Summary

Conflict Period:
Civil War (Union) 1
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Navy 1
Rank:
1st Class Pilot 1
Death:
28 Jul 1864 1
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Full Name:
Jeremiah Evans 1
Death:
28 Jul 1864 1
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Civil War (Union) 1

Branch:
Navy 1
Rank:
1st Class Pilot 1
Casualty Type:
Deaths Due To Enemy Action 1
Ship or Station:
Prison Pen Andersonville, Ga 1

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  1. Navy Casualty Reports, 1776-1941 [See image]
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1st Class Pilot Jeremiah Evans Navy

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Jeremiah Evans, 1st Class Pilot, US Navy, Civil War, Died in Andersonville Prison. He was from the USS Shawsheen,

USS Shawsheen (1855) was a steam operated tugboat acquired by the Union Navy during the American Civil War.

In addition to her tugboat duties, she was used by the Navy as a gunboat to patrol and blockade navigable waterways of the Confederacy to prevent the South from trading with other countries.

 

Andersonville National Historic Site

Andersonville National Historic Site From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Andersonville National Historic Site U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. Historic district U.S. National Historic Site Reconstruction of a section of the stockade wall Location: Macon / Sumter counties, Georgia, USA Nearest city: Andersonville, Georgia, Americus, Georgia Coordinates: 32°12′23″N 84°7′24″WCoordinates: 32°12′23″N 84°7′24″W Area: 514 acres (208 ha)[3] Built: April 1864 Visitation: 1,436,759 (2011)[4] Governing body: National Park Service NRHP Reference#: 70000070[1][2] Significant dates Added to NRHP: October 16, 1970 Designated NHS: October 16, 1970

The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the American Civil War. Most of the site lies in southwestern Macon County, adjacent to the east side of the town of Andersonville. As well as the former prison, the site also contains the Andersonville National Cemetery and the National Prisoner of War Museum.

Of the approximately 45,000 Union prisoners held at Camp Sumter during the war, nearly 13,000 died of starvation, malnutrition, diarrhea or communicable diseases.[5]

Contents Conditions A depiction of Andersonville Prison by John L. Ransom, author of Andersonville Diary, Escape and List of the Dead.
[show]Legend 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

The prison, which opened in February 1864,[6] originally covered about 16.5 acres (67,000 m2) of land enclosed by a 15-foot (4.6 m) high stockade. In June 1864 it was enlarged to 26.5 acres (107,000 m2). The stockade was in the shape of a rectangle 1,620 feet (490 m) by 779 feet (237 m). There were two entrances on the west side of the stockade, known as "north entrance" and "south entrance".[7]

A prisoner described his entry into the prison camp:

As we entered the place, a spectacle met our eyes that almost froze our blood with horror, and made our hearts fail within us. Before us were forms that had once been active and erect;—stalwart men, now nothing but mere walking skeletons, covered with filth and vermin. Many of our men, in the heat and intensity of their feeling, exclaimed with earnestness. "Can this be hell?" "God protect us!" and all thought that He alone could bring them out alive from so terrible a place. In the center of the whole was a swamp, occupying about three or four acres of the narrowed limits, and a part of this marshy place had been used by the prisoners as a sink, and excrement covered the ground, the scent arising from which was suffocating. The ground allotted to our ninety was near the edge of this plague-spot, and how we were to live through the warm summer weather in the midst of such fearful surroundings, was more than we cared to think of just then.[8]

Further descriptions of the camp can be found in the diary of Ransom Chadwick, a member of the 85th New York Infantry Regiment. Chadwick and his regimental mates were taken to the Andersonville Prison, arriving on April 30, 1864.[9]

Father Peter Whelan arrived on 16 June 1864 to muster the resources of the church and help provide relief to the prisoners.

At Andersonville, a light fence known as "the dead line" was erected approximately 19 feet (5.8 m) inside the stockade wall. It demarcated a no-man's land that kept prisoners away from the stockade wall, which was made of rough-hewn logs about 16 feet (4.9 m) high.[10] Anyone crossing or even touching this "dead line" was shot without warning by sentries in the pigeon roosts.

Andersonville prisoners and tents, southwest view showing the dead-line, August 17, 1864.

At this time in the war, Andersonville Prison was frequently undersupplied with food. This applied both to prisoners and the Confederate personnel within the fort. Even when sufficient quantities were available, the supplies were of poor quality and poorly prepared. During the summer of 1864 Union prisoners suffered greatly from hunger, exposure and disease. Within seven months, about a third of them died from what was diagnosed as dysentery and scurvy and were buried in mass graves, the standard practice by Confederate prison authorities at Andersonville. In 1864 the Confederate Surgeon General asked Joseph Jones, an expert on infectious disease, to investigate the high mortality rate at the camp. He concluded that it was due to "scorbutic dysentery" (bloody diarrhea caused by vitamin C deficiency), yet in hindsight it is likely that the cause of fatal emaciation and diarrhea was rampant hookworm disease, a condition not recognized or known during the Civil War.[11]

The water supply from Stockade Creek became polluted when too many Union prisoners were housed by the Confederate authorities within the prison walls. Part of the creek was used as a sink and the men were forced to wash themselves in the creek.

A Union soldier who survived

The guards, disease, starvation and exposure were not all that prisoners had to deal with. A group of prisoners, calling themselves the Andersonville Raiders, attacked their fellow inmates to steal food, jewelry, money and clothing. They were armed mostly with clubs and killed to get what they wanted. Another group rose up, organized by Peter "Big Pete" Aubrey, to stop the larceny, calling themselves "Regulators". They caught nearly all of the Raiders, who were then tried by the Regulators' judge, Peter McCullough, and jury, selected from a group of new prisoners. This jury, upon finding the Raiders guilty, set punishment that included running the gauntlet, being sent to the stocks, ball and chain and, in six cases, hanging.[12]

The conditions were so poor that in July 1864 Captain Wirz paroled five Union soldiers to deliver a petition signed by the majority of Andersonville's prisoners asking that the Union reinstate prisoner exchanges. The request in the petition was denied and the Union soldiers, who had sworn to do so, returned to report this to their comrades.[13]

In the latter part of the summer of 1864 the Confederacy offered to unconditionally release prisoners if the Union would send ships (Andersonville is inland, with access possible only via rail and road) to retrieve them. In the autumn of 1864, after the capture of Atlanta, all the prisoners who were well enough to be moved were sent to Millen, Georgia, and Florence, South Carolina. At Millen, better arrangements prevailed, and after General William Tecumseh Sherman began his march to the sea, the prisoners were returned to Andersonville, where conditions were somewhat improved.

During the war, 45,000 prisoners were received at Andersonville prison, and of these nearly 13,000 died.[5] The nature of the deaths and the reasons for them are a continuing source of controversy among historians. Some contend that they were a result of deliberate Confederate war crimes toward Union prisoners and others that they were the result of disease promoted by severe overcrowding, the shortage of food in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials, and the refusal of Union authorities to reinstate the prisoner exchange, thus overfilling the stockade.[14]

A young Union prisoner, Dorence Atwater, had been chosen to record the names and numbers of the dead at Andersonville for the use of the Confederacy and the federal government after the war ended. He believed the federal government would never see the list, and was right in this assumption, as it turned out. He sat next to Henry Wirz, who was in charge of the prison pen, and secretly kept his own list among other papers. When Atwater was released, he put the list in his bag and took it through the lines without being caught. It was published by the New York Tribune when Horace Greeley, the owner, learned that the federal government had refused and given Atwater much grief. It was Atwater's opinion that Andersonville was indeed trying to make soldiers unfit to fight.[15]

Andersonville's decrepit conditions were chronicled in the diary of P.O.W. Newell Burch. Burch of the 154th New York Volunteer Infantry, was captured on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg and imprisoned at Belle Isle and then Andersonville. He is credited with being the longest held Union prisoner of war during the Civil War, a total of 661 days in Confederate hands.[16] His diary is in the collection of the Dunn County Historical Society in Menomonie, Wisconsin, and a mimeographed copy is in the Wisconsin Historical Society archives.[17]

Aftermath

Andersonville Prison was liberated in May 1865.[18]

Some of the monuments at Andersonville

After the war Henry Wirz, commandant of the inner stockade at Camp Sumter, was tried by a military tribunal on charges of conspiracy and murder. The trial was presided over by Union General Lew Wallace and featured chief Judge Advocate General (JAG) prosecutor Norton Parker Chipman.

A number of former prisoners testified on conditions at Andersonville, many accusing Wirz of specific acts of cruelty, for some of which Wirz was not even present in the camp. The court also considered official correspondence from captured Confederate records. Perhaps the most damaging was a letter to the Confederate surgeon general by Dr. James Jones, who in 1864 was sent by Richmond to investigate conditions at Camp Sumter.[19] Jones had been appalled by what he found and his graphically detailed report to his superiors all but closed the case for the prosecution. Wirz presented evidence that he pleaded to Confederate authorities to try to get more food and tried to improve the conditions for the prisoners inside.

Wirz was found guilty and was sentenced to death, and on November 10, 1865, he was hanged. Wirz was the only Confederate official to be tried and convicted of war crimes resulting from the Civil War (but see reference to Champ Ferguson). The revelation of the prisoners' sufferings was one of the factors that shaped public opinion in the North regarding the South after the close of the Civil War.[citation needed]

In 1890 the Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Georgia, bought the site of Andersonville Prison through membership and subscriptions.[20] In 1910 the site was donated to the federal government by the Woman's Relief Corps[21] (auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic).[22]

National Prisoner of War Museum

The National Prisoner of War Museum opened in 1998 as a memorial to all American prisoners of war. Exhibits use art, photographs, displays and video presentations to focus on the capture, living conditions, hardships and experiences of American prisoners of war in all periods. The museum also serves as the park's visitor center.[23]

Andersonville National Cemetery Andersonville National Cemetery

The cemetery is the final resting place for the Union prisoners who died while being held at Camp Sumter/Andersonville as POWs. The prisoners' burial ground at Camp Sumter has been made a national cemetery. It contains 13,714 graves, of which 921 are marked "unknown".

As a National Cemetery, it is currently an honored burial place for more recent veterans and their dependents.

Historic Prison Site

Visitors can walk the 26.5 acres (10.7 ha) site of Camp Sumter, which has been outlined with double rows of white posts. Two sections of the stockade wall have been reconstructed, the north gate and the northeast corner.

Depictions in popular culture

 

USS Shawsheen (1855)

USS Shawsheen (1855) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search   Career (US) Ordered: as Young America Laid down: date unknown Launched: 1855 in New York City Acquired: 21 September 1861 at New York City Commissioned: 1861 (est.) Out of service: (sunk) 7 May 1864 Struck: 1864 (est.) Homeport: Newport News, Virginia Captured: by Confederate forces
7 May 1864 Fate: burned, 7 May 1864 General characteristics Displacement: 180 tons Length: 118 ft (36 m) Beam: 22 ft 6 in (6.86 m) Draught: 7 ft 3 in (2.21 m) Propulsion: steam engine
side-wheel propelled Speed: not known Complement: 40 Armament: two 20-pounder Parrott rifles

USS Shawsheen (1855) was a steam operated tugboat acquired by the Union Navy during the American Civil War.

In addition to her tugboat duties, she was used by the Navy as a gunboat to patrol and blockade navigable waterways of the Confederacy to prevent the South from trading with other countries.

Contents Built in New York City in 1855

Shawsheen -- a side wheel tug built at New York City in 1855 -- was purchased by the Union Navy at New York City as Young America on 21 September 1861. No record of her commissioning has been found, but Acting Lieutenant Edmund R. Colhoun was apparently the tug's first commanding officer.

Civil War service Assigned to the South Atlantic Blockade

Originally assigned to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Shawsheen arrived in Hampton Roads early in November badly damaged and unable to proceed further south under her own power. Nevertheless, the need for blockading vessels was so great off the coast of South Carolina that, on the 12th, she and USS Whitehall -- towed by USS Connecticut -- got underway to join Flag Officer DuPont. However, their conditions worsened soon after their departure, forcing them both to return to Newport News, Virginia.

Shawsheen duels with CSS Patrick Henry

Although it seemed desirable to send Shawsheen north for repairs, the tactical situation in the vicinity of Hampton Roads required her to remain there. On the 14th, she ascended the York River to investigate a report that Southern forces were gathering in preparation for an attack. After finding no evidence to support the report, she returned to Newport News and remained there to help guard USS Congress and USS Cumberland.

On 23 November shortly after midnight, Shawsheen and USS John L. Lockwood bombarded a Confederate camp above Newport News on the Yorktown Road. On the morning of 2 December, Confederate steamer, CSS Patrick Henry, attacked the Union warships. Shawsheen engaged the Southern ship for over an hour and claimed to have scored two hits. In any case, the Patrick Henry was damaged and retired toward Norfolk, Virginia.

Bombarding and capturing Roanoke Island

On 2 January 1862, Shawsheen was ordered to Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina, where a task force was assembling to attempt to capture Roanoke Island, the key to Albemarle Sound.

On 5 February, the ships sortied from Hatteras Inlet and began a bombardment of Roanoke Island on the morning of the 7th. By the end of the next day, the conquest of the island was complete providing the Union Navy with a base which proved invaluable throughout the remainder of the war.

North Carolina operations

On the 10th, Shawsheen was part of the Union naval force which engaged Southern batteries and a Confederate naval force near Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The Union ships destroyed the fort and batteries, captured CSS Ellis, sank CSS Seabird, and forced the burning of three other Southern ships to keep them from falling into Union hands.

Shawsheen remained in the North Carolina sounds for over a year and one-half, helping to keep those waters under Union control. On 18 May 1862, she and USS Hunchback captured schooner, G. H. Smoot, in Potecase Creek, North Carolina.

On 9 July, she joined USS Commodore Perry and USS Ceres in an expedition up the Roanoke River to Hamilton, North Carolina. Despite small arms fire from the banks, they proceeded upstream to land their troops at Hamilton where steamer, Wilson, was captured.

On 12 December, Shawsheen and three other Union ships began an expedition up the Nuese River to support a Union Army thrust up that stream to destroy railroad bridges and track near Goldsboro, North Carolina, but low water prevented their getting more than 15 miles up stream and they returned four days later.

Beating off a surprise attack on Fort Anderson

On the night of 13 and 14 March 1863, Shawsheen, with Hunchback, USS Hetzel, and Ceres, beat off a surprise attack on Fort Anderson on the Nuese River. On 26 May, Shawsheen joined Ceres and USS Henry Brinker in an expedition up the Nuese during which they captured a number of small schooners and boats. They then covered the landing of Union troops and remained on station until the Army was solidly entrenched.

On 22 June, during a reconnaissance in Bay River, Shawsheen captured schooner, Henry Clay, up Spring Creek. She then sent an armed boat up Dimbargon Creek to capture a small unnamed schooner carrying turpentine.

Perhaps her most productive day came on 20 July when she took five schooners -- Sally, Helen Jane, Elizabeth, Dolphin, and James Brice -- near Cedar Island, in the Nuese River. Nine days later, she captured schooner, Telegraph, in Rose Bay, North Carolina.

Overhauled at Hampton Roads

But wear and tear was beginning to catch up with the tug. On 3 September, she was ordered to Hampton Roads; and she subsequently was given a thorough overhaul at the Norfolk Navy Yard and at Baltimore, Maryland. When she was ready for service again, the tug was based at Newport News from which she operated on the James and York rivers and their tributaries supporting ground operations.

On 1 May 1864, she and USS General Putnam operated in the Pamunkey River protecting Union troops who had earlier in the day occupied West Point, Virginia. She later returned to Hampton Roads.

On the 6th, with Rear Admiral S. P. Lee embarked, she ascended the James River. Near James Neck, he shifted his flag to USS Malvern. The next day, 7 May 1864, the tug was ordered to drag the river above Chaffin's Bluff.

Shawsheen is captured and burned

Shortly before noon, while the ship was anchored close to the shore near Turkey Bend, Confederate infantry and artillery surprised and thoroughly disabled the ship. Her commanding officer reluctantly hauled down her colors. Her crew was taken ashore in boats, and Shawsheen was set afire and exploded.

 

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