. Place and Date: Winter of 1872-73. Birth: Arizona. Date of Issue: 12 April 1875. Indian Scouts. Place and Date: Winter of 1872-73. Birth: Arizona. Date of Issue: 12 April 1875.

Citation:

Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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Sgt. William Alchesay

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Rank and Organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts. Place and Date: Winter of 1872-73. Entered Service At: Camp Verde, Ariz. Born: 1853, Arizona Territory. Date of Issue: 12 April 1875.

Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.

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IDA B. WELLS

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Period: The Indian Campaigns Through World War I


Ida B. Wells was an educator, civil rights leader, and a journalist. Mistreated for not giving up her seat on a railroad car for "whites only," Ida Wells turned from teaching to journalism. While in MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE, she wrote and exposed in her weekly publication, THE FREE SPEECH, the names of the persons responsible for the LYNCHING of three African Americans. Her press was destroyed by an angry mob, but she fled to NEW YORK CITY and kept up the exposure of the LYNCHING of Blacks as a topic for JUSTICE and FAIR LAWS. SOUTHERN HORRORS (1892) and A RED RECORD were two of her publications on the subject of lynching. On May 30, 1974, her Memphis home was designated a National Historic Landmark.

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Henry Ossian Flipper

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United States Army Officer. In 1877, he became the first African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, and was also the first black to be assigned to a command position in the army. He received a controversial dishonorable discharge and died before getting a chance to clear his record. Years later, the decision was reversed and Flipper was given a reburial with military honors. As a civilian, Flipper worked in the United States Justice Department. He was fluent in Spanish and was able to save thousands of acres of disputed land in the Southwest territory. He also published translations of Spanish and Mexican law that continue to be used as references.
 
Cause of death: Heart attack
BORN: Feb. 21, 1856
DIED: 1940
BURIED: Magnolia Cemetery
Thomasville
Thomas County
Georgia

 

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Buffalo Soldier Uniform Coat

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African American soldiers were allowed to enlist in the regular peacetime army of the United States for the first time at the end of the Civil War. Many of the new regulars had fought as United States Colored Troops during the war. By 1869, four African American regiments—the 9th and 10th Cavalry, the 24th and 25 Infantry—had been dispatched to the western frontier wars. Their duties were not limited to fighting Indians, who first called them "buffalo soldiers." In garrison, they drilled, stood guard, and maintained horses, barracks, weapons, and equipment. In the field, they patrolled harsh terrain in every extreme of weather, built or rebuilt army posts, strung telegraph wire, and escorted settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews.
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The Will Thomas Legion

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The Will Thomas Legion, a Confederate unit made up of Cherokee and Mountaineers, were a terror in the War Between the States. In 1865, they captured the city of Waynesville, North Carolina in order to negotiate a fair surrender. One of the Legion's terms was to be able to carry away their firearms.
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Sugar T. George

Sugar T. George

a.k.a. George Sugar was born in approximately 1827, as a slave in the Muskogee Nation. This former slave from the Muskogee Nation went from poverty to prominence in his lifetime, serving in the House of Warriors, House of Kings, having been an African Town King, coming first from the town of North Fork, he emerged as a tribal leader in the nation of his birth. By the time of his death in 1900, Sugar T. George was also said to have been the "wealthiest Negro in the Territory."

(1) His father was Sorrow Pigeon, and his mother was Nancy Lovett. Sorry was a slave of David Pigeon, and George himself had been a slave of Mariah McIntosh. When the Dunn Roll was created, he was enrolled at that time as Sugar T. Hared. He was enrolled in the town of North Fork at the time. He escaped form bondage when Opthole Yahola took a band of people into Kansas to avoid the war.

He did not hesitate to join the Union Army serving in company "H" of the 1st Indian Home Guards. Because he could read and write and because of his natural skills as a leader he quickly became a 1st Sgt. in his unit. Historian Gary Zellar of the University of Arkansas, notes that while a soldier, Sugar George acted as the unofficial leader taking charge after the white officer and Indian officer had been dismissed for improper behavior. For some time the unit actually was run under his direction, although black soldiers were not to be elevated to any rank of authority as an officer. Thus this man remained as a 1st Sgt, though clearly could have been an officer.

In 1867 after the War, Sugar T. George was one of the first soldiers to file a claim as part of the Loyal Creeks. His claim for compensation can be found at the National Archives, as part of Record Group 75 (1) Among these documents his claim would be one of over 300 Freedmen, and of 60 black soldiers who served with the Indian Home Guards. The next several years, Sugar T. George, rose to prominence, amassing money, and influence in the nation, and he subsequently rose to prominence. For some time he lived in North Fork, Colored Town, in the Creek Nation. He became a Town King, and served on the Muskogee Creek Nation Tribal Council. He married twice in his lifetime, first to Mariah McIntosh and lived with her until she died in 1867. In 1876, he then married Betty Rentie. They were married by another prominent Freedman, Monday Durant. Sugar George and his wife, Betty had no children, but they adopted and raised James Sugar as their own son. (Also living with Sugar T. George at the time of the Dawes Enrollment were his step grandchildren, Rena, and Julia Sugar.) During his lifetime, Sugar George had a strong reputation, and his name appeared on many critical documents. He served as witness for many people, and often he prepared letters for illiterate people in the community. In addition to his being a veteran of the Union army, his serving as part of the leadership of the Muskogee nation, Sugar George had a strong interested in the plight of his people. Being a literate man himself, he supported educational causes of the Indian Territory Freedmen. He served on the board of the Tullahassee Mission School, a school for Creek and Seminole freedmen. Because of his strong sense of finance, he also was requested to keep the financial records of the school.

Sugar T. George died on June 30, 1900. He is buried in the Agency Cemetery
Muskogee
Muskogee County
Oklahoma, USA

A beautiful gray granite tomb with large marble monument about five feet high with the following inscription: "In memory of Rev. SUGAR GEORGE. Died July 31, 1900. Aged 82 years. The day is past and gone the evening shadows appear. O may we all remember well the night of death draws near." (3) Note---A visit to the Creek Council House in Okmulgee will provide little information on Sugar T. George, although he served on the tribal council of this nation for many years. Authorities will claim no knowledge of his history. Sugar George is buried under a five-foot marble marker in the now-abandoned Agency Cemetery. This burial ground is in complete abandon, off Highway 69 in Muskogee, behind a truck repair shop. Sugar George and other African leaders rest in the over-grown thicket, now forgotten by townspeople and historians alike.

1 -Document found in Civil War Pension File of Sugar T. George 2- Claims of the Loyal Creeks, RG 75 National Archives 3 - Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma LDS Microfiche #6016976 Volume 111---Cemeteries

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THE BUFFALO SOLDIERS AND THE OKLAHOMA TERRITORY

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This famous group of all Black regiments earned their respect as U.S. Military men during the Civil War (1861-1865). They served the U.S. Army as the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry. For their heroism during the Civil War, twenty-two African Americans earned the Congressional Medal of Honor. The name Buffalo Soldiers came later when these troops served as scouts in the West. The Native Americans coined the name Buffalo Solders because of their mostly tightly curled hair, which was said to resemble the roaming buffalo of the Great Plains. They also saw these soldiers as being proud, brave, and strong and respected them just as they had respected their indigenous buffalo.

The Buffalo Soldiers acted as a protective force to keep "Boomers" off lands not assigned to them. Oklahoma was being designated as part Indian Territory, but the boomers kept coming. The 9th Cavalry of the Buffalo Soldiers kept the unassigned land clear since it had been set aside as places for reestablishing new homelands for Native Americans. The Buffalo Soldiers also acted as protectors of other settlers as their wagon trains moved westward. They acted as a peacemaking force keeping angry Native Americans at reason when they were thinking of War during 1880 to 1889. The Buffalo Soldiers also protected the mail routes and Railroad surveyors during this period. These soldiers were stationed at Fort Reno in El Reno, Oklahoma.

Photo: Corporal Isaiah Mays,
wearing the Medal of Honor he received in 1890

Birth:   Feb. 16, 1858

Death:   May 2, 1925  
Congressional Medal of Honor Recipients. Served in the United States Army, and he was from Columbus Barracks, Ohio. He was awarded his medal for action at Cedar Springs, Arizona, on May 11, 1889, during the Indian Campaigns.

Burial:
Arizona State Hospital Cemetery
Phoenix
Maricopa County
Arizona, USA
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Manifest Destiny

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Slaves and the black soldiers, who couldn't read or write, had no idea of the historical deprivations and the frequent genocidal intent of the U.S. government toward Native Americans. Free blacks, whether they could read and write, generally had no access to first hand or second-hand unbiased information on this relationship. Most whites who had access often didn't really care about the situation. It was business as usual in the name of "Manifest Destiny". Most Americans viewed the Indians as incorrigible and non-reformable savages. Those closest to the warring factions or who were threaten by it, naturally wanted government protection at any cost. At the outbreak of the Civil War, the government was fighting the Indians in the west. It withdrew most of its men and resources from the Indian wars, to concentrate on ending the rebellion. At the end of the Civil War, 186,000 black soldiers had participated in the war, with 38,000 killed in action. Southerners and eastern populations did not want to see armed Negro soldiers near or in their communities. They were also afraid of the labor market being flooded with a new source of labor. General employment opportunities in these communities was not available to blacks, so many African-Americans took a long hard look at military service which offered shelter, education, steady pay, medical attention and a pension. Some decided it was much better than frequent civilian unemployment. Of course in some quarters, it was thought this is an good way of getting rid of two problems at the same time. When Congress reorganized the peacetime regular army in the summer of 1866, it had taken the above situation into account. It also recognized the military merits of black soldiers by authorizing two segregated regiments of black cavalry, the Ninth United States Cavalry and the Tenth United States Cavalry and the 24th, 25th , 38th , 39th, 40th and 41st Infantry Regiments. Orders were given to transfer the troops to the western war arena, where they would join the army's fight with the Indians. In 1869, one year after the discharge of Cathay Williams, the female Buffalo Soldier in disguise, the black infantry regiments were consolidated into two units, the Twenty-fourth United States Infantry and the Twenty-fifth United States Infantry. All of the black regiments were commanded by white officers at that time.
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DAVID SCHOOLEY~CIVIL WAR & INDIAN WAR VETERAN

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"Walk-A-Heaps" (Name given by Indians) 

Indian War:

Captain Twenty-fifth U.S. Infantry Company E, (Buffalo Soldiers).

Photo taken 1866.

Captain David Schooley, who recruited Battery "M", Pennsylvania Artillery was the son of Isaac Schooley, born April 12, 1824. He was born and raised on his father's farm. He went to local schools and later attended Wyoming Seminary, where he studied surveying, later engaging in that occupation.

Much of his early manhood was spent in the Pittston section, and it was from there that nearly all his battery was recruited. He served through the war {his battery mustered on August 12, 1862}, nearly one year of which was spent in Confederate prisons, having been captured at Petersburg.

After the war he held a commission in the Regular Army, and assisted in the U.S. Coast Survey and later spent 20 years at Army posts in the west with Co. E 25th Infantry. After his retirement from the Army, he returned to his home, and spent the remainder of his life there. He died January 17, 1910.

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Lieutenant-Colonel Allen Allensworth

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Birth: 1842]

Death: 1914 
United States Army Officer. Born a slave in Louisville, Kentucky, he joined the United States Navy as a Seaman, then served as the Chaplain to the all Black 24th Infantry regiment. He rose to Lieutenant Colonel, and was the highest ranking black officer in the United States Army at that time. In 1908 after he retired from the army, he founded the all-black township of Allensworth in Tulare County, California. The town focused upon black self reliance and self respect. Allensworth is a registered historical landmark.
 Burial:
Angelus Rosedale Cemetery
Los Angeles
Los Angeles County
California, USA

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Segregation in the Military

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The army supported segregation. It maintained separate facilities where possible. The Buffalo Soldiers built many forts whose facilities at times they couldn't use. At Fort Concho for example, there were separate rooms for educational purposes, etc. The necessities of military life forced white and black troops together, breaking down long standing prejudices. Lieutenant Charles J. Crane always believed in the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon and resented his appoint to the Twenty-third Infantry. But in his autobiography he wrote he was happy with the assignment.

So brave and courageous were these men that their legendary Indian foes called them Buffalo Soldiers. Their commanding officer, Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson of Civil War fame, said the name was given because the Indians respected a brave and powerful adversary, which relates directly to their much revered buffalo.  Others say it was due to the similarity of the soldier's hair to that of the hair surrounding the buffalo's head.

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Wild Buffalos~Medal of Honor

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"Wild Buffaloes"
African Americans have served in the United States Army since the Revolutionary War. They were, however, segregated in all black units until the Korean War.

In 1866, Congress approved legislation creating six all African American Army regiments: two cavalry (the 9th and 10th) and four infantry (the 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st). These units represented the first African American professional soldiers in a peace-time army. Some of the recruits for the new units were formerly slaves. Many others served in the Union Army during the Civil War.

Another reorganization of the Army a short time later led to the merger of the four infantry regiments into two units: the 24th and 25th.

The nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" was originally given to the 10th Cavalry by Cheyenne warriors out of respect for their fierce fighting in 1867. The Native American term used was actually "Wild Buffaloes", which was translated to "Buffalo Soldiers." In time, all African American Soldiers became known as "Buffalo Soldiers." Despite second-class treatment these soldiers made up first-rate regiments of the highest caliber and had the lowest desertion rate in the Army.

In the late 1800's and early 1900's, these units were consistently assigned to the harshest and most desolate posts. They were sent to subdue Mexican revolutionaries, outlaws, comancheros, rustlers, and hostile Native Americans; to explore and map the Southwest; to string telegraph lines; and to establish frontier outposts around which future towns and cities grew.

All four units fought in the Indian Wars of the American West and were, in part, responsible for the defeat of Geronimo, the notorious Apache leader Victorio, William "Billy the Kid" Bonner and Mexican bandit Francisco "Pancho" Villa. During the Spanish American War of 1898, it was the 9th and 10th Cavalry Corps which drew the fire that led to the decisive and successful charge up Kettle Hill, and San Juan Heights in Cuba.

The Buffalo Soldier legacy continued into the 20th Century. They served in the Philippines and China. Units also fought in WWI and WWII.

9th Cavalry Medal of Honor Winners

Sgt. Thomas Boyne, Indian Campaigns- for holding position on two occasions, May 19, 1879, in the Nimbres Mountains of New Mexico and September 27, 1879, at Cuchillo, New Mexico, in battles against Indians.

Second Lieutenant, George R. Burnett Place and date: At Cuchillo Negro Mountains, N. Mex., 16 August 1881. Entered service at: Spring Mills, Pa. Birth. Lower Providence Township Pa. Date of issue: 23 July 1897. Citation. Saved the life of a dismounted soldier, who was in imminent danger of being cut off, by alone galloping quickly to his assistance under heavy fire and escorting him to a place of safety, his horse being twice shot in this action.

Second Lieutenant Matthias W. Day Place and date: At Las Animas Canyon, N. Mex., 18 September 1879. Entered service at: Oberlin, Ohio. Birth: Mansfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 7 May 1890. Citation: Advanced alone into the enemy's lines and carried off a wounded soldier of his command under a hot fire and after he had been ordered to retreat.

Sgt. John Denny, Indian Campaigns- for carrying a wounded comrade to safety under fire at Las Animas Canyon, New Mexico, September 18, 1879

Second Lieutenant Robert Temple Emmet. Place and Date: At Las Animas Canyon, N. Mex, 18 Sep 1879. Inducted: New York, N.Y. Born: New York, N.Y. Date of issue 24 Aug 1899. Citation: Lt. Emmet was in G Troop which was sent to relieve a detachment of soldiers under attack by hostile Apaches During a flank attack on the Indian camp, made to divert the hostiles Lt. Emmet and 5 of his men became surrounded when the Indians returned to defend their camp. Finding that the Indians were making for a position from which they could direct their fire on the retreating troop, the Lt held his point with his party until the soldiers reached the safety of a canyon. Lt. Emmet then continued to hold his position while his party recovered their horses. The enemy force consisted of approximately 200.

Captain Francis S. Dodge, Troop D. Action: Near White River Agency, Colo., 29 September 1879. Entered service at: Danvers, Mass. Born: 11 September 1842, Danvers, Mass. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: With a force of 40 men rode all night to the relief of a command that had been defeated and was besieged by an overwhelming force of Indians, reached the field at daylight, joined in the action and fought for 3 days.

Cpl. Clinton Greaves, Indian Campaigns- for gallantry in hand-to-hand fighting with Indians at Florida Mountains, New Mexico, June 24, 1877

Sgt. Henry Johnson, Indian Campaigns- at Milk City, Colorado on October 2-5, 1879, "Sergeant Johnson voluntarily left the fortified shelter and under heavy fire at close range made the rounds of the pits to instruct the guards; fought his way to the creek and back to bring water to the wounded."

Sgt. George Jordan, Indian Campaigns-twice recognized for unusual heroism: May 14, 1880 lead 25 man force which repulsed over 100 Indians at Carrizo Canyon, New Mexico and on August 12, 1881 held position against superior numbers of enemy.

Sgt. Thomas Shaw, Indian Campaigns- for heroism in action at Carrizo Canyon, New Mexico, August 12, 1881

Sgt. Emanuel Stance, Indian Campaigns- for gallantry displayed as an Indian Scout, May 20, 1870, Kickapoo Springs, Texas. Stance was the first African American recipient of the Medal of Honor during the Indian War era.

Pvt. Agustus Walley, Indian Campaigns- for action in an engagement against Apaches, Cuchillo Negro Mountains, New Mexico August 16, 1881 (Recommendation for second MOH for service during Spanish-American War). Walley is buried near his hometown of Reisterstown. Maryland.

1st Sgt. Moses Williams, Co I, Action: At foothills of the Cuchillo Negro Mountains, N. Mex, 16 Aug 1881. Born: Carrollton, La. Issued: 12 Nov 1896. Citation: Rallied a detachment, skillfully conducted a running fight of 3 or 4 hours, and by his coolness, bravery, and unflinching devotion to duty in standing by his commanding officer in an exposed position under a heavy fire from a large party of Indians saved the lives of at least 3 of his comrades.

Cpl. William O. Wilson, Citation: for bravery during the Sioux campaign in 1890. Action: Sioux Campaign, 1890. Inducted: St. Paul, Minn. Born: Hagerstown, Md. Issued: 17 Sep 1891.

Sgt. Brent Wood, Co B, Action: New Mexico, 19 Aug 1881. Inducted: Louisville, Ky. Born: Pulaski County, Ky. Issued: 12 Jul 1894. Citation: Saved the lives of his comrades and citizens of the detachment.


10th Cavalry Medal of Honor Winners

Captain Louis H. Carpenter, Company H. Actions: At Indian campaigns in Kansas and Colorado, September October 1868. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Glassboro, N.J. Date of issue 8 April 1898. Citation: Was gallant and meritorious throughout the campaigns, especially in the combat of October 15 and in the forced March on September 23, 24 and 25 to the relief of Forsyth's Scouts, who were known to be in danger of annihilation by largely superior forces of Indians.

Sgt Mjr Edward L. Baker, (later promoted to Second Lt.) Spanish-American War- for leaving cover, and under fire, rescued a wounded comrade from drowning, July 1, 1898

Second Lieutenant Powhattan H. Clarke, Company K Place and date: At Pinito Mountains, Sonora, Mex., 3 May 1886. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Alexandria, La. Date of issue: 12 March 1891. Citation: Rushed forward to the rescue of a soldier who was severely wounded and lay, disabled, exposed to the enemy's fire, and carried him to a place of safety.

Pvt Dennis Bell, Spanish-American War- for voluntarily going ashore in Toyabacoa, Cuba, in the face of the enemy and rescuing wounded comrades, June 30, 1898

Pvt. Fitz Lee, Spanish-American War- for voluntarily going ashore in Toyabacoa, Cuba, in the face of the enemy and rescuing wounded comrades, June 30, 1898

Sgt. William McBryar, Indian Campaigns- for bravery in battle with Apache Indians in Arizona Territory, May 15, 1890

Sgt. William Tompkins, Spanish-American War- for voluntarily going ashore in Toyabacoa, Cuba, in the face of the enemy and rescuing wounded comrades, June 30, 1898

Pvt. George H. Wanton, Spanish-American War- for voluntarily going ashore in Toyabacoa, Cuba, in the face of the enemy and rescuing wounded comrades, June 30, 1898.


24th Infantry Medal of Honor Winners

Sgt. Benjamin Brown, Indian Campaigns- for defending the Regimental Payroll from robbers, wounded in the abdomen and both arms, near Ft. Thomas, Arizona May 11, 1889

Cpl. Isaiah Mays, Co B. Action: Arizona, 11 May 1889. Inducted: Columbus Barracks, Ohio. Born 16 Feb 1858, Carters Bridge, Va. Issued: 19 Feb 1890. Citation: Gallantry in the fight between Paymaster Wham's escort and robbers. Mays walked and crawled 2 miles to a ranch for help. Cpl. Mays is buried in the old section of the cemetery at the Veterans Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona.


41st Infantry Medal of Honor Winners
(The 41st and 38th Infantry were reorganized to form the 24th Infantry
in the fall of 1869.)

First Lieutenant George E. Albee, Action : At Brazos River, Tex., 28 October 1869. Entered service at: Owatonna, Minn. Birth: Lisbon, N.H. Date of issue: 18 January 1894. Citation: Attacked with 2 men a force of 11 Indians, drove them from the hills, and reconnoitered the country beyond.

Continued on Page Three

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Lunch Break

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These men pose during a lunch break while on patrol in Montana. The 10th Cavalry was stationed at Fort Custer, Montana (near present day Billings) from 1892 to 1896.

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10th. Cavalry Color Guard

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This is a 10th Cavalry Color Guard, probably photographed in 1917 or 1918. The uniforms are in transition but the blue and gold have been replaced by olive drab.
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38th. Infantry

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A rare photo of the 38th Infantry, shown here behind workmen in Kansas, acted as escort for railroad workers surveying and engineering major lines as they began to cross the country just after the Civil War. The 38th along with the 39th, 40th and 41st were combined in 1869 into two units, the 24th and 25th.
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Buffalo Coat

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A 10th Cavalry soldier in general issue buffalo-hide coat for winter duty. Photo was taken in the late 1870s.
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The 9th Cavalry F Troop

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The 9th Cavalry F troop around the turn of the Century. This picture was made in either Florida or Georgia and may be of maneuvers just before the Spanish American War fought in Cuba.

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The 9th Cavalry, "K" Company in Pine Ridge, South Dakota

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The 9th Cavalry, "K" Company in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. This photograph was taken during the winter of 1890-91. Note the heavier coats, many Buffalo hide, and hats. Two men pictured here are Medal of Honor Winners- George Jordan, seated, and Henry Johnson, standing in rear.
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A NEGRO REGIMENT INACTION

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Harper's Weekly Article
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