Kosciuszko was a military engineer who sought a commission in the Continental Army and served during the Revolutionary War. He is noted for the fortifications at Bemis Heights, credited with helping the victory at the Battle of Saratoga, and the fortifications at West Point. After that war, he returned to Poland to lead the 1794 revolt against Russia following the Second Partition. He raised armies among the peasants by granting land for service. These armies defeated a Russian army at Raclawice. He was defeated six months later and imprisoned for two years in Russia. His Manual on the Maneuvers of Horse Artillery, written in 1808, was used by the U.S. Army for many years.