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The German occupation of Poland was exceptionally brutal. The Nazis considered Poles to be racially inferior. Following the military defeat of Poland by Germany in September 1939, the Germans launched a campaign of terror. German police units shot thousands of Polish civilians and required all Polish males to perform forced labor. The Nazis sought to destroy Polish culture by eliminating the Polish political, religious, and intellectual leadership. This was done in part because of German contempt for Polish culture and in part to prevent resistance against the occupation.
In May 1940, the German occupation authorities launched AB-Aktion, a plan to eliminate the Polish intelligentsia and leadership class. The aim was to kill Polish leaders with great speed, thus instilling fear in the general population and discouraging resistance. The Germans shot thousands of teachers, priests, and other intellectuals in mass killings in and around Warsaw, especially in the city's Pawiak prison. The Nazis sent thousands more to the newly built Auschwitz concentration camp, to Stutthof, and to other concentration camps in Germany where non-Jewish Poles constituted the majority of inmates until March 1942.
The Nazis conducted indiscriminate retaliatory measures against populations in areas where resistance was encountered. These policies included mass expulsions. In November 1942, the Germans expelled over 100,000 people from the Zamosc region; many were deported to the Auschwitz and Majdanek camps. Approximately 50,000 Polish children were taken from their families, transferred to the Reich, and subjected to "Germanization" policies.
Following the annexation of western Poland to Germany, Hitler ordered the "Germanization" of Polish territory. Nazi governors (such as Arthur Greiser in the Warthegau and Albert Forster in Danzig-West Prussia) expelled hundreds of thousands of Poles from their homes in the Generalgouvernement. More than 500,000 ethnic Germans were then settled in these areas.
A Polish government-in-exile, led by Wladyslaw Sikorski, was established in London. It was represented on Polish soil by the underground "Delegatura," whose primary function was to coordinate the activities of the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa). The Polish resistance staged a violent mass uprising against the Germans in Warsaw in August 1944. The rebellion lasted two months but was eventually crushed by the Germans. More than 200,000 Poles were killed in the uprising.
Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were deported to German territory for forced labor. Hundreds of thousands were also imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps.
It is estimated that the Germans killed at least 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II. In addition, the Germans murdered at least 3 million Jewish citizens of Poland.
During the Holocaust
1. ABRAMEK, W³adys³aw, 20, living in Wola Przybys³awska, near Garbów, Lublin prov.
killed by Germans on Dec. 10, 1942, while staying at his cousin, Józef Aftyka, who sheltered Jews. (see 3-6)
2. ADAMCZYK, Stanis³aw, living in £±cko, Nowy S±cz prov.
in Spring of 1943; he was beaten to death by W³adys³aw Gleb, the German town mayor of Mszana Dolna, for sheltering a Jew.
3. AFTYKA, Józef, 54, living in Wola Przybys³awska, near Garbów, Lublin prov.
4. AFTYKA, Aniela, 52, Józef's wife
5. AFTYKA, Marianna, 14, daughter
6. AFTYKA, Zofia, 17, daughter
murdered by Germans on Dec. 10, 1942 together with a group of Jews sheltered by them and with W³adys³aw Abramek. On the same day Czes³aw and Leonard Gawron from the same village were also killed together with Aniela and Stanis³aw Kamiñski, 5 members of the Nalewjka family and 5 others of the Ochmiñski family - a total of 19 people (see: 1, 137-138, 209- 210, 390-391, 411)
7. AMBRO¯Y, Marianna, 75, living in Podborek, Radom prov.
died on July 11, 1943, together with the Kowalczyk family, shot on the charge of helping Jews (see: 264-266)
8. ANICET (i.e. priest Wojciech KAPLIÑSKI) 66, chaplain of the monastery in Miodowa Str. in Warsaw
arrested on Oct. 16, 1941 for aiding Jews; died the same year at Auschwitz
9. ARASZKIEWICZ, Aleksandra, living in Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
A sizable group of Jews from Ceg³ów took refuge in the village of Cisie,10. ARCHUTOWSKI, Roman, priest, rector of the Archidiocesan Seminary in Warsaw
(incl. Esther, Yoyne Mendel and the baby Jab³onka Goldstein) as well as Jews who escaped from the "death trains" to Treblinka via aCeg³ów. On June 28, 1943 raids were carried out on the village by the military police
from Miñsk Mazowiecki, during which 25 Poles, incl. railwaymen, were snatched from their homes, together with numerous Jews they sheltered and
murdered: Marcin D¹browski, Franciszek Fiutkowski, Aleksander G¹sior,
Henryk Gergera, Rozalia Jaworska with her 2 years old daughter, Tadeusz
Lipiñski, Zygmunt Ma³us, Stanis³aw Pe¿yk, Tomasz and Sylweriusz P³atek,
Edward R¿ysko, W³adys³aw Saski, Eugeniusz Skwieciñski, Marian and Piotr Smater, Jan Szczêsny, Józefa Szyperska, Aleksandra W¹sowska, Jan and ,
Mieczys³aw W¹sowski, W³adys³aw Wójcicki, Jan Zagañczyk and Ludwik Zaj¹c. Wies³aw Walczewski was arrested the same day, but shot in January 1944. The VILLAGE WAS BURNT DOWN. (see: 92, 124, 141-142, 186- 187, 332, 361. 456, 470-471, 536, 539, 560, 564-565, 597, 604, 630, 635-637, 677, 693, 696)
sent to Majdanek for aiding Jews; died after torture in Oct. 1943
11. ARCISZEWSKI, Albin, 45, living at Orlicz, near Garbów, Lublin prov.executed in September 1943 for helping Jews from the camp at Antopol; he tried to save Dr. Czerniak, his wife and 2 daughters, Isaac Elfenstein, Lena Mazurska and Itka Wo³yniec12. AUGUSTYN, Józef. living in Szerzyny, Tarnów prov.
13. AUGUSTYN, Józefa, his wifethey sheltered 3 Jews form Szerzyny, the family of Elias and Hersh Haskel, shot together with them on Feb. 4, 1944 by German military police14. AUGUSTYNIAK, Franciszek, 30, worker, living at Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.shot by an SS unit on Feb. 24, 1943, together with a group of 14 people, victims of a provocation: several weeks earlier they rendered help to a Nazi agent, who pretended to be a Jewish fugitive. Died also Zygmunt Dryga, Franciszek Kirylski, Józef, Ewa and Stanis³aw Kotowski, Stanis³aw Piwko, Jan Oliwiñski, Aleksandra Wiktorzak (see: 111, 216, 259-261, 469, 609, 648) Stanis³aw Kusiak and Stanis³aw Mazurek died in the Treblinka camp (see 314, 374) Died also Czes³aw Borowy, Jan Brzozowski and Stanis³aw Henduszko (see: 43, 57, 166)
15. BACZEWSKA, Honorata, 30, teacher living in Lublinunderground liason officer and AK (Home Army) press carrier, murdered for sheltering Jews early in 1945 by Ukrainian nationalists.16. BANASZEK, Marianna, 50, living in Pustelnik, near Marki, Warsaw prov.
17. BANASZEK Stanis³awa, daughter
18. BANASZEK, W³adys³aw, sonmurdered in October 1943 for hiding a Jewish family of 3. This Jewish family, informed of the threat of a raid on the house, luckily escaped.19. BARAN, Adam, 29, living in Hucisko, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
20. BARAN Szczepan, 36On June 10, 1943 the German military police from Rzeszów surrounded the village of Hucisko and murdered 21 inhabitants of it and of the neighbouring village of Przewrotne, for sheltering Jews. Died also: Franciszek Beskur, Jadwiga Chezalik, Franciszek Dr¹g, Anna Dworak and 7 members of her family:Anna, Jan, Katarzyna, Maria, Micha³, Stefania and Zofia; Adam, Józef and Marcin Gut, Marcin Kolano, Jakub and Józef Rumak, Józef S³uja and Adam Susich. The Germans burnt down 17 homes and numerous service buildings (see: 31, 61, 110, 113-120, 161-163, 222, 521-522, 563, 589)21. BARAN, Rozalia, living in Modrych, near Hrubieszów, Zamooæ prov.
Similar measures were carried out twice in the village of Przewrotne (see: 49-51, 70-71)In December 1942 beaten up and then murderd for giving her own "Kennkarte" to a Jewess, who using it went to work in Germany, was recognized and captured22. BARANEK, Wincenty, 46, farmer, from Siedliska, near Miechów, Kielce prov.
23 . BARANEK, £ucja, 35, his wife
24. BARANEK, Henryk, 12, son
25. BARANEK, Tadeusz, 10, son
26. BARANEK, Katarzyna, mother of Wincentymurdered by military police on March 15, 1941 together with Katarzyna Kopeæ, mother of £ucja and the Jews they were sheltering: Piñczowski, Skowron, Sybirski and Weitzman (see: 228)
27. BARGLIK, Maria, 51, farmer, living in Tokarnia, Cracow prov.
killed on March 6, 1944, following sentence passed by a special court (Sondergericht) at Szaflary for sheltering the 6 members family of Samuel Steinberg
28. BARGLIK, Stefan, living in Tokarnia, Cracow prov.
shot on the strength of the special court verdict of the SS and police commander (Standgericht) in Cracow for "fostering Jews and sheltering them"; the execution of the verdict was pronounced on Feb. 21, 1944
29. BARSZCZ, Marianna, 16, living in Moszeñki, near Jastków, Lublin prov.
employed by farmers Marian and Zofia Wysmulski, who concealed in an underground shelter 4 Jews, while providing also others with food and medicines. On Sept. 25, 1943, Germans shot also Zofia Wysmulska and the Jews they protected (see: 689)
30. BERSKI, Jerzy, living in Warsaw
killed in combat against Germans in April 1943, during the offensive near the Warsaw ghetto walls, organized by the GL (People's Guard)
31. BESKUR, Franciszek, 35, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów, Rzeszów prov.
shot on June 10, 1943 in the village of Hucisko, in a mass execution for sheltering Jews (see: 19-20)
32. BIELNIAK, Franciszek, 32, shoemaker, from G³êbokie, near Biecz, Krosno pr.
shot by Gestapo on Jan. 14 1943 for rendering help to Jews
33. BIEÑKOWSKI, Gerwazy, from Kietlin, near Radomsko, Piotrków prov.
executed in November 1943 with W³adys³aw and Franciszka Librowski for his part in sheltering 2 Jews: Chêciñski and Bugajski (see: 329-330)
34. BOBELOWA, (Christian name unknown) from £uck (now in Soviet Ukraine)
35. BOBELOWA's mother
murdered by Germans in Fall 1943 for hiding a Jewish owner of a local brewery, Sznajder Bobel, who having been warned, managed to escape
36. BOBROWSKI, Jan, 50, farmer, from Lipiny, near Pilzno, Tarnów prov.
killed in March 1943 for sheltering Jews; his farmstead was burnt down
37. BOGDANOWICZ, Anna, living in Jas³o, Krosno prov.
arrested at the end of November 1942 for sheltering Sarah Diller, who survived. Tortured, she perished soon after in Auschwitz. Posthumously awarded by Yad Vashem the medal as "Righteous Among Nations"
38. BOGUCKA, (Christian name unknown) from Pastewnik, near Borszczów (locality incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
widow of the local butcher, Karol Bogucki; arested in June 1943, killed in Czortków for sheltering 11 Jews. She left behind her 3 orphan children.
39. BOREK, Stanis³aw, farmer, living in Sadkowice near Lipsko, Radom prov.
40. BOREK, Helena, his wife
41. BOREK, Czes³aw, son
42. BOREK, Piotr
shot on Jan. 8, 1943 for help to Jews. Together with them perished their daughter, Honorata, with her husband Ryszard Wójtowicz (see: 684-685)
43. BOROWY, Czes³aw, worker, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov
shot on Feb. 24, 1943 as one of the 14 persons victims of a provocation some weeks earlier they gave help to a Nazi agent, pretending to be a Jew (see 14)
44. BORYCKI, Stanis³aw, 44, farmer, from Boisko, near Lipsko, Radom prov.
45. BORYCKA, Zofia, 38, his wife
46. BORYCKI, Zbigniew, son
shot on Jan 2, 1943, for helping Jews. Their homstead was burnt down.47. BRAJA, W³adys³aw, living at Równe, near Dukla, Krosno prov.
With them were killed 3 persons of the Krawczyk family (see: 279-281)
executed in August or September 1943 for harbouring 3 Jewish people
48. BRONIS£AWSKI, Edward, living in Warsaw
shot on Apr. 21, 1943, when as a liason officer of the GL (People's Guard) he tried to supply guns to the Jewish ghetto. His wife Wiktoria and his son Zbigniew were arrested. Their fate is unknown
49. BRUDZ, Antoni, 24, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów. Rzeszów prov.
50. BUDZ, Wojciech, 34
51. BRUDZ, Walenty, 57
On Mar. 13, 1943 German police, under Gestapo supervision, killed around 30 people in the village of Przewrotne for sheltering Jews. Along them were killed: Andrzej, Franciszek and Wojciech Dr¹g; Micha³ Gawe³; Adam Organiociak and 6 members of his family: Andrzej, Aniela, Franciszek, Józef (born in 1906) Józef (born in 1912) and Wojciech; £ukasz and Wojciech Pomyka³a, Antoni Rusin, Jan Walc, Franciszek Wanoska, Franciszek and Józef Wilk. (see: 108-110, 136, 427-433, 476-477, 525, 629, 633, 650-652. Other names are unknown. A second execution at Przewrotne took place on May 9, 1943 (see: 70-71) as well as in the nearby village of Hucisko on June 10, 1943. (see: 19-20)
52. BRÜHL, Hanna, living at Milanówek, Warsaw prov.
shot on May 17, 1943, by military police from Grodzisk Mazowiecki in the "Anielin" villa of Milanówek, together with 4 Jews she concealed
53. BRUST, Jan, living at Raków, near Czêstochowa
shot in the first half of 1944 at the Hasag-Eisenhütte A. G. camp, for distributing food and money and passing correspondence to Jewish inmates, as part of the campaign carried by the Relief Council for Jews
54. BRYNKUS, Cyryl, 44, from Spytkowice, near Auschwitz, Cracow prov.
arrested on Nov. 15, 1943 for help to Jewish population; jailed in Zakopane, transfered to P³aszów camp and then to Montelupich prison in Cracow. Shot there on May 28, 1944
55. BRYO, Johan, railwayman, living in Sosnowiec, Katowice prov.
he helped fugitives form the Sosnowiec ghetto, and transported some of them to Hungary. Arrested in 1944 by Gestapo, sent to Auschwitz, died there. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among Nations"
56. BRZOZOWSKA, Zofia, living at Koby³ka, Warsaw prov.
shot on Sep. 1, 1943 by Gestapo, together with 2 Jewish men, sheltered on her estate; one of them was Goldberg, owner of the tannery in Wo³omin.
57. BRZOZOWSKI, Jan, 16, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
shot on Feb. 24, 1943, as one of the 14 persons, victims of a Nazi agent provocateur (see 14)
58. BUSZKO, Henryk, 30, farmer, living at Liza Stara, near Bia³ystok
murdered on Sep. 21, 1943, by gendarmes from Pietkowo, for helping Jews, hiding after their escape from the train to Treblinka
59. BUZOWICZ, Wincenty, living in Radom
60. BUZOWICZ, Anna, his wife
on Apr. 3, 1943, sentenced to death by a special court in Radom for helping the Jewish women Sala Rubinowicz and Else Schwarzman. Also sentenced to death for that case were: Wiktoria Paduch, Jan Pinkus, Zenon Poloñski and Maria Ró¿añska. (see: 442, 466, 475, 517)
61. CHEZALIK, Jadwiga, 41, farmer, from Hucisko, near G³ogów, Rzeszów prov.
killed on June 10, 1943 in a mass execution for sheltering Jews in which 21 villagers died (see: 19-20)
62. CHÊÆ, Franciszek, 17, living at Tomaszewice, near Jastków, Lublin prov.
foster-child of Leonard Pietrak, killed together with him and his family for harbouring 2 Jewish men, on Feb. 28, 1944 (see: 461-463)
63. CHOLEWIÑSKI, Marcin, 30, living at Grzyma³ków, near Kielce
shot on Oct. 19, 1942, for supplying food to the Radoszyce ghetto
64. CHOREW, W³odzimierz, from Bereza Kartuska (now in the Soviet Ukraine)
65. CHOREW, his mother (name unknown)
66. CHOREW, his father (name unknown)
executed in fall 1943 together with the Jewish woman, Leycha Kap³an, they harboured
67. CHOWANIAK, Karol, farmer, from Zawoja, near Maków Podhalañski, Bielsko prov.
68. CHOWANIAK, Tekla, his wife
Karol was arrested in May 1943, together with the 4 sheltered Jews, family Kuczko among them, who were shot on the spot. Karol underwent several weeks of investigation in the Gestapo prison "Palace" at Zakopane, and was sent to Auschwitz. Tekla was arrested with her foster-child, Karolina Marek, and was sent directly to Auschwitz. All three died there (see 368)
69. CHRACA, Karol, 46, living at Wróblówka, Nowy S¹cz prov.
executed by the Gestapo on May 20, 1942, at Czarny Dunajec, together with Józef Lehrer and his daughter, for supplying food to them and other Jewish people in hiding
70. CHUBRO, Marcin, 37, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów, Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
71. CHUBRO, Micha³, 53
On May 9, 1943, following Gestapo orders, the military police from Rzeszów, surrounded the village of Przewrotne and murdered 16 Poles for harbouring Jews. Others who died also were: Andrzej Gola, Antoni Granat, Ludwik Gut, Józef Kuo. Pawe³ Laska, Jan Marsza³, Józef Tyburski (see: 148. 152. 164, 317, 323. 371, 618) The names of other 7 victims have not bee established. Similar executions took place in Przewrotne on Mar. 13, 194372. CHYBOWSKI, Franciszek, 60, from Rzêdowice, near Ksi¹¿ Wielki, Kielce pr.
(see: 49-51) as in the nearby Hucisko on June 10, 1943 (see: 19-20)
73. CHYBOWSKA, Julia, 54, his wife
shot on Mar. 5, 1943, for sheltering Jews74. CIESIELSKI, Józef, 19, farmer, from Boisko near Lipsko, Radom prov.
shot on Nov. 7, 1943, one of three, rendering help to Jews (see 283, 582)
75. CIEOLAK, Wojciech, living at £êka Szczuciñska, Tarnów prov.
shot on Mar 21, 1943, for sheltering in his house a Jewess from Pacanów
76. CIO£KOSZ, Feliks, 58, from Markuszowa, near Wioniowa, Rzeszów prov.
77. CIO£KOSZ, (Christian name unknown), 50, his wife
78. CIO£KOSZ, Jan, 26, their son
shot in June 1943 by military police from Wioniowa, for helping Jews who took refuge in nearby woods (see 426)
79. CYPARSKA, Stefania Janina, 25, from Wydrna, Krosno prov.
80. CYPARSKI, Alfred Fryderyk, 6, son
81. CYPARSKA, Stanis³awa, 3, daughter
82. CYPARSKI, Tadeusz, 6 months, son
murdered in March 1944 for help to Jews, rendered by Stefania
83. CYPARSKI, Wojciech, 30 living at Krzemienna, Krosno prov.
shot in early March 1944 by Gestapo for helping Jews and Soviet POW
84. CZAPLA, Stanis³aw, 30. farmer, living in Owiesielice, Radom prov.
murdered on Dec. 7, 1942, by gendarmes from Ciepielów, for help to Jews. Toghether with him died: Bronis³aw Dobroñ, Stanis³aw Nowotnik, Marianna Skwira, Wojciech Skrzak and members of Wdowiak and of Wojewódka families (see: 102, 403, 557, 561, 638-640, 660-665)
85. CZERSKA, Janina Wanda, 56, living in Warsaw
sheltered 7 Jews in her house in Milanówek: Jadwiga Miñska, whose husband had been killed in Katyñ, and 6 others, known only by their assumed names: the couple Cholewiñski and their 2 sons and the couple Kordoñski. In fall of 1943 five of them were arrested and their fate is unknown. Janina Wanda arrested with them, was transferred from the Pawiak prison to Auschwitz, where she died on Feb. 20, 1944
86. CZERWONKA, Franciszek, 56, farmer, from Paw³osiów, near Jaros³aw. Rzeszów prov.
87. CZERWONKA, Julia, 55, his wife
88. CZERWONKA, Stanis³aw, 18, son
shot on July 1943, by Gestapo for sheltering Jews.
89. D¥BOWSKI, Krzysztof, 44, farmer, from D³ugo³êka, near Knyszyn, Bia³ystok
murdered on May 5, 1945, in connection with the sheltering of 7 Jews from Knyszyn since September 1942. They were: Ber S³odki with his wife Fruma, their daughter Szosza and son-in-law Abram Krawiec, rabbi; Gerson Krawiec, his wife Lenta and their son, Szmuel. All of them left Poland after the war. D¹bowski was killed by bandits who demanded large sums of money from him, which, they thought, he must have earned for sheltering Jews. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among Nations"
90. D¥BROWSKA, Maria, headmistress of the school in W³odzimierz Wo³yñski
(town incorporated after the war into the Ukraine)91. DABROWSKI, Boles³aw, farmer, from Samoklêski, Near Kamionka, Lublin pr
Though known before the war for her antisemitic views, she began sheltering Jews in her home, following the German occupation in 1941.
18 people were found in her villa in April 1944, including a paralysed old woman, an invalid without a leg and a blind girl. Tortured by Gestapo, she did not reveal the identity of those who had been helping her, and she was
shot with the people she had been sheltering.
having sheltered more than 12 Jews in his home and on his farm, he was shot together with the Jews during a raid organized by the German military police on the village, on Jan. 31, 1943
92. D¥BROWSKI, Marcin, from Cisie, near Ceg³ów. Siedlce prov.
killed by the military police, together with 24 other Poles from the village ofCisie, for sheltering Jews (see 9)
93. DEC, Bronis³aw, from Hadle Szklarskie, near Kañczuga, Przemyol prov.
94. DEC, Stanis³aw, brother
95. DEC, Tadeusz, brother
96. DEC, W³adys³aw, brother, living at Panta³owice, near Kañczuga
The Dec brothers, together with other inhabitants of Panta³owice and97. DENEKO, Jadwiga (born SA£EK) 32, living in Warsaw
Hadle Szklarskie, helped and provided food to Jews who were hiding in the surrounding woods. One of the latter, Malka Szinfeld, who was captured by the Nazis, unable to withstand the investigation to which they subjected her, gave away the names of the Poles who were helping them. On Dec. 4, l942 were detained and executed beside the Dec brothers: Zofia Kubicka, Zofia and Jakub Kuszek, Emilia and Wincenty Lewandowski (see: 293, 315-316, 327-328)
took care of many fugitives from the Warsaw ghetto, thus cooperating with Ludomir Marczak. Arrested on Nov. 25, 1943, togehter with the sheltered Jewish family, shot on Jan. 6, 1944 in the ghetto ruins. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations (see: 367)
98. DÊBEK, Wiktoria, 40, living at Czernie, near Garwolin, Siedlce prov.
murdered by Gestapo on June 29, 1942, together with 11 Jews of unknown identity, sheltered on her property
99. DÊBSKA, Emilia, living in Ko³omyja (incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
100. DÊBSKA's housekeeper (identity unknown)
sheltered 11 people of Jewish origin, including the family of the dentist Gottfryd and the 3 members of the family Karpel. These last managed to escape, but all others were shot
101. D£UGOOPOLSKI, W³adys³aw, 35, from Spytkowice, near Oowiêcim, Cracow
arrested on Jan. 14, 1943 for help rendered to Jews, jailed at Zakopane, later transferred to the P³aszów camp and then to the Montelupich prison in Cracow, shot there on May 28, 1944
102. DOBROÑ, Bronis³aw, 28, farmer, living at Owiesielice, Radom prov.
murdered on Dec. 7, 1942, in a group of 14 Poles by gendarmes from Ciepielów, for help rendered to Jews (see: 84)
103. DOMAGA£A, Piotr, living at Dobra, near Pilica, Katowice prov.
shot by the military police in autumn 1942, together with the sheltered Jews, incl. the mother Kajla born Janic. His wife managed to escape
104. DOMAÑSKI, Piotr, 76, farmer, from Rz¹¿ew, near Zbuczyn, Siedlce prov.
105. DOMAÑSKI, Franciszek, 37, farmer, son
106. DOMAÑSKI, Antoni, 32, farmer, son
shot by military police on Apr. 8, 1943 for sheltering Jews and partisans
107. DOMERADZKI, Jan, from Trêbaczew, near Sadkowice, Skierniewice prov.
shot on Dec. 11, 1943 with his neighbours, the Szczepaniak family, for help to a Jewish family; the father of this family was also shot, but the fate of the remaining family members is unknown (see: 594-596)
108. DR¥G, Andrzej, 48, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr.
109. DR¥G, Wojciech, 42
shot on Mar. 13 in the village of Przewrotne in a group execution for Jews sheltering (see: 49-51)
110. DR¥G, Franciszek, 31, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski
shot on June 10, 1943 in the village of Hucisko (see: 19-20)
111. DRYGA, Zygmunt, 54, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
shot at Paulinów by an SS unit on Feb. 24, 1943, together with a group of people, victimsof a Nazi agent provocateur (see: 14)
112. DUDKIEWICZ, Aleksander, living at Gniazdowo, near £ochów. Siedlce prov.
killed in autumn at Gniazdowo with a Jewish fugitive, Frydman
113. DWORAK, Katarzyna, 60, from Hucisko, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów
114. DWORAK, Maria, 56
115. DWORAK, Micha³, 57
116. DWORAK, Anna, 30
117. DWORAK, Jan, 29
118. DWORAK, Anna, 21
119. DWORAK, Stefania, 16 killed on June 10, 1943 at Hucisko, in a group execution, for sheltering Jews (see: 19-20)
120. DWORAK, Zofia, 52, living at Przewrotne, near G³ogów Maopolski
121. DZIAK, Antoni, living at Bêdzienica, near Iwierzyszów prov. rrested and later executed on Oct. 27, 1943 for sheering 5 Jewish males:
3 young brothers Bendys, Faust, 30, and Meler, 40. Dziak's wife, Zofia, escaped.
122. FEDEROWICZ, Jakub, living at Kawêczyn, Skierniewice prov.
shot in the spring of 1944, for sheltering Abraham Rosenberg and his son, as well as other Jewish people. Also shot was Stanis³aw Trojanowski, his associate and the Jews, of which only one succeeded in getting away (see 616)23. FILIPEK, Katarzyna, 47, farmer, from Tokarnia, Nea Nowy Targ, Crow
nurdered in January 1944 by Germans following a denunciation; since June 1943 she sheltered 6 Jews: Samuel Szternlicht, his 2 daughters, son-in-law and 2 grandchildren, who died with her. She was posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
124. FIUTKOWSKI, Franciszek, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Silce prov.
arrested and executed in a group execution on June 28, 1943, for help to Jewish people (see: 9)
125. FO£TA, Szymon, living at Jankowice, near Ch³opice, Przemyol prov.
shot by the military police, together with 5 Jews he was sheltering: Jeremiah Nadel, Necha Nadel with her 7 years old daughter, Mila, and 2 seamstresses: Regina Amada, 28 and Dora Ring, 35
126. FORELLE. Maria, 61, living at Celestynów, near Otwock, Warsaw prov. shot on Mar. 31, 1944, with the Jewess whom she sheltered since the beginning of German occupation127.
FURMANEK, Stanis³aw, living at Daleszyce, Kielce Prov.
executed in Kielce prison in summer of 1942, for transporting Jews by horse -and cart, in the company of Micha³ Malarecki, to the town of Chmielnik, where Jewish people might hide more safely (see: 356)
128. GACOÑ, Stanis³aw, living at Bukowa, near Jas³o, Tarnów prov.
129. GACOÑ, Apolonia, his wife
shot on May 28, 1943, together with a 13 months Jewish girl shelterd by her
130. GAJDA, Grzegorz, farmer, from Grzegorzówka, near £añcut, Rzeszów prov.
shot on Dec. 27, 1943, by SS officers from £añcut, for helping Jews hiding in the nearby forst; toghther with them died Stefan Piechura (see 458)
131. GALEC, Maria, 50, living at Przeszkoda, near Ostrowiec Owiêtokrzyski, Kielce prov.
executed on Apr. 6, 1944, by the military police from Ostrowiec, for sheltering 2 Jewish males with first names Marian and Grzegorz, who also perished. The husband of Maria, Stanis³aw, not present at the time, was soon after arrested and sent to Auschwitz, from where he returned home seriously ill and died in 1946
132. GA£AT, Jan, 30, farmer, living at Nasutów, near Niemce, Lublin prov.
Together with his wife, Marianna (from 1st marriage MAJCHRZAK) they sheltered 2 Jews Rozgold in their barn. On Nov. 20, 1942, the Jews were discovered by the military police and shot, while Jan was talem to Lubartów and hanged; his wife, being then in Lublin, survived.
133. GA£GAN, Agnieszka, living at Soko³ów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
executed in summer 1943 for sheltering Jewish women. Bart³omiej Gielarowski, Karolina Marciniec and the Jews they were sheltering were killed also (see:144, 365)
134. GARLICKA, Zofia, MD, 68, living in Warsaw
arrested on Aug. 11, 1942, for receiving in her home Dr. Natalia Zandowa, who escaped from the ghetto; Dr. Zandowa was shot the next day in the ghetto and Dr. Garlicka perished at Auschwitz, in November of that year.
135. GARNCAREK, Franciszek, priest, living in Warsaw
As priest of the St. Augustyn parish, bordering on the ghetto, he rendered help to its inhabitants, among other things, by communicating with the Polish underground AK (Home Army). On Dec. 20, 1943 he was murdered by Germans on the threshold of his presbitery
136. GAWE£, Micha³, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
killed in a mass execution on Mar 13, 1943 for sheltering Jews (see: 49-51)137. GAWRON, Czes³aw, 20, living at Wola Przybys³awska, Near Garbów, Lublin prov.
138. GAWRON, Leonard, 21, his brother
murdered on Dec. 10, 1942, together with the Aftyka family for helping Jews (see: 3-6)
139. GAWRYCH, Jan, 50, forester from Czarna, near Miñsk Mazowiecki, Siedlce
shot on Jan. 30, 1943, together with a group of Jews whom he helped, beside partisans and 2 fugitive Soviet POW. With them died also Stanis³aw Skuza and Dawid Rutkowski, cooperating with Gawrych (see: 526, 558)
140. GAWRYO, Piotr, 20, living at Po³omia, near Tarnów, Rzeszów prov.
murderd on Sep. 9, 1943, together with 8 other Poles, sheltering Jews
141. G¥SIOR, Aleksander, farmer, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
142. GERGERA, Henryk, farmer
both were shot on June 28, 1943, in a group of 25 people for help organized by the village to the Jews (see: 9)
143. GERULA, Micha³, farmer, living at £ozinka Dolna, Cracow prov.
shot on Feb. 23, 1944, sentenced to death by a special court order of the SS and police commander in Cracow for sheltering Jews
144. GIELAROWSKI, Bart³omiej, from Trzebuska, near Soko³ów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
shot in summer 1943 together with Karolina Marciniec, for sheltering 5 Jews from Soko³ów Ma³opolski (see: 133)
145. G£ONIAK, Walenty, 50, living at Bia³a, near Têczyn, Rzeszów prov.
146. G£ONIAK, Józef, son
shot on Oct. 15, 1943, together with 3 Jews from Têczyn, sheltered by them
147. GNIDU£A, Józef, 70, farmer, from Majdan Nowy, near Ksiê¿pol, Zamooæ pr.
shot on Dec. 29, 1942, with his cousin, Anna Margol, for sheltering a Jewish women Baruch (first name unknown). The last being captured and beaten by the military police, and being promised her life, gave away the names of people who sheltered and helped her. As a result perished also: Katarzyna and Józef Kowal, Anastazja and Maria £ubiarz and Kazimierz Szabata. Boruch was killed also. (see: 262-263, 344-345, 370, 592)
148. GOLA, Andrzej, 41, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr.
shot on May 9, 1943, with 15 other inhabitants for hiding Jews (see 70-71)
149. GOLEÑ, Eleonora, living at Jas³o, Krosno prov.
shot tegether with another Pole in 1943 by German police and SS for sheltering a 12 years old Jewish boy, who died with them
150. GRABOWSKA, Irena, living at Piastów, Warsaw prov.
she was sheltering from April 1942 a small group of Jews, while helping many others. Together with her mother she gave refuge to the family Mortkowicz, publishers and booksellers from Warsaw. Arrested on Feb. 7, 1944 she was shot after a brutal questioning, on Ap. 26 of that year.
151. GRABOWSKI, Marian, living in Kowel (town incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
shot in November 1943 with the Jewish woman he was sheltering
152. GRANAT, Antoni, 38, living at Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
killed on May 9, 1943, with 15 villagers for sheltering Jews (see: 70-71)
153. GRUCHA£A, Anna, living at D¹browa Tarnowska, Tarnów prov.
154. GRUCHA£A, Julia, her daughter-in-law
Anna was killed with 7 Jews: Szyfer, sheltered by them , by gendarmes in summer of 1944 in her own home; Julia was sent to Bergen-Belsen camp where she died
155. GRZESIK, Ferdynand, living in Warsaw
arrested on July 3, 1942, for working as an advisor in diversive and sabotage tactics in the ghetto, on orders from the Polish socialist underground. He was hanged on Leszno St. in Warsaw on Oct. 15, 1942
156. GRZESZCZYK, (Chiristian name unknown), from Zaj¹czkó, near Ciepielów, Radom prov.
killed with a number of other villagers from Zaj¹czków and Tymienica by military police, for help to Jewish refugees (see: 320-322)
157. GRZYB, Jan, 80, farmer, living at Wiewiórka, near Dêbica, Tarnów prov
158. GRZYB, Jadwiga 80, his wife
murdered by Gestapo from Dêbica, for sheltering Jews
159. GRZYWNOWICZ, Franciszek, 22, from Przec³aw, near Miechów, Kielce pr.
160. GRZYWNOWICZ, Józef, 23, brother
killed on Aug. 27, 1943, for sheltering a Jewish family of 5
161, GUT, Adam, 30, living at Hucisko, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
162. GUT, Józef, 21
163. GUT, Marcin, 46
killed on Jun.10, 1943, for helping Jews sheltered in the village (see: 19-20)
164. GUT, Ludwik, 38, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
killed on May 9, 1943, in a mass execution for sheltering Jews (see: 70-71)
165. HANAS, Miko³aj, living at Zagórze, near Sanok, Krosno prov.
shot in March 1943 by Bahnschutzpolizei with the Jews he sheltered: Lew Bank and Eliasz Margolis
166. HENDOSZKO, Stanis³aw, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce pr.
shot on Feb. 24, 1943, while digging trenches, as one of the 14 people, victims of a Nazi agent provocateur (see: 14)
167. HOLTZER, Józef, 69, landowwner, at Celestynów, near Rachanie, Lublin pr.
168. HOLTZER, Marianna, 61, his wife
killed by military policemen from Rachanie on Nov. 2, 1942, for trying to protect 12 Jews, by employing them legally on their lands, killed with them169. INGLOT, Zofia, living at Wola Komborska, near Krosno
shot in Oct. 1943 by the SS for sheltering 2 Jews; died also Janina Kwolek, Józef and Katarzyna Prejzner and both sheltered Jews (see: 319, 481-482)
170. IRZEK, Julia, living in Lwów (city incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
sentenced to death by a special court (Sondergericht) for helping Jews, announced by public notice by the commander of the SS and the Galician district police on Dec. 14, 1943
171. IWAÑSKI, Roman, living in Warsaw
as soldier of the AK he fought together with members of the Jewish Military Union (¯ZW) during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising and was shot on Apr. 27, 1943, on Plac Muranowski
172. IWAÑSKI,Zbigniew, living in Warsaw
as member of the AK he fought against the German troops on Karmelicka Str . Perished on May 3, 1943, while conducting 15 Jews from the burning Ghetto
173. IZDEBSKI, Mieczys³aw, 28, farmer from Zienki, near W³odawa, Lublin prov.
murdered in spring of 1943, together with the Kupersztok family of 5: Nata, her husband and 3 children, aged 10-18. Neighbours saved the 3 years old daughter of Izdebski
174. JAB£KOWSKA, Helena, from the Polish Socialist Party, living in Warsaw
she sheltered many Jews, incl. the Bardach family, for which she was arrested on Jan. 6, 1944 and shot soon after
175. JAJEONICA, Józef, living at Ka³usz, former Stanis³awów (town incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
176. JAJEONICA, Maria, his wife
177. JAJEONICA, Jan, 10, son
Maria, owner of a brick-yard, allowed 4 Jews who escaped from a transport, to take shelter in a building on her property. Pursuing Germans forced all 7 of them into the building and burnt them alive
178. JAKUBOWSKA, Walentyna, farmer, from Pop³awy, near Brañsk, Bia³ystok prov.
murdered on Apr. 12, 1943 by gendarmes from Brañsk; with her died the two Jewish children: Lejb, 11 and Fajwel, 13, Doliñski, protected by her
179. JANICZEK, Jan, 46, living in Warsaw
employee of the (PKO) Polish Savings Bank, he gave shelter in his home to the Jew Grossman. Both arrested and perished in Gross-Rosen camp, Janiczek on Dec. 4, 1944
180. JANTOÑ, Jan, 31 from Wola Brzostecka, near Brzostek, Tarnów prov.
he supplied food to the Fish family of 6, which was hiding in the woods: mother, Henia 60, daughters Baily, 23, and her baby-girl, Rosa, 26, Ester, 28, and son Moses, 30. All were killed on Dec. 8, 1942 and buried in a common grave in the wood. Jantoñ was awarded posthumously with the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
181. JANUS, Helena, 40, wife of Bronis³aw, living at Dzwonowice, near Pilica, Katowice prov.
182. JANUS, Maria, daughter
183. JANUS, Krzysztof, 3, son
Helena and her husband Bronis³aw sheltered two Jewish families: Berliñski and Rusinek, 6 people. On Jan. 12, 1945 military police and Gestapo discovered the Jews and killed everyone present, incl. Bronis³aw's sister, Zofia Madej, her husband and her daughter. Only Bronis³aw, absent at that time, escaped with life (see 351-353)
184. JAROSZYÑSKI, Bronis³aw, living at Stryj (locality incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
sentenced to death "for conspiring with Jews" by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police (Standgericht) Public announcement dated: Jan. 28, 1944
185. JASIÑSKI, Antoni, living in Warsaw
shot together with the Jewish couple (he an enginner, she a dentist) to whom he gave refuge in his flat; the tragedy resulted from the dentist's insufficient caution in selecting patients she treated.
186. JAWORSKA, Rozalia, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
187. JAWORSKA, (Christian name unknown) 2, daughter
shot on June 28, 1943 at Ceg³ów in a group of 25 people for sheltering Jews (see: 9)
188. JELONEK, Józef, living at Zaj¹czków, near Ciepielów, Radom prov.
shot in January 1943 with the family of Gabriel Wo³owiec for helping Jews (see: 668-673)
189. JEWTUSIK, Opanas, living in Lwów (city incorporated after the war into the Sovit Ukraine)
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police (Standgericht) for helping Jews. Public announcement dated: Jan. 28, 1944.
190. JÊDRZEJCZYK, Józef, 27, farmer, living at Matysówka, near Rzeszów
for help rendered to Jews shot on Oct. 15, 1943 by Gestapo from Tyczyn
191. JÊDRZEJEWSKI, Józef, 27, living at Matysówka, near Rzeszów
shot on Oct. 15, 1943 at Tyczyn in a group of Poles, some of whom brought from surrounding localities, and given the death sentence for helping Jews (see: 211, 443)
192. JOÆ, Jan, 61, farmer, living at Mêtów, near Lublin
193. JOÆ, Jadwiga, 57, his wife
murdered in November 1943 for supplying food to Jews hiding in forest
194. JÓZEFEK, Bronis³aw, living in Lwów (city now in the Soviet Ukraine)
195. JÓZEFEK, Kazimierz
196. JÓZEFEK, Maria
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police for sheltering Jews . Their names were published in official announcements issued on Dec. 14, 1943 and Jan. 28, 1944
197. JUSZCZYK, Franciszek, 55, living at Bia³obrzegi, Radom prov.
198. JUSZCZYK, Wiktoria, 45, his wife
199. JUSZCZYK, Stefan, 23, son
200. JUSZCZYK, Weronika, 20, daughter
201. JUSZCZYK, Boles³aw, 17, son
202. JUSZCZYK, Helena, 15, daughter
arrested in September 1942 at Bia³obrzegi, together with 5 Jews sheltered by them; all have been shot at Zwoleñ in the same month
203. JUZBA, Tomasz, living at Radgoszcz, Tarnów prov.
204. JUZBA, Bronis³awa, his wife
shot on Nov. 28, 1942 by the military police, Bronis³awa being in her eighth month of pregnancy, for sheltering 2 Jews on their farm. Others executed at the same time included Anna Kmieæ with her son and randchildren: Bronis³awa and Janina So³tys (see: 219-220, 574-575) as well as other unidentified persons
205. KACZMAREK, Zygmunt, living at Dobroszyce, near Radomsko, pr.
shot on Dec. 20, 1943 on his property, with Jan Malczewski, for helping Jews, incl. Abraham Ze³kowicz and his 10 years old son (see: 358)
206. KACZMARSKI, Stefan, living at Ksi¹¿niczki near Micha³owice, Cracow pr.
killed on June 3, 1943 for helping 3 Jews during a German round-up, because he allowed them to hide on his farm and in the barn of neighbour, Stanis³aw Sojka. One of the 3 Jewish fugitives succeeded to escape (see: 567)
207. KALINA, Jan, 82, farmer, living at Rytwiany, near Staszów, Tarnobrzeg pr.
shot in November 1943 for helping Jews in hiding
208. KA£U¯A, Maria, 28, living at Jaworze Dolne, near Pilzno, Tarnów prov.
shot on Feb. 4, 1943 by Gestapo, for sheltering Jews, incl. Mendel Ekstein. Her grandparents, Jan and Wiktoria Psioda, Józef Maduzia, Józef Ryba, as well as the 6 sheltered Jews were also killed (see: 354, 493-494, 530)
209. KAMIÑSKI, Stanis³aw, 21, living at Wola Przybys³awska, near Garbów Lublin prov.
210. KAMIÑSKA, Aniela, his wife
killed on Dec. 10, 1942 with 17 other villagers (incl. the Aftyka family) for helping Jewish people (see: 3-6)
211. KAMIÑSKA Stefania, 30, living at Kielnarowa, near Tyczyn, Rzeszów prov.
shot at Tyczyn on Oct. 15, 1943, with 4 Poles, for helping Jews (see: 191)
212. KANIA, Ludwik, 33, living at Stobierna, near Dêbica, Tarnów prov.
shot in June 1943 on his farm for help to Jews
213. KAPUSTKA, Andrzej, 43, living in Tarnów
murdered by Gestapo for helping a Jew in transporting furniture
214. KÊPA, Antoni, farmer, living at Wolica, near Dêbica, Tarnów prov.
murdered on Sep. 11, 1943 for help given to Jews
215. KIE£BASA, Stefan, 18, liiving in Nowy S¹cz
shot with a friend (name unknown) in 1942 in Nowy S¹cz by Gestapo for supplying Jewish friends with falsified "Arian"documents
216. KIRYLSKI, Franciszek, 56, night watchman, living at Paulinów, near Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
shot by an SS unit on Feb. 24, 1943, together with a group of 14 people, victims of a provocation several weeks earlier (see: 14)
217. KLI¦, Micha³, Polish police officer, living in Cracow
arrested on Sep. 11, 1943 and shot for preparing false documents for Jews
218. KLUBA, Stanis³aw, living at Kamyk, near £apanów, Tarnów prov.
sheltered 3 Jews, incl.Moses Landner and Irena Rajs; on Dec. 4, 1943, the military police discovered the hide-out; the Jewish fugitives were shot immediately, but Kluba on Jan. 20, 1944 only. Poshumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
219. KMIEÆ, Anna Zofia, 51, living at Radgoszcz-Porêba, Tarnów prov.
220. KMIEÆ, Bronis³aw, 19, her son
shot on Nov. 28, 1942 for sheltering Jews, incl. the son of a baker from Radgoszcz. Anna Zofia’s baby grandchildren, Bronis³awa and Janina So³tys died also, as well as Tomasz and Bronis³awa Juzba (see: 203-204, 574-575)
221. KOGUT, Anna, living at D¹browa Tarnowska, Tarnów prov.
shot by German gendarmes in September 1944, together with the Jewish Metzger family of 3 sheltered by her
222. KOLANO, Marcin, 36, from Hucisko, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr.
killed ina mass execution on June 10, 1943, for sheltering Jews (see: 19-20)
223. KOLBUSZEWSKI, Kazimierz, 58, professor of the Lwów University (city incoroporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
arrested in 1942 for giving medical help to a Jewish woman, his housekeeper; he was murdered at Majdanek camp on Feb. 20, 1943
224. KOMARNICKA, Leokadia, professor’s wife, living in Warsaw
lead Jews out of the ghetto and sheltered them in her home or found them places of refuge, sharing with them all she had. When travelling to £owicz to collect a debt owed to one of them, she has been betrayed as a "Jewish guardian" by the debtor and was shot by Gestapo
225. KONIECZNA, Natalia, living at Giebu³tów, near Ksi¹¿ Wielki, Kielce prov.
226. KONIECZNA, (Christian name unknown) her daughter
shot in May 1944, together with 7 unidentified Jews; her husband escaped
227. KOPACZ, Stanis³aw, farmer, living at Szynwald, Tarnów prov.
sheltered from 1942 to 1944 several Jews. Discovered, he was shot with them during the pacification of Szynwald in August, 1944
228. KOPEÆ, Katarzyna, 58, living at Siedliska, near Miechów, Kielce prov.
mother of £ucja Baranek, murderd with her whole family on Mar. 15, 1943 for sheltering 4 Jews who were killed also (see: 22-26)
229. KORDULA, Henryka, 13, living at Rekówka, near Ciepielów, Radom provexecuted on Dec. 6, 1942 by the military police, with 33 inhabitants from Rekówka and Ciepielów, for sheltering Jews; among others the entire Kosior family whom she visited at that time (see: 243-256)230. KOSIARCZYK, Wiktoria, farmer, from Skrzynice, near Jab³onna, Lublin pr.
231. KOSIARCZYK, Andrzej, 28, farmer, her son
232. KOSIARCZYK, Katarzyna, 27, cousinshot on Oct. 9, 1943, at Bystrzejowice, in the house of Wiktoria’s daughter Zofia and her husband, Roman Kucharski, who were sheltering 5 Jews. All 10 persons were killed (see: 299-300)233. KOSIBA, Wojciech, 71, living at Hankówka, near Jas³o, Krosno prov.shot by gendarmes in June 1944, for help rendered to Ryfka and Salka Saul, also killed234. KOSIELSKI, Franciszek, farmer, from Rzyczyn, near Garwolin, Siedlce prov.
235. KOSIELSKA, Katarzyna, his wife
236. KOSIELSKA, Bronis³awa, daughter
237. KOSIELSKA, Genowefa, daughter
238. KOSIELSKA, Leokadia, daughter,
239. KOSIELSKA, Zofia, daughter
240. KOSIELSKI, Czes³aw, son
241. KOSIELSKI, Lucjan, son
242. KOSIELSKI, Stanis³aw, sonthe family sheltered Jews on their farm. The sons were members of People’s Guard (GL) On Mar. 7, 1944 gendarmes during their search discovered the Jews and murdered them with the entire family243. KOSIOR, W³adys³aw, 42, living at Ciepielów, Radom prov.
244. KOSIOR, Karolina 40, his wife
245. KOSIOR, Aleksander, 18, their son
246. KOSIOR, Tadeusz, 16, son
247. KOSIOR, W³adys³awa, 14, daughter
248. KOSIOR, Mieczys³aw, 12, son
249. KOSIOR, Irena, 10, daughter
250. KOSIOR, Adam, 6, son
251. KOSIOR Stanis³aw, 40, living at Rekówka, near Ciepielów
252. KOSIOR, Maria 27, Stanis³aw’s wife
253. KOSIOR, Jan, 8, their son
254. KOSIOR, Mieczys³aw, 5, son
255. KOSIOR, Marian, 4, son
256. KOSIOR, Teresa, 3, daughteron Dec. 6, 1942 the military police burnt alive 33 people from the neighbouring villages of Ciepielów and Rekówka. They have been denounced by members of the Volksdeutsch community of sheltering Jews.257. KO¦CIÑSKA, Marianna, 68, from Rekówka, near Ciepielów, Radom prov.
Tadeusz Kosior tried to escape from the burning barn, but was pursued and thrown back into the flames. Other 3 families: Obuchiewicz, Kowalski,and Skoczylas, as well as other Poles and the sheltered Jews all perished in the massacre (see: 229, 257, 267-273, 405-410, 553-554)mother-in-law of Piotr Skoczylas, killed on Dec. 6, 1942, in the mass execution (see: 243-256, 553-554)258. KOTWIS, Wojciech, 70, living at Uszew, near Gnojnik, Tarnów prov.shot by military police in May 1944, together with the Jews he sheltered, Federgrün, Goldberg and 3 children259. KOTOWSKI, Józef, 56, farmer, living at Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
260. KOTOWSKA, Ewa, 54, his wife
261. KOTOWSKI, Stanis³aw, 25, farmer, sonshot by an SS unit on Feb. 24, 1943, together with a group of 14 people, victims of a provocation, weeks earlier for help rendered to Jews (see: 14)262. KOWAL, Katarzyna, farmer, from Majdan Nowy, near Ksiê¿pol, Zamo¶æ pr.
263. KOWAL, Józef, her sonkilled on Dec. 29, 1942, on their property for helping Jews. A young Jewish woman who was caught and tortured by the Germans, had given their names when promised that her own life will be spared (see 147)264. KOWALCZYK, Jan, 43, farmer, living at Podborek, Radom prov.
265. KOWALCZYK, Stefania, 26, his wife
266. KOWALCZYK, Jan, 2, sonshot on July 11, 1943, by gendarmes on the charge of helping Jews. Together with them died Marianna Ambro¿y and Katarzyna Szepietowska with her son, who were visiting them (see: 7, 598-599)267. KOWALSKI, Adam, 47, farmer, living at Ciepielów, Radom Prov.
268. KOWALSKI, Bronis³awa, 40, his wife
269. KOWALSKA, Janina, 16, daughter
270. KOWALSKA, Zofia, 12, daughter
271. KOWALSKI, Stefan, 6, son
272. KOWALSKI, Henryk, 4, son
273. KOWALSKI, Tadeusz, 1, sonon Dec. 6, 1942, in the midst of a massacre of 33 people, carried out by military police at Ciepielów, the family were shut in the Obuchiewicz family’s house and set on fire, as a reprisal for help to Jews. (see: 243-256, 	405-410)274. KOZAK, Gierasim, farmer, from Starzyna, near Hajnówka, Bia³ystok prov.in late November 1943, was taken by gendarmes, with 4 Jews sheltered by him, into the forest and shot275. KOZAK, Sebastian, 73, farmer living at Brzoza Królewska, near Le¿ajsk, Rzeszów prov
276. KOZAK, Katarzyna, 66, his wifewere shot on Mar. 23, 1943, by gendarmes from Le¿ajsk for sheltering several Jews. All were killed together with Tomasz Wach (see: 628)277. KRASUSKA, Zofia, living at Tworki, near Wi¶niewo, Siedlce prov.
278. KRASUSKI, Stanis³aw, 5, her sonshot by gendarmes on Feb. 13, 1943, with 7 Jews sheltered by Zofia279. KRAWCZYK, Józef, 35, farmer, living at Boisko, near Lipsko, Radom prov.
280. KRAWCZYK, Zofia, 33, his wife
281. KRAWCZYK, Adam, 9, their sonshot on their farm on Jan. 2, 1943 for help to Jews. Their farm was burnt down. At the same time died to Borycki family (see: 44-46)282. KRUSZKOWSKA, Maria, living in Lwów (city now in the Soviet Ukraine)sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police for sheltering Jews; public notice of Dec. 14, 1943283. KRYCZKA, Leon, 41, farmer, living at Boisko, near Lipsko, Radom prov.shot on Nov. 7, 1943 with 2 other persons for help to Jews. See: 74-582)284. KRYCZKA, Wiktoria, 40, shot a day later (Nov. 8, 1943)
285. KRYSIEWICZ, Stanis³aw, farmer, from Waniewo, near Narew, Bia³ystok pr.
286. KRYSIEWICZ, W³adys³awa, 37, his wifeshot by military police from Tykocin, in September 1943, for sheltering Jews: Leyser Ró¿anowicz and his wife, Benjamin Ró¿anowicz and his wife, Shloma Jaskó³ka and his wife, Olsha from Soko³y and a young Warsaw woman, all of whom perished also. 5 young Krysiewicz children were taken into the homes of neighbours287. KRZYSZTANIAK, W³adys³aw, living at Faliszówka, Krosno prov.
killed on Nov. 21, 1943, with 2 Jewish women and a child, 5 years old Siedlce prov.288. KSI¥¯EK, Boles³aw, farmer, from Olesin, near Dêbe Wielkie, Siedlce prov.shot on May 12, 1943 by military police together with the Jewish fugitive, named Idel, sheltered in his house289. KSI¥¯EK, Franciszek, 50, living at Wierzbica, near Koz³ów, Kielce prov.
290. KSI¥¯EK, Julia, 40, his wife
291. KSI¥¯EK, Jan, 21, son
292. KSI¥¯EK, Zygmunt, 18, sonshot on Jan. 29, 1943, with 2 other families for hiding the 3 Jews Wandelsmans, killed with them. The fugitives’son-in-law, Naftul, capturedand beaten, informed about their hide-out. (see: 294-298, 401-402, 439)293. KUBICKA, Zofia, living at Pantalowice, near Kañczuga, Przemy¶l prov.shot on Dec. 4, 1942, with her parents and other villagers, for helping a group of about 12 local Jews, hidden in nearby woods (see: 93-96)294. KUCHARSKA, Anna, living at Wierzbica, near Koz³ów, Kielce prov.
295. KUCHARSKI, Mieczys³aw, 15, son
296. KUCHARSKI, Boles³aw, 9, son
297. KUCHARSKI, Józef, 7, twin son
298. KUCHARSKI, Stefan, 7, twin sonshot on Jan. 29, 1943, by military police, with the Ksi¹¿ek and Nowak families and 2 Jewish fugitives from the Wandelsman family. Survived the massacre: Kucharski Izydor, father, and Bronis³aw, 13, son, who regained consciousness, but lost completely his sight, while Izydor lost an eye Anna’s mother, Julianna Ostrowska, was shot with the Kucharskis. The Wandelsmans’ son-in-law, tortured, gave out their shelter (see: 289-292, 439)
299. KUCHARSKI, Roman, 31, living at Bystrzejowice, near Piaski, Lublin prov.
300. KUCHARSKA, Zofia, 23, his wife
killed by military police on Oct. 9, 1943, in their own house, for sheltering Jews, killed while trying to escape. Andrzej, Katarzyna and Wiktoria Kosiarczyk were also executed. The 5 years old son of Andrzej and Wiktoria, as result of injuries remained an invalid for the rest of his life. The house and all the farm buildings were burnt together with the livestock. (see: 230-232)
301. KUCHARSKI Stanis³aw, 53, from Dêbska Wola, near Starachowice, Kielce prov
sentenced to death by a special court in Radom, on May 7, 1943, on the grounds that "a certain Jewish woman, who escaped from the ghetto, was sheltered in his house". The sentence was carried out on Sep. 25, 1943.
302. KUFTA, Anna, living in Lwów (city now incorporated into the Ukraine)
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police for sheltering Jews; public notice of Jan 28, 1944
303. KUPIS, Piotr, living at Chotel Czerwony, near Wi¶lica, Kielce prov.
304. KUPIS, Bronis³awa, his wife
shot in spring 1943 on their property by military policemen from Nowy Korczyn, for sheltering 3 Jews. The 3 Kupis 3 children survived
305. KUR, Zofia, 43, living at Gamratka, near Miñsk Mazowiecki, Siedlce prov.
306. KUR, Aleksander, 17, her son
shot on July 27, 1943 by military police from Miñsk Mazowiecki together with the the 3 Jews sheltered by them
307. KURIATA, Józef, 59, farmer, living at Warówka, near Kostopol (after the war in the Soviet Ukraine)
308. KURIATA, Franciszka, 56, his wife
sheltered Shiya Fleisch, a Jewish boy found in the woods. On April 13, 1943 the German police carried out a housesearch. The boy was not found, but the police barricaded the Kuriatas in their house and set fire to it, and to all farm buildings. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
309. KURPIEL, Stanis³aw, living at Leoncin, near Krasiczyn, Przemy¶l prov.
310, KURPIEL, Franciszka, his wife
killed with a group of Jews from Przemy¶l, living in an underground shelter near their house: the families Rubinfeld, Golinger and Spiegel. One of the 	sheltered managed to escape311. KUSIAK, (Christian name unknown), wife of Wojciech, living at Lipowiec, near Zwierzyniec, Zamo¶æ prov.
312. KUSIAK, (Christain name unknown), 21, son of Wojciech
313. KUSIAK, (Christian name unknown) 6, son of Wojciech
shot by military police with Katarzyna Rybak and some Jewish fugitives. The hideout was given away by one of the last, tortured by the Germans. Wojciech and a 3rd son, not present at the time, escaped (see: 531)314. KUSIAK, Stanis³aw, living at Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
killed after Feb. 24, 1943 in Treblinka camp, as one of 14 Poles victims of a provocation, weeks earlier (see: 14)315. KUSZEK, Jakub, living at Pantalowice, near Kañczuga, Przemy¶l prov.
316. KUSZEK, Zofia, his wife
shot on Dec. 4, 1942 for helping and supplying food to Jews hiding in the woods; their daughter, Zofia Kubicka and other villagers also died
317. KU¦, Józef, 40, living at Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
killed on May 9 1943 in a group of 16 Poles for sheltering Jews (see: 70-71)318. KWIATOSZ, Boles³aw, 30, farmer, from Skrzynice near Jab³onna, Lublin pr.
killed on Sep. 3, 1943 with a 15 years old boy, Chaim, sheltered by him
319. KWOLEK, JANINA, 17, living at Wola Komborska, near Krosno
shot by SS officers in Oct. 1943, together with 3 other Poles for sheltering 2 Jews, also killed (see: 169)
320. LASEK, Jan, living at Tymienica, near Chotcza, Radom prov.
321. LASEK, Eugenia, 12, his granddaughter
322. LASEK, Zdzis³aw, 14, his grandson
shot at the turn of 1942, together with Józef Rutkowski from Tymienica and Grzeszczyk and Lelunek from Zaj¹czków, for help offered to Jews (see: 156, 326, 529)
323. LASKA, Pawe³, 48, living at Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
shot on May 9, 1943, in a group of 16 Poles for sheltering Jews (see: 70-71)
324. LATERNER, Rena, over 70, living in Warsaw
during the Ghetto Uprising she and Janina P³awczyñska helped Jewish insurgents and passed letters from them to the Polish underground. Following the fall of the ghetto, the 2 women hid 10 insurgents in a shelter they built themselves. Discovered all 12 people were executed (see: 472)
325. LAZAR, Józef, living at Osobnica, near Krosno
shot on Jan. 20, 1943 for sheltering 2 Jews who were also killed and a Jewsih woman, who managed to escape. Lazar’s wife, Maria was sent to Auschwitz
326. LELUNEK, (Christian name unknown) living at Zaj¹czków, near Ciepielów, Radom prov.
shot with 5 people, at the turn of 1942 for help to Jews (see: 320-322)
327. LEWANDOWSKI, Wincenty, from Pantalowice, near Kañczuga, Przemy¶l pr.
328. LEWANDOWSKA, Emilia, his wife
shot on Dec. 4, 1942 at Pantalowice for help to Jews hiding in the woods and for sheltering them temporarily in their home. A number of villagers were killed with them (see: 93-96)
329. LIBROWSKA, Franciszka, over 60, from Kietlin, near Radomsko, Piotrków prov.
330. LIBROWSKI, W³adys³aw, 35, her son
shot by military police in November 1943 together with 8 Jews hiding in their barn: families Chêciñski and Bugajski. Killed also was Gerwazy Bañkowski, sheltering 2 of them (see: 33)
331. LIGAS, Franciszek, living at Bystra, Nowy S¹cz prov.
Adolf Synaj in search of shelter with Ligas, was shot by Germans in July 1943. Ligas got away, but soon was caught and died in Montelupich prison in Cracow
332. LIPIÑSKI, Tadeusz, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
shot on June 28, 1943 in a group of 25 Poles for sheltering Jews (see: 9)
333. LUBKIEWICZ, Leon, 59, baker at Sadowne, Siedlce prov.
334. LUBKIEWICZ, Maria, 44, his wife
335. LUBKIEWICZ, Stefan, 25, son
shot by military police on Jan. 13, 1943 for supplying bread to Jewish women: El¿a and Czapkiewicz from Sadowne, who were killed later
336. £ODEJ, Wojciech, living at Lubieñ, near Rozprza, Piotrków prov.
337. £ODEJ, Marianna, his wife
killed at Lubieñ on Dec. 14, 1942 by military police from I³¿a, for saving Jews, incl. Chil Brawermann
338. £ODEJ, W³adys³aw, 38, farmer, son of Wojciech and Marianna
coorganized a camp for the Kutera forest-range for about 40 Jews from I³¿a, whom he supplyed with food; he was killed on Dec. 31, 1942
339. £ODEJ, Wiktoria, W³adys³aw’s wife
343. £ODEJ, Edward, 14, son
341. £ODEJ. Janina, 12, daughter
342. £ODEJ, W³adys³aw, 8,. son
343. £ODEJ, Stanis³aw, 6, son
The entire family was arrested at Lubieñ on Dec. 21, 1942 and killed in the forest near I³¿a
344. £UBIARZ, Anastazja, 43, farmer, living at Majdan Nowy, Near Kiê¿pol, Zamo¶æ prov.
345. £UBIARZ, Maria, 76, Anastazja’s mother-in-law
killed on Dec. 29, 1942 by military policemen from Bi³goraj, for sheltering Jews; they were betrayed by a young woman under their care, tortured by Germans and promised her life. The husband and son of Anastazja hid themselves. All the farm buildings were burnt down (see: 147)
346. £UCZYK, Gabriel, farmer, living at £opuszka Wielka, near Przeworsk, Przemy¶l prov.
shot in autumn of 1943 together with 7 Jews, hiding in the nearby forest since 1942, whom he helped
347. £UKACZ, Eugeniusz, chemist, living at Lutowiska, Krosno prov.
348. £UKACZ, Janina, his wife
arrested in the middle of 1943 for helping 3 Jewish families: Luterman, Rand and Fish. Eugeniusz died in Dachau camp, Janina in Tarnów prison
349. MACHUL, Jan, farmer, living at Cezaryn, near Pu³awy, Lublin prov.
shot on July 3, 1943, together with 2 Jews he was sheltering
350. MACHULSKI, Jan, living at Schabojewo, near Zawidz, P³ock prov.
killed by military police on May 8, 1942 at Schabojewo for sheltering 3 Jewish women: Choma Dyga³a, Alka Alterowicz and Ida Alterowicz
351. MADEJ, Mieczys³aw, living at Dzwonkowice, near Pilica, Katowice prov.
352. MADEJ, Zofia, his wife
353. MADEJ, Krystyna, 2, daughter
killed by Germans on Jan. 12, 1943 in the house of Zofia’s brother, Bronis³aw Janus, with his family and 6 sheltered Jews (see: 181-183)
354. MADUZIA, Józef, living at Jaworzne Dolne, near Pilzno, Tarnów prov.
shot by Gestapo and soldiers of Wehrmacht in a group of 4 farmers and 6 sheltered Jews (see: 208)
355. MAJKUT, Antoni, farmer, living at Grodzisko Górne, Cracow prov.
sentenced to death for sheltering Jews; verdict passed by the special court of the SS and police commander in Cracow, pronounced on Feb. 23, 1944
356. MALARECKI, Micha³, living at Daleszyce, Kielce prov.
arrested in summer 1943 for transporting Jews, together with Stanis³aw Furmanek, from Daleszyce to Chmielnik; he died following torture in prison (see: 127)
357. MALEWSKA, Wiktoria, from Lwów (city incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
sentenced to death for helping Jews; public notice of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police of Dec. 14, 1943
358. MALCZEWSKI, Jan, living at Dobroszyce, near Radomsko, Piotrków prov.
shot at Dobroszyce on Dec. 20, 1943, with Zygmunt Kaczmarek and the Jews they sheltered: Abraham Ze³kowicz and his 10 years old son (see: 205)
359. MALICKA, Maria, civil servant at the Census Office, living in Warsaw
360. MALICKI, (Christian name unknown) her husband, also civil servant there
perished at Treblinka, sent there at the end of 1942 or beginning of 1943, for supplying, with the help of a parish priest, false documents to Jews, incl.
Maria Reichenbach and her sister. The parish priest has also been killed
361. MA£US, Zygmunt, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
shot on June 28, 1943 in a group of 25 Poles for help to Jews (see: 9)
362. MAÑKOWSKI, Tadeusz, 30, living in Warsaw
sheltered with his son, Zdzis³aw, the Jewish boxer Shapshi Rotholz, his wife Maria and their son Ryszard. Denounced, perished in spring 1944, with Maria Ratholz; the others succeeded to escape. Tadeusz was awarded posthumously the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
363. MARCINIAK, Stanis³aw, living at Wojciechówka, near K³oczew, Siedlce prov.
364. MARCINIAK, Zofia, his wife
;shot on Feb. 15, 1943 in their house in which they sheltered 7 Jews; one of whom escaped
365. MARCINIEC, Karolina, from Trzebuska, near Soko³ów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
shot in summer 1943, with Agnieszka Ga³gan, Bart³omiej Gielarowski and 5 Jewish fugitives from Soko³ów (see: 133)
366. MARCISZCZUK, Jan, 60, farmer, living at Szczurowice, Tarnopol prov.
together with his wife, Anna and his son Piotr, he hid in a special shelter 4 Jews: Mendel Friedman with his son Izak and Klara Hart with her 6 years old son, all of whom survived and after the war emigrated. But Marciszczuk was murdered in 1945 by Ukrainian nationalists. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
367. MARCZAK, Ludomir, 36, composer and socialist activist, living in Warsaw
he sheltered in a special hide-out on ¦wiêtojerska Str. and in his flat on Pañska Str. in Warsaw dozens of Jewish people from the beginning of German occupation. Arrested on Nov. 25, 1943 with 13 Jews and the Polish woman Jadwiga Deneko, he was shot on Dec. 31, 1943 (see 97)
368. MAREK, Karolina, from Zawoja, near Maków Podhalañski, Bielsko prov.
arrested in May 1943, together with Karol and Tekla Chowaniak, her foster-parents; she was sheltering 4 Jews. All died in Auschwitz (see:67-68)
369. MAREK, W³adys³aw, 42 living at Sieprawki, near Jastków, Lublin prov.
hid underneath his barn 4 Jews: Lejba, Wulwe, Moniek and Sifra. After being betrayed, W³adys³aw was arrested on Dec. 8, 1942, with his wife Agnieszka and 5 children. He alone from his family was killed on March 15, 1943, his farm buildings and livestock were burnt. The 4 Jews were not in the shelter that day and thus escaped also.
370. MARGOL, Anna, 50, living at Majdan Nowy, near Ksiê¿pol, Zomo¶æ prov.
killed with her cousin Józef Gnidula on Dec. 29, 1942, for helping Jews (see: 147)
371. MARSZA£, Jan, 40, from Przewrotne, Near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr .
killed in a mass execution on May 9, 1943 for sheltering Jews (see: 70-71)
372. MARZYJANEK, Stanis³aw, living at ¯¹d³owice, near Rawa Mazowiecka, Skierniewice prov.
373. MARZYJANEK, Micha³, son
murdered in 1944 at Brzostówka, near Tomaszów Mazowiecki, for sheltering during 1,5 year 4 Jews Cymerman, who died when trying to escape
374. MAZUREK, Stanis³aw, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
killed after Feb. 24, in Treblinka, as one of 14 Poles, victims of provocation several weeks earlier (see: 14)
375. MECH, Józef, living at Zagorzyce, near Sêdziszów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
shot in 1943 for sheltering Jews
376. MENDALA, Franciszek, 48, living at Szarwark, near D¹browa Tarnowska, Tarnów prov.
377. MENDALA, Teresa, 40, his wife
378. MENDALA, (Christian name unknown) 12, daughter
379. MENDALA, (Christian name unknown) 10, son
killed on July 5, 1943, by military policemen and Gestapo, for helping Jews hiding in the nearby forest, who, during the winter stayed in the Mendala’s home. The bodies of the Mendala family were burnt with their farm buildings. Also perished the mother of Teresa, Wiktoria Wê¿owicz, and their neighbour, W³adys³aw Starzec (see: 579, 642)
380. MICHALSKI, Jan, farmer, living at Zagorzyce, near Miechów, Kielce prov.
381. MICHALSKI, Stanis³aw, son
shot in March 1943, in a nearby forest, for helping Jews by the German gendarmes
382. MIELA, Zofia, maid, living at Po³omia, near Tarnów, Rzeszów prov.
murdered on Sep. 9, 1943, together with the Rêbi¶ family for sheltering Jews (see 508-512)
383. MIGA, Bronis³aw, living in Lwów (city incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police, for helping Jews; public notice of Jan. 28, 1944)
384. MIGIEL, Helena, 20, from Bia³y Dunajec, near Nowy Targ, Nowy S¹cz prov.
shot at Lud¼mierz on Mar. 6, 1944, with 2 other women and 3 men of unknown names, for helping Jews (together 6 people)
385. MINIEWSKI, Stefan, farmer, living at Szczurowicze, Tarnopol prov.
with members of his family he helped Jews by bringing them food into the woods and keeping 2 of them on his farm: Izak Parnas and Izak Szterling, who stayed there until the end of the war. However when news spread around how they survived, Stefan was murdered by the Ukrainian nationalists. He was awarded posthumousl.y the medal "Righteous Among Nations".
386. M£YNARSKI, Józef, 34, farmer, from Bystrzejowice, near Piaski, Lublin pr.
he sheltered 5 Jews, incl. the Honig family, since September 1942, in a dug-out under his home. Arrested in Jan. 1943, even though the Germans failed to find the Jews, he was sent to Majdanek where he died.
387 MORAWSKI, Eugeniusz, living in Warsaw
killed on Apr. 19, when fighting with his Home Army (AK) unit at the ghetto walls, the first day of its uprising, attempting to make an opening in the ghetto walls at the Bonifraterska Street
388. MRO¯KOWSKI, Antoni, living at Ciepielów, Radom prov.
shot in winter of 1942-43 near the so calld Górki (headquarters of the military police at Ciepielów, for "conspiring with Jews"
389. MURZEWSKI, Stanis³aw, farmer, from £askarzew, near Garwolin, Siedlce prov.
shot by gendarmes on Dec. 21 1943, under a charge of helping Jews.
390. NALEWAJKA, Jan, from Wola Przybys³awska, near Garbów, Lublin pr.
391. NALEWAJKA, Julia, his wife
burned alive on Dec. 10, 1942, in their own home together with their 3 children and the sheltered Jews (see: 3-6)392. NEY, Julian, doctor in Jas³o, Krosno prov.
killed by Gestapo for saving from certain death a Jewish woman from Jas³o: Sarah Diller. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among Nations". Sarah recounted me her story in Jerusalem in 1985. (see: 37)
393. NIECPOÑ, Jan, 56, living at ¯o³ynia, near Le¿ajsk, Rzeszów prov.
shot by local gendarmes in May 1944, together with a Jewess, fugitive from Bia³obrzegi, whom he sheltered.
394. NIE£ACNY, W³adys³aw, 42, worker, living at Chorzenice, near Radomsko. Czêstochowa prov.
arrested in Mar. 1943 and then shot for aiding Jews
395. NIEPSUJ, Anna, 45, living at Klikowa, Tarnów prov.
murderd by members of the Gestapo from Tarnów, on Apr. 8, 1943, together with 2 Jews sheltered by him
396. NIZIO£, Aniela, 50, living at £añcut, Rzeszów prov.
arrested for sheltering the Wolkenfeld family; shot in the building of the tribunal on Aug. 24, 1942
397. NOWAK, Maria, 18, farmer, from Podszkole, near Ostrowiec ¦wiêtokrzyski, Kielce prov.
A search on April 6, 1943, resulting from a denunciation, was carried out in her house by military police from Ostrowiec. Even tough no sheltered Jews were discovered, as they took refuge elsewhere, Maria and Leokadia Swarliñska, mother of a 3 years old child, were sent to concentreation camps. Leokadia survived, but Maria perished
398. NOWAK, Tadeusz, 39, living at Skar¿ysko Kamienna, Kielce prov.
hanged in public at the Hasag-Werke factory at Skar¿ysko for smuggling food to Jews forced to work there
399. NOWAK, Teofil, living at Pos¹dza, near Koniusza, Cracow prov.
400. NOWAK, (Christian name unknown) his daughter
killed on June 22, 1943, for Teofil’s involvment in aiding Jewish people. Maria and Stanis³aw Wierzbanowski, Zêbala (no first name) and Katarzyna ¯nuda with her children, were shot at the same time (see: 644-645, 698, 702-704)
401. NOWAK, (Christian name unknown) from Wierzbica, near Koz³ów, Kielce pr
402. NOWAK, (Christian name unknown), daughter
shot on Jan. 29, 1943 for sheltering the Wandelsman family, also killed (see: 289-292)
403. NOWOTNIK, Stanis³aw, 45, farmer, living at ¦wiesielice, Radom prov.
murdered on Dec. 7, 1942 in a group of 14 people by gendarmes from ;Ciepielów for help given to Jews (see: 84)
404. NOYSZEWSKA, Ewa, Mother Superior of the convent of the Immaculate Conception, S³onim (place incorporated after the war into Soviet Ukraine)
shot in 1941 with sister Marta Wo³owska for sheltering Jews in the nunnery (see: 674)
405. OBUCHIEWICZ, Piotr, 58, living at Ciepielów, Radom prov.
406. OBUCHIEWICZ, Helena, 35, his wife
407. OBUCHIEWICZ, W³adys³aw, 6, son
408. OBUCHIEWICZ, Zofia, 3, daughter
409. OBUCHIEWICZ, Janina, 2, daughter
410. OBUCHIEWICZ (Christian name unknown), 7 month old baby
died on Dec. 6, 1942 when military police burned alive 33 villagers from Ciepielów and Rekówka, for sheltering Jews (see: 267-273)
411. OCHMIÑSKI, (Christian name unknown) living at Wola Przybys³awska, near Garbów, Lublin prov
burned alive on Dec. 10, 1942 with 4 members of his family in a mass execution carried out at the village where Jews were sheltered (see: 3-6)412. OLESIUK, Wojciech, 53, farmer, from Chominna, near £omazy, Bia³a Podlaska prov.
413. OLESIUK, Stefania, 40, his wife
414. OLESIUK, Piotr, 14, son
415. OLESIUK, Stefan, 9, son
416. OLESIUK, Szymon, 3, son
shot on Nov. 7, 1943 at Chominna village by military police from Wisznice for sheltering a Jew, who also perished
417. OLSZEWSKA, Maria, 42, living at Skórnice, near Koñskie, Kielce prov.
418. OLSZEWSKA Janina, 30, wife of Henryk
419. OLSZEWSKA, Krystyna, 9, Janina’s daughter
420. OLSZEWSKA, Zofia, 1, Janina’s daughter
421, OLSZEWSKI, Bogdan, 2, Janina’s son
422. OLSZEWSKI, Jan, 5, Janina’s son
423. OLSZEWSKI, Marian, 10, Maria’s son
424. OLSZEWSKI, Leon, 19, Maria’s son
425. OLSZEWSKI, Henryk, 33, Maria’s step-son
On April 16, 1943 Germans discovered 11 members of the Weintraub family sheltered by the Olszewskis in a specially built dug-out. Henryk and Leon were taken by the police and their fate is unknown. The other 7 members of he family were killed in their house
426. OPAROWSKI, Stanis³aw, 46, living at Wi¶niowa, Rzeszów probv.
shot be gendarmes with a group of people in June 1943 at Markuszowa village for rendering help to Jews hiding in the forest (see: 76-78, 467, 608, 694)
427. ORGANI¦CIAK, Adam, 63, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
428. ORGANI¦CIAK, Wojciech, 58
429. ORGANI¦CIAK, Józef, 37
430. ORGANI¦CIAK, Aniela, 34
431. ORGANI¦CIAK, Andrzej, 31
432. ORGANI¦CIAK, Franciszek, 31
433. ORGANI¦CIAK, Józef, 31
killed on Mar. 13, 1943, in a mass execution in the village Przewrotne for sheltering Jews
434. OSIKOWICZ, Andrzej, priest, living in Borys³aw (incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
died in Majdanek concentration camp, having been sent there for helping Jews and for encouraging his parishioners to the the same
435. OSIÑSKI, W³adys³aw, 63, living at Józefów, near Warsaw
arrested on Oct. 20, 1942 and shot shortly afterwards for help to Jews436. OSOJCA, Franciszek, 33, farmer, living at Okó³, near Ostrowiec ¦wiêtokrzyski, Kielce prov.
437. OSOJCA, Aniela, 28, his wife
438. OSOJCA, Jan, 2, son
shot by gendarnes from Lipsko on Dec. 14, 1942, for help to Jews
439. OSTROWSKA, Julianna, 80, living at Wolica, near Koz³ów, Kielce prov.
killed in a massacre at her daughter’s, Anna Kucharska’s house on Jan. 29, 1943, for Kucharski’s role in sheltering Jews (see: 294-298)
440. OWCZAREK, Karolina, 38, living at Konary, near Czêstochowa
arrested for help rendered to Jews and sentenced to death by a special court in Czêstochowa, on June 1, 1944. Shot on Nov. 2, 1944
441. PACZKA, Rozalia, 53, from Wola Rafa³owska, near Chmielnik, Rzeszów pr.
shot by military police on Oct. 4, 1943, for sheltering Jews
442. PADUCH, Wiktoria, living in Radom
sentenced to death together with others on Apr. 3, 1943, by a special court in Radom, for rendering help to Sala Rubinowicz and Elsa Schwarzman in their escape from ghetto (see: 59-60)
443. PAJ¥K, Jan, 27, living at Matysówka, near Tyczyn, Rzeszów prov.
shot on Oct. 15, 1943 at Tyczyn in a group fo 5 Poles sentenced to death for helping Jews (see: 191)444. PA£ASZEWSKI, Leon, 42, living in Che³m
445. PA£ASZEWSKA, Helena Stanis³awa, 34, his wife
shot by gendarmes on Jan. 6, 1942, for helping Jews446. PANECZKO, Franciszek, from Wierzchowisko, near Wolbrom, Katowice pr.
447. PANECZKO, Jan
shot on Mar. 5, 1943 at Wierzchowisko for sheltering Jews
448. PAPCIAK, (name unknown) from Kaczorowy, near Jas³o, Krosno prov.
shot by gendarmes in 1943 for giving help to Jews
449. PASTERNAK, Piotr, living at Bór Kunowski, near Brody, Kielce prov.
killed by Germans on July 4, 1943 for helping Jewish people
450. PATROÑSKI, Wojciech, living at Szklary, near Hy¿ne, Rzeszów prov.
shot in 1943 at Szklary, with the 3 sheltered Jews
451. PAWLAK, Teofil, farmer, living at Kruszew, near Pniewy, Radom prov.
killed with the 2 sheltered Jews on July 13, 1943 by military police from Grójec
452. PAZIUK, Tadeusz, civil servant, living in Cracow
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Cracow District Police for helping and sheltering Jews. Announcement published on Jan. 29, 1944453. PAZUR, Anna living at Wawer, near Warsaw
454. PAZUR, Jan
shot by gendarmes from Rembertów on Mar. 3, 1944, together with the Jewsthey sheltered: Herman Kaftal and Anna Wiêcek
455. PE£C, Tadeusz, 22, farmer, living at Tarnawka, near £añcut, Rzeszów pr.
shot by gendarms in 1942 for help offered to Jews
456. PE¯YK, Stanis³aw, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
shot om June 28, 1943, with 24 villagers for sheltering Jews (see: 9)
457. PIASTUN, Micha³, living in Lwów (city incorporated into the Ukraine)
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police for aiding Jews; announcement of Dec. 14, 1943
458. PIECHURA, Stefan, 33, farmer from Tarnawka, Near £añcut, Rzeszów prov.
shot by SS from £añcut on Dec. 27, 1943 for help rendered to Jews; died also Grzegorz Gajda (see: 130)
459. PIENKIEWICZ, Artur, living in Warsaw
arrested by Gestapo on Apr. 18, 1944 for sheltering in his house 2 Jewish women: Ela Z³otnik and Rifka Szaniecka. Killed in the concentration camp Stutthof in 1945. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations
460. PIERZYÑSKA, Maria, from Gwo¼dzieniec, near Zakliczyn, Tarnów prov."
shot on Jan. 20, 1944 by German military policemen from Zakliczyn, for sheltering Benjamin and Roman Sukman461. PIETRAK, Leonard, 42, farmer, from Tomaszewice, near Jastków, Lublin pr.
462. PIETRAK, Maria 32, second wife of Leonard
463. PIETRAK, Stanis³aw, 22, Leonard’s son
surrounded in their home by Germans on Feb. 28, 1944; the house was destroyed by grenades and the Pietrak family shot for providing food and temporary accomodation to 2 Jewish partisans. Their farmhand, Franciszek Chêæ and Stanis³aw Wierzbicki who lived in their house were also killed (see: 62, 646)
464. PIETRZYKOWSKI, Józef, doctor at Bobowa, Nowy S¹cz prov.
arrested and shot at the turn of 1942 for providing medical help to a Jewish child
465. PILAWSKI, W³adys³aw, living at Domaradz, near Krosno
shot by German gandarmes on June 26, 1942 for help rendered to Jews
466. PINKUS, Jan, living in Radom
sentenced to death with other people on Apr. 3, 1943 by a special court Radom for helping Sala Rubinowicz and Elka Szwarcman (see: 59-60)
467. PIRGA, Aleksandra, farmer, living at Koz³ówek, near Strzy¿ów, Rzeszów pr.
shot by gendarmes with other people in June 1943 at Markuszowa for help to Jews hiding in the forest (see: 426)
468. PISKOREK, Kazimierz, railman, living in Kowel (city incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
killed by military police for taking a Jewish refugee, Szpulman, from Kowel to Che³mno at the turn of 1942. The Jewish family he sheltered escaped
469. PIWKO, Stanis³aw, 31, farmer, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
shot by an SS unit on Feb. 24, 1943 at Paulinów, in a group of 14 people, victims of a Nazi agent who pretended to be a Jewish fugitive (see: 14)470. P£ATEK, Sylweriusz, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
471. P£ATEK, Tomasz, his brother
shot on June 28, 1943 in a group of 25 villagers for sheltering Jews (see: 9)472. P£AWCZYÑSKA, Janina, over 70, living in Warsaw
died with Rena Laterner for helping Jewish insurgents to contact underground members on the "Arian" side and in sheltering them (see 324)
473. PODGÓRSKI, Piotr, 39, village watchman from Wierbka, near Pilica, Katowice prov.
shot by Gestapo in early January 1943 for withholding information from the authorities about Jews sheltered by Maria Rogoziñska (see 514-515)
474. POKROPEK, Stefan, living in Warsaw
hoarded and supplied arms to the Warsaw ghetto, to the Jewish Fighting Organization (¯OB) . On July 7 1943 German police forced its way into his flat, where he sheltered a Jewish insurgent: Tuvie Szejngut. Stefan committed suicide.
475. POLOÑSKI, Zenon, 20, living at Kozieniece, Kielce prov.
sentenced to death with other people by a special court in Radom, for helping Sala Rubinowicz and Elka Szwarcman, who escaped from the ghetto476. POMYKA£A, £ukasz, 47, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
477. POMYKA£A, Wojciech, 26
killed in a mass execution on Mar. 13, 1943 for feeding and sheltering Jews (see: 49-51)
478. PONIKOWSKA, Jadwiga, living in Warsaw
murdered by Gestapo at the end of 1942 in her boarding house, on Widok Str. 11, together with her sister Regina Prokulska, for sheltering a Jewish teacher and a Jewish girl who were also killed (see: 483)
479. POPIS, Henryk, 20, worker, living at Celestynów, near Otwock, Warsaw pr.
shot together with his friend, Jan Witek, in July or August, 1942, on the charge of sheltering Jews (see: 675)
480. POS£USZNY, Józef, living at Nowa Wie¶, near Rzeszów
shot by gendarmes in July 1944, together with the 4 Jews he sheltered481. PREJZNER, Józef, 50, living at Wola Komborska, Krosno prov.
482. PREJZNER, Katarzyna, 45
shot by SS in October 1943, with two other Polish women and the two Jews whom they sheltered (see: 169)
483. PROKULSKA, Regina, living in Warsaw
murdered by Gestapo for sheltering in the boarding house of Jadwiga Ponikowska a Jewish teacher and a Jewish girl, killed with them. (see: 478)
484. PRÓCHNICKA, Ada, liason officer, living in Cracow
as a liason officer of the Cracow branch of the Relief Council for Jews (Rada Pomocy ¯ydom) "¯egota" she went several times to Lwów, to bring back Jewish women who were endangered there. She brought back Ró¿a Kfare, Helena Szumañska, dr. Zina Paduchowa, Helena Ehrlich and others. Early in 1944 she was arrested on the train near Tarnów and murdered
485. PRUCHNIEWICZ, Józef, living at Biecz, near Jas³o, Krosno prov.
shot by Gestapo in 1944 for sheltering the Plum family during 1942-44
486. PRZEKORA, Kazimierz, from Cielechowizna, near Miñsk Mazowiecki, Siedlce prov.
shot on July 2, 1943 at that village by military police from Miñsk, with the 3 Jews he sheltered487. PRZE¦LAK, Helena, 58, primary school teacher at Jaworzno, Katowice prov.
488. PRZE¦LAK, Jan, head of the school at Jaworzno, her husband
arrested and imprisoned in Katowice, for sheltering several Jews in the school ;cellars. Transferred to Auschwitz on Aug. 26, 1942 and murdered there.489. PRZYBYSZ, Jan, owner of a villa in Warsaw, Boernerowo district
490. PRZYBYSZ, (Christian name unknown) his wife
491. PRZYBYSZ, Jan’s sister
arrested at the end of 1943 or beginning of 1944 by Gestapo and military police for sheltering Jewish people. All shot in the meadows of Boernerowo
492. PRZYWODA, (Christian name unknown) 45, bricklayer, living at Kamionka Strumi³owa, near Lwów (city incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
murdered by gendarmes from Tarnopol in winter of 1943/44, together with a Jewish girl sheltered by him493. PSIODA, Jan, 70, living at Jaworze Dolne, near Pilzno, Tarnów prov.
494. PSIODA, Wiktoria, 70, his wife
shot on Feb. 4, 1943, by Gestapo and Wehrmacht in a group of 4 farmers and 6 Jewish fugitives (see: 208)
495. PUÆ, Aniela 37, farmer, living at Zagórze, near Przeworsk, Przemy¶l prov.
shot in September 1943, together with Aron Goldman, sheltered by her
496. PU£A, Franciszek, living at D¹browa Tarnowska, Cracow prov.
shot by gendarmes in March 1944, when they found a Jew hiding in his yard
497. PYRCAK, Micha³, living at Sanok, Krosno prov.
arrested for his part in helping Jews, sent to the camp at Mauthausen, from where he never returned. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among Nations"
498. RACHTAN, Kazimierz, living in Cracow
seentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Cracow District Police for associating with and helping Jewish people; Public announcement from Jan. 29, 1944
499. RACHWALSKA, Aleksandra, 35, living at Stara Wie¶, near Hrubieszów, \Zamo¶æ prov.
shot by Wehrmacht soldiers with a Jew and his 2-3 year old child sheltered by her
500. RACZYÑSKI, Piotr, 35, living at Motycz Le¶ny, near Lublin
shot by German gendarmes in March 1942 under the charge of aiding Jews
501. RADOMSKI, Stanis³aw, living in Lwów (city incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
executed on Mar 7, 1944 in the local Brygidki prison for sheltering a small Jewish girl in Drohobycz
502. RADWAN, Feliks, living at Koszówka, near Zakopane, Cracow prov.
;sentenced to death for sheltering Jews; verdict passed by the special court of the SS commander and the Cracow District Police, at Zakopane, on Jan 29, 1942.
503. RADWAÑSKA, Anna Danuta, engineer, living at S³atkowice, near Sadowne, Siedlce prov.
arrested in July 1943 for sheltering a Jewish woman with a 15 years old son, who were killed immediately. Radwañska was taken to Pawiak prison in Warsaw and then sent to Auschwitz, where she died in April 1944
504. RADZIK, Stanis³aw, 40, farmer, living at £u¿na, near Gorlice, Nowy S¹cz pr.
505. RADZIK, Maria, his wife
Stanis³aw was shot on Sep.30, 1943 at Gorlice for sheltering 4 Jews. His wife was murdered on Jan. 26, 1944, during the investigation
506. RAFA£OWICZ, Adam, 60, living in Radom shot on Sep. 18, 1942 for rendering help to Jews 507. RASZEJA, Franciszek, 46, Prof. and physician, living in Warsaw
murdered on July 27, 1942, in the Warsaw ghetto, where he went, with a permit, called by a patient, Abe Gutmajer; all occupants of that flat were killed
508. RÊBI¦, Józef, 61, farmer, living at Po³omia, near Tarnów, Rzeszów prov.
509. RÊBI¦, Anna, his wife
510. RÊBI¦, Zofia, 27, daughter
511. RÊBI¦, Wiktoria, 24, daughter
512. RÊBI¦, Karol, 19, son
murdered during a house search, together with 9 Jews whom they sheltered, on Sep. 9, 1943 by German police from Dêbica. Killed also were Piotr Gawry¶, Zofia Miela, a maid and 2 other Poles (see: 140, 382)
513. ROGIÑSKA, Janina, living at Wêgrów, Siedlce prov.
shot on June 15, 1943 by military policemen from Wêgrów, who discovered Jews hidden in the barn, incl. Moshe Ptak. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among Nations"
514. ROGOZIÑSKA, Maria, 40, worker, from Wierbka, near Pilica, Katowice pr.
515. ROGOZIÑSKI, Jan, 5 , son
There was a group of Jews sheltered in the cellar of their house. Early in January 1943, when the Rogoziñskis were away, volksdeutch neighbours brought the Gestapo, who murdered all the Jews together with Piotr Sendra, and Piotr Podgórski. The Gestapo threatened that the whole village would be punished if the Rogozinskis didn’t show up, with the result that they were given away to the Germans and were killed on Jan 15, 1943. (see: 473. 543)
516. ROKICKI, Stanis³aw, living in a forester’s lodge Czarna, near Miñsk Mazowiecki, Siedlce prov
shot on Mar 13, 1943, together with the 5 sheltered Jews: Teresa Pow¹zek and her husband, Helena Szpindler and her mother, Abram S³omka, and 2 fugitives Soviet POW.
517. RÓ¯AÑSKA, Maria, living in Radom
sentenced to death with others on Apr.3, 1943, by a special court in Radom for helping Jewesses: Ela Szwarcman and Sala Rubinowicz (see: 59-60)518. RUCHA£A, Józef, living at Librantowa, near Nowy S¹cz
519. RUCHA£A, Weronika his wife
;shot for supplying food to Jews hiding in forest
520. RUDECKA, Maria, 48, owner of an estate at Wodzis³aw, near Sêdziszów, Kielce prov.
shot on Apr. 27 for repeated help to Jewish people
521. RUMAK, Jakub, 34, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr.
522. RUMAK, Józef, 31
shot on June 10, 1943 in a mass execution for sheltering Jews at Hucisko (see:19-20)
523. RUMIN, Maria, farmer, living at Popradów, near Nowy S¹cz
524. RUMIN, Jan, her son
shot with the 5 Jews they sheltered: the Kaufer family from Zawada
525. RUSIN, Antoni, 41, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr.
killed on Mar. 13, 1943 in a group of 30 Poles for helping Jews (see: 49-51)
526. RUTKOWSKI, Dawid, living at Ignaców, Siedlce prov.
shot on Mar. 30, 1943, together with Jan Gawrych and Stanis³aw Skuza and a group of Jewish partisans they helped (see: 139)
527. RUTKOWSKI, W³adys³aw, living at Chodniów, near Bia³a Rawska, Skierniewice prov.
528. RUTKOWSKA, Genowefa, his wife
sentenced to death by a special court in Piotrków, on June 23, 1943, for sheltering Chaim Beleberg and another Jew; both died with them.
529. RUTKOWSKI, Józef, living at Tymienica, near Chotcza, Radom prov.
killed at the end of 1942, with 5 others for helping Jews (see: 320-322)
530. RYBA, Józef, 23, living at Jaworze Dolne, near Tarnów, Rzeszów prov.
murdered on Feb. 4, 1943 with Maria Ka³u¿a amd her family for sheltering Jews (see: 208)
531. RYBAK, Katarzyna, 60, from Lipowiec, near Zwierzyniec, Zamo¶æ prov
killed for her coincidental presence at the house of Wojciech Kusiak, whose family was killed for sheltering Jews (see: 311-313)
532. RYCERZ, Anna Maria, living in Warsaw
arrested on Dec. 2, 1943 with her sisters: Jadwiga ¦led¼ and Janina ¯elichowska, and a relation Helena ¦led¼, for help rendered to Jews.l four were placed in the Pawiak prison and shot on Dec. 10, 1943 in the ruins of the ghetto (see: 606-607, 701)533. RYGIEL, Pawe³, living at Wierzbica, near Koz³ów, Kielce prov.
534. RYGIEL, (Christian name unknown) his wife
535. RYGIEL, (Christian name unknown) their son
shot together with Pawe³ Wandersman and his sister By German gendarmes in December 1943, for sheltering Jews (see: 631-632)
536. R¯YSKO, Edward, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
shot on June 28, 1943, in a group of 25 Poles for sheltering Jew (see: 9)
537. SAMOJEDNY, Jan, 56, farmer, living at G³ogów Ma³opolski, near Rzeszów
538. SAMOJEDNA, Maria, 52, his wife
shot in their home by German police on Feb. 19, in Pruszków, Warsaw pr.for sheltering Jews
539. SASKI, W³adys³aw, railway metal worker, from Pruszków, Warsaw prov.
shot on June 28, 1943 in a group of 25 Poles from the village of Cisie for sheltering Jews (see: 9)541. SAWICKI, Nikodem, 17, her son
540. SAWICKA, Emilia, 50, farmer, living at Korolówka, near Borszczów, (plce incoroporated after the war in tho the Soviet Ukraine)
Emilia and her 3 sons have sheltered in 1943-44 sisters Rena Hausner and Pola Henenfeld, with her husband Leon. Shortly after the war the Jews left Korolówka. When Ukrainian bandits came, they, not having found the Jews, murderd Emilia and Nikodem. Both posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
542. SEMIK, Jan Jakub, postman, living at Limanowa, Nowy S¹cz prov.
9 Jews were arrested in Limanowa on Sep. 6, 1939 and while being loaded into vehicles, were spat upon and beaten. Semik, able to speak German, tried to intervene, for which he too was shot with the Jews near Mordarka
543. SENDRA, Piotr, 27, gardener, living at Wierbka, near Pilica, Katowice prov.
murdered by Gestapo early in January 1943 for cooperation in helping a group of Jews in the home of Maria Rogoziñska (see: 514-515)
544. SÊD£AKOWSKA, Janina, living at Zwierzyniec, Zamo¶æ prov
murdered on Oct. 24, 1942 for help rendered to Jews
545. SÊKOWSKA, Magdalena, living in Przemy¶l
On a number of occasions she hid in her flat on the corner of Janowska and Grodzka Street, young Jewish fugitives from Lwów. Jews escaped from the Lwów ghetto to the £yczaków cememery, from which her son-in-law, a railway mechanic, brought them to Przemy¶l. Arrested by Gestapo in 1942, beaten and tortured, brought to Auschwitz, she soon perished there.
546. SIEWIERSKI, Stefan, 19, living in Warsaw
socialist activist in a youth organization, captured in May 1940, while conducting Jews out of the ghetto to the woods. He died in the Gestapo jail on Szucha Str. in Warsaw, after torture Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations".547. SINIARSKI, Stanis³aw, 45, farmer, living at Lutkówka near Mszczonów, Sierniewice prov.
548. SINIARSKA, Marianna, 43, his wife\
549. SINIARSKI, Marian Józef, 16, son
550. SINIARSKA, Irena, 9, daughter
551. SINIARSKI, Edward, 8, son
All were shot on Mar. 10, 1944, by military police from Mszczonów for sheltering 3 Jews: the Lipszyc family, who died also
552. SKALSKI, Stanis³aw, 50, teacher, living in £êczyca, P³ock prov.
arrested in 1942 by Gestapo for organizing escapes of Jews. He died from beatings and torture553. SKOCZYLAS, Piotr, living at Rekówka, near Ciepielów, Radom prov
554. SKOCZYLAS, Leokadia, 8, his daughter
burned alive on Dec. 6, 1942 by military policemen in a group of villagers for feeding and sheltering Jews. (see: 243-257)
555 SKOLIMOWSKI, Alfons, 32, farmer, from Roguziec, Near Mordy, Siedlce pr.
shot on Mar. 2, 1943 at Roguziec, by military police for sheltering Jews
556. SK£ADKOWSKA, Halina, living in Lwów (city incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)
sentenced to death by the commander of the SS and the Galician District Police for helping Jews. Announcement from Dec. 14, 1943557. SKRZAK, Wojciech, 50, farmer, living at ¦wiesielice, Radom prov.
murdered on Dec. 7,1942 in a group of 14 people by gendarmes from Ciepielów, for helping Jews (see: 84)
558. SKUZA, Stanis³aw, living at Ignaców. Siedlce prov.
shot on Mar. 30, 1943 with Jan Gawrych and Dawid Rutkowski together with a group of Jewish partisans whom they helped (see: 139, 526)
559. SKWARA, Irena, living in Warsaw
shot as she was leaving Warsaw in Sep. 1944, before the collapse of the Warsaw uprising, accompanied by Wac³aw Turski-Teitelbaum, whom she sheltered and who was killed too
560. SKWIECIÑSKI, Eugeniusz, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
shot on June 28, 1943 in a group of 25 villagers for sheltering Jews (see:84)
561, SKWIRA, Marianna, 40, farmer, living at ¦wiesielice, Radom prov.
murdered on Dec. 7, 1942 in a group of 14 people by gendarmes from Ciepielów, for help in sheltering Jews (see: 19-20)
562. SLEMP, Jan, farmer, living at Dyl¹gówka, near Rzeszów
arrested on Dec. 30, 1943 for sheltering in his apartment the horse tradesman Majer Zalcman; shot the next day with the Jewish man
563. S£UJA, Józef, 31, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
killed on June 10, 1943, in a mass execution carried out at Hucisko for helping and sheltering Jews (see: 9)
564. SMATER, Marian, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, prov...............................
565. SMATER, Piotr,
shot on June 28, 1943, in a group of 25 villagers for sheltering Jews (see:9)566. SOCHA, Rozalia, 53, worker, living at Wola Rafa³owska, near Chmielnik, Rzeszów prov.
shot by gendarmes on Dec. 19, 1942, for sheltering 5 to 6 Jews567. SOJKA, Stanis³aw, farmer, from Ksi¹¿niczki, near Micha³owice, Kielce prov.
shot on June 3, 1943 by the military police for trying to hide 3 Jews during a round-up in his barn at the farm of Stefan Kaczmarski (see: 206)568. SOKÓ£, W³adys³aw, living at Wilczyska, near Wola Mys³owska, Siedlce prov.
shot on July 10, 1944 at ¯elechów for concealing 3 Jewish women, among them Maria and Hanka Pop³awski, who died with him. Previously he sheltered also the families: Boruchowiczs, Wajnbergs and Szyfmans
569. SOLARZ, Antoni, 42, farmer, living at Biadoliny Rad³owskie, near Tarnów
shot by Gestapo form Cracow in 1944 for help to Jews, among them to Naftali Gries, a lawyer from Wojnicz, who died with him
570. SOLOWSKI, Jan, farmer, libing at Gruszka Zaporoska, near Zamo¶æ
571. SOLOWSKA, Helena, his wife
572. SOLOWSKA, Wanda, 12, daughter
573. SOLOWSKI, Marian, 5, son
the family sheltered a Jewish family of 7 persons, in a hide-out on their farm. In 1943 gendarmes from Szczebrzeszyn murdered all of them
574. SO£TYS, Bronis³awa, 1 year old, living at Radgoszcz-Porêba, Tarnów prov.
575. SO£TYS, Janian, 4, her sister
murdered on Nov. 28, 1942 together with their grandmother, Zofia Kmieæ, who sheltered Jews (see: 219-220)
576. SO£TYS, Maria, farmer, from Radgoszcz, near D¹browa Tarnowska, Cracow prov.
shot by German gendarmes at Radgoszcz on Sep. 13, 1942, with Maria Wójcik and the sheltered Jew Szija Grinstam, also a local farmer (see: 678)
577. SOSNOWSKI, Aleksander, living at Zawada, near Ka³uszyn (incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
578. SOSNOWSKA, Antonina, 17, daughter
murdered together with 2 daughters of the Jewish local innkeeper: Ucia and Cinnia Fuchs, by Ukrainian nationalists, on Feb. 24, 1944
579. STARZEC, W³adys³aw, from Szarwark near D¹browa Tarnowska, Tarnów
shot on July 5, 1943 at Szarwark, together with neighbours who had also been involved in helping Jews, incl. the Mendala family (see 376-379)
580. STAWARSKI, Bronis³aw, living at Sieniawa, near Przeworsk, Rzeszów prov.
581. STAWARSKA, (Christian name uknown) his wife
Bronis³aw shot in 1943. together with the 2 sheltered Jews; his wife, sent to a concentration camp, from which she never returned
582. STEFANEK, Barbara, 72, living at Boisko, near Lipsko, Radom prov.
shot on Nov. 7, 1943, in a group of 3 persons for help to Jews
583. STELMASZCZYK, Alfred Krzysztof, 19, from Gawartowa Wola, neaer Warsaw
shot on Mar. 22, 1943, together with a couple who helped a Jewess
584. STÊPNIEWSKI, Jan, 55, living at Marchaty, near Piotrków Trybunalski
shot on May 6, 1943, in Piotrków, sentenced to death by a special court for sheltering a Jew
585. STÊPNIOWSKI, Eugeniusz, post-office official, living in Nowy S¹cz.
tortured in Mar. 1942 by the local Gestapo head, Hamann, because he systematically destroyed information about Jews. Transferred to Tarnów prison he died there
586. STRUTYÑSKA, Maria, from Drohobycz, (incorporated into the Ukraine)
arrested in her flat in June 1943 by Gestapo for sheltering with her daughters, Kazimiera and Teresa, 13 people of Jewish origin, belonging to the Krempel, Hennefeld and Herman families. Taken to a prison in Lwów, Strutyñska was sentenced to death and shot in Mar. 1944. The daughters escaped, as did one of the sheltered Jews, Lidia Hennefeld
587. SUCHECKI, Józef, living at Gniewoszów, Radom prov.
shot in August 1943, together with Jan Wolski, for sheltering Jews, fugitives from the Gniewoszów camp. The warned Jews escaped (see: 666)
588. SURDACKI, Zygmunt, 36, priest, living in Lublin
as the administrator of the Lublin diocese he often used to render help to Jews; he was sent to Auschwitz, where he died in 1941
589. SUSICH, Adam, 53, living at Hucisko, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów pr.
shot in a mass execution of June 10, 1943, for sheltering Jews (see: 19-20)
590. SUSZ, Natalia, living at Rudañce (place incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)
sentenced to death by a special court for helping Jews; public notice issued by the commander of the SS and the Cracow District Police of Dec. 14, 1943
591. SYGIEWICZ, Witold, civil servant, living in Cracow
sentenced to death by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Cracow District Police for helping Jews; public notice of Jan. 29, 1944)
592. SZABATA, Kazimierz, ca 40, from Majdan Stary, near Ksiê¿pol, Zamo¶æ pr.
shot on Dec. 28, 1942 by military police from Bi³goraj, in the house of Józef Pelc, for whom he worked, mistakenly identified as the son of Anastazja£ubiarz, a neighbour, who has been helping Jews (see: 147, 344-345)
593. SZAFRAÑSKI, Roman Jan, 64, living in Radom
arrested with his wife, Jadwiga, for sheltering during 1940-1943 a Jewish girl, Anna Kerc (born in 1937); sent in 1943 to Gross-Rosen where he died. His wife was sent to Ravensbrück, but she survived. The girl died
594. SZCZEPANIAK, Antoni, from Trêbaczew, near Sadkowice, Skierniewice pr.
595. SZCZEPANIAK, Stanis³aw, his brother
596. SZCZEPANIAK, W³adys³aw, his brother
shot on Dec. 11, 1943, by military police, together with their neighbour Jan Domeradzki, for giving refuge to a Jewish family during that year. The father of that family was killed also (see: 107)
597. SZCZÊSNY, Jan, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
killed on June 28 in a group of 25 inhabitants for sheltering Jews (see: 9)598. SZEPIETOWSKA, Katarzyna, 40, living at Podborek, Radom Prov.
599. SZEPIETOWSKI, Józef, 7, son
they died on July 11, 1943, on the Kowalczyk’s family farm-yard, shot be gendarnmes on the charge of helping Jews (see: 264-266)
600. SZKOTAK, Józef, living at ¯d¿ary, near Czarna, Tarnów prov.
601. SZKOTAK, Teresa, his wife
shot in fall 1943 in the village of ¯d¿ary together with the sheltered Jews
602. SZLOSSER, Jan, 42, from Ossala, near Baranów Sandomierski, Tarnobrzeg prov.
shot by gendarmes on July 6, 1943 for cooperation in saving Jews
603. SZPARKOWSKI, Józef, ca. 33, living in Warsaw
betrayed by the Volksdeutsche Sowiecka, he was killed on May 23, 1943, together with the 8 survivors of the ghetto uprising he was sheltering. Poshumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"
604. SZYPERSKA, Józefa, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
killed on June 28, 1943 in a group of 25 villagers for sheltering Jews (see:9)
605. ¦LADOWSKA, Halina
sentenced to death by a special court of the SS and the Galician District Police for sheltering Jews; public notice issued on Dec. 14, 1943 in Lwów
606. ¦LED¬, Helena, living in Warsaw
arrested on Dec. 2, 1943 together with her relation, Jadwiga ¦led¼ and her sisters for help to Jews. Sent to Pawiak prison, she was shot on Dec. 10, 1943 in the ruins of the Warsaw ghetto (see: 607)
607. ¦LED¬, Jadwiga, living in Warsaw
arrested on Dec. 2, 1943 with her sisters Anna Rycerz and Janina elichowska, as well as with other relation, Helena ¦led¼, for help to Jews. Placed in Pawiak prison, with the others, she was shot on Dec. 10, 1943 in the ruins of the Warsaw ghetto (see: 532, 606, 701)
608. ¦LIWA, W³adys³aw (or Wojciech) 26, former N.C.O., from Koz³ówek, near Strzy¿ów, Rzeszów prov.
shot by gendarmes with a group of others in June 1943 at Markuszowa village for help to Jews, hiding in the forest (see: 426)
609. ¦LIWIÑSKI, Jan 49, worker, living at Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.
shot by the SS on Feb. 24, 1943 at Paulinów, together with a group of 14 people, victims of a Nazi provocation. (see: 14)
610. TATOMIR, Jan 49, mason from Jaros³awice, Tarnopol prov.(incorporated after the war into the Soviet Ukraine)with his wife and daughter, he gave refuge to 6 Jews in a shelter dug under his house. He was killed in 1943. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"611. TOKARCZYK, Regina, 76, living at Pielgrzymka, near Krosno.
612. TOKARCZYK, Karolina, 41, her daughtershot on July 15, 1943 near their home by German police for sheltering Jews613. TOKARZ, Jakub, 46, farmer, living at Biedaczów, Rzeszów prov.killed in 1942 by military police from Le¿ajsk, for sheltering 4 members of the Hersh Rummler’s family, who also perished. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations"614. TOKARZ, Jakub, farmer, living at Ptaszkowa, Nowy S¹cz prov.sentenced to death on May 3, 1944 by a special court of the SS and the Cracow District Police, for helping Chaim and Shmul Neigreshel615. TONKIEL, Stanis³aw, living at Karskie, near Repki, Siedlce prov.killed on Apr. 1, 1942, with the sheltered Jews, by the military police616. TROJANOWSKI, Stanis³aw, living at Kawêczyn, Skierniewice prov.shot in spring of 1944, by Gestapo for sheltering Abraham Rosenberg and his son, with 4 other Jews. Died also his friend Jakub Fedorowicz (see: 122)617. TRUSIEWICZ, (Christian name unknown) from Obórka, near Cumañ after the war incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)murdered in November 1942 for helping Jews618. TRYBURSKI, Józef, 38, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski Rzeszów prov.killed in a mass execution on May 9, 1943 for helping Jews (see: 70-71)619. TYLAWSKA, Anastazja, living at Rozdziele, near Gorlice,Krosno prov.shot in 1943 for sheltering Leib Jaskow from Mêcina
620. ULMA, Józef, farmer, living at Markowa near £añcut, Rzeszów prov.
621. ULMA, Wikktoria, his wife
622. ULMA, Antoni, son
623. ULMA, Barbara, daughter
624. ULMA, Franciszek, son
625. ULMA, Marian, son
626. ULMA, Stanis³awa, daughter
627. ULMA, W³adys³aw, sonthe 8 members family was killed by the Germans in 1943 with the Jews sheltered in their attic: the Chol family of 5 people from £añcut, Golda and Layka Goldman with her daughter. The oldest of the Ulmas children was 7 years old and the youngest was 18 months old
628. WACH, Tomasz, 41, farmer, from Brzoza Królewska, near Le¿ajsk, Rzeszów prov.shot on Mar. 28, 1943 by gendarmes from Le¿ajsk, for cooperation in sheltering Jews for several months. The Jews were killed also (see: 275-276)629. WALC, Jan, 45, farmer, from Przewrotne near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.killed on Mar. 13, 1943 in a group of 30 people for sheltering Jews in the village (see: 49-51)630. WALCZEWSKI, Wies³aw, living at Broszków, near Kotuñ, Siedlce prov.arrested on June 28, 1943, at Cisie, pacified for help given by its inhabitants o Jews; put in the Pawiak jail in Warsaw, and shot there on Jan. 13, 1944.631. WANDERSMAN, Pawe³, living at Wierzbica, near Koz³ów, Kielce prov.
632. WANDERSMAN, his sistershot in December 1943, together with Pawe³ Rygiel and his family for sheltering Jews (see: 533-535)633. WANOSKA, Franciszek, 18, farmer from Przewrotne. near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów provkilled with 29 people on Mar. 13, 1943, for sheltering Jews (see: 49-50).634. WAWRZONEK, Maria, 39, from Jastrz¹bka Stara, near Dêbica, Tarnów pr.shot in December 1943 by Gestapo from Dêbica, for sheltering Jews635. WaSOWSKI, Jan, railway worker, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
636. W¥SOWSKA, Aleksandra, his wife
637. W¥SOWSKI, Mieczys³aw, her sonkilled on June 28, 1943 at Ceg³ów with 24 villagers from Cisie, for sheltering Jews (see: 9)638. WDOWIAK, Benedykt, 58, farmer, living at ¦wiesielice, Radom prov.
639. WDOWIAK, Aleksandra, 17, his daughter
640. WDOWIAK, Marianna, 94, Benedykt’s mothermurdered on Dec. 7, 1942 in a group of 14 people by gendarmes from Ciepielów, for help rendered to Jews (see: 84)641. WÊGLIÑSKI, Marcin, 61, farmer, living at K¹ty, near Nisko, Tarnobrzeg pr.shot by Gestapo on Sep. 12, 1942, together with Lejzor Graf whom he sheltered642. WÊ¯OWICZ, Wiktoria, living at Szarwark, near D¹browa Tarnowska Tarnów prov.killed on July 5, 1943 with her daughter, Teresa Mendala and her family for help to Jews (see: 376-379)643. WIERZBA, Jan, 43, farmer, living at Paw³owice, near Micha³ów, Kielce prov.sheltered in his house 5 Jews Kopel; in February 1942 he was detained with 2 of them. Sent to Majdanek, then to Auschwitz, he was killed there644. WIERZBANOWSKI, Maria, living at Pos¹dza, near Koniusza, Cracow prov.
645. WIERZBANOWSKI, Stanis³awkilled on June 22, 1943, for aiding Jews. Teofil Nowak with his daughter, Zêbala, Katarzyna ¯muda and her children were killed also; (see: 399-400)646. WIERZBICKI, Stanis³aw, living at Tomaszowice, near Jastków, Lublin prov.shot by military police on Feb. 28, 1944; expelled from Poland’s Western lands, he stayed with Leonard Pietrak’s family, killed for sheltering Jews (see: 461-463)647. WIÊCKIEWICZ, Leon, priest, living in Warsawarrested on Dec. 3, 1943 for his part in helping Jewish people, perished on Aug. 4, 1944 in Gross-Rosen camp648. WIKTORZAK, Aleksandra, 63, from Paulinów, near Soko³ów Podlaski, Siedlce prov.shot by the SS on Feb. 24, 1943 at Paulinów, with 13 other people, victims of a Nazi provocation (see: 14)649. WILCZAK, Zofia, living at Wysoka, Rzeszów prov.shot in spring 1944, with her father -in-law for sheltering Jews650. WILK, Franciszek, 41, from Przewrotne, near G³ogów Ma³opolski, Rzeszów prov.
651. WILK, Jan, 24
652. WILK, Józef, 30killed in a mass execution on Mar. 13, 1943 for sheltering Jews (see: 49-51)653. WILK, Józef, living in Warsaw
killed on Apr. 19, 1943, while fighting with a division of the Home Army (AK) near the ghetto wall on Bonifraterska Str., attempting to blast a hole in the wall
654. WILK, Katarzyna, 52, living at Wierzbno, near Koniusza, Cracow prov.
655. WILK, Mieczys³aw, soldier in the Peasant Battalions (B.Ch.)
656. WILK, Stanis³aw, 46shot on Feb. 18, 1943 at Wierzbno for sheltering Jews657. WITTEK, Jan, 21, worker, living at Celestynów, near Otwock, Warsaw prov.shot in July or August 1942 with his friend Henryk Popis under the charge of sheltering Jews (see: 479)658. W£ODARCZYK, Roman, living in Lublinsentenced to death on Dec. 23, 1943 for "sheltering and conspiring with Jews by a special court of the commander of the SS and the Secret Police for the Lublin region659. WODA, Kasper, People’s Movement ("Ruch Ludowy") activist, living at Gruszawa, near Miechów, Cracow prov.arrested for sheltering Jews in November 1943, sent to Auschwitz, died there660. WOJEWÓDKA, Ignacy, 50, farmer, living at ¦wiesielice, Radom prov.
662. WOJEWÓDKA, Marianna, 45, farmer, his wife
662. WOJEWÓDKA, Wac³aw, 21, farmer, son
663. WOJEWÓDKA, Jan, 18, farmer, son
664. WOJEWÓDKA, Stanis³aw, 12, son
665. WOJEWÓDKA, Józef, 7, sonmurdered by gendarmes from Ciepielów, on Dec. 7, 1942, in a group of 14 people, for help rendered to Jews (see: 84)666. WOLSKI, Jan, living at Gniewoszów, Radom prov.shot in August 1943 with Jan Suchecki for sheltering several Jews, fugitives from the camp at Gniwoszów. The Jews were warned and escaped (see 587)667. WOLSKI, Mieczys³aw, living in Warsawwith his family he built an underground shelter in his backyard on Grójecka Str., where from 1942 he gave refuge to 34 Jews, incl..the well-known historian Emanuel Ringelblum, with wife and son. The shelter was discovered on Mar. 7, 1944. Wolski, his nephew, Janusz Wysocki and all the fugitives were taken to Pawiak prison. All the Jews were shot soon in the ghetto ruins, while no trace of the Poles was ever found. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations" (see: 690)668. WO£OWIEC, Gabriel, farmer, from Zaj¹czków, near Ciepielów, Radom pr.
669. WO£OWIEC, Stanis³awa, his wife
670. WO£OWIEC, Bronis³awa, daughter
671. WO£OWIEC, Janina, daughter
672. WO£OWIEC, Leokadia, daughter
673. WO£OWIEC, Kazimiera, daughterMilitary police from Ciepielów killed the 6 members family in January 1943, for helping Jews in hiding. Gabriel was arrested and executed earlier. The daughters were aged 3 to 12. With them were shot: Józef Jelonek, and the handicapped servant Franciszek Zaborowski. (see: 188, 692)674. WO£OWSKA, Marta, nun, S³onim (incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)killed in 1941 in the Immaculate Conception Convent in S³onim, together with the Mother Superior, Ewa Noyszewska, for sheltering Jews (see: 404)675. WO¬NIAK, Franciszek, from Paw³ów, near D¹browa Tarnowska, Cracow pr.murdered with Micha³ Wójcik by gendarmes in the spring 1943 for sheltering Jews and helping them to escape by crossing the river (see: 679)676. WO¬NIAK, Marian, living in Miñsk Mazowiecki, Siedlce prov.killed in May 1944 for sheltering and helping Jews677. WÓJCICKI, W³adys³aw, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.killed at Ceg³ów on June 28, 1943, in a group execution at Cisie, for sheltering Jews (see: 9)678. WÓJCIK, Maria, farmer, from Radgoszcz, near D¹browa Tarnowska, Cracow pr.shot by German gendarmes at Radgoszcz on Sep. 13, 1942, with Maria So³tys and the sheltered Szija Grinstam, also a local farmer (see: 576)679. WÓJCIK, Micha³, living at Paw³ów, near D¹browa Tarnowska, Cracow pr.murdered with Franciszek Wo¼niak in the spring 1943, for sheltering Jews and helping in their escape trough the river (see: 675)680. WÓJCIK, Micha³, 48, living at Po³om Ma³y, near Czchów, Tarnów prov.shot on Dec. 26, 1944 by military police from Jurków with the sheltered Jew Goldfinger681. WÓJCIK, Zofia, farmer, from Radgoszcz, near D¹browa Tarnowska, Cracow prov.
682. WÓJCIK, 3, her daughter
683. WÓJCIK, 2, her daughtershot on Oct. 1942 together with the sheltered Jew684. WÓJTOWICZ, Ryszard, living at Sadkowice, near Lipsko, Radom prov.
685. WÓJTOWICZ, Honorata, his wifeshot on Jan. 8, 1943 for help to Jews (see: 39-42)686. WRÓBLEWSKI, Boles³aw, 51, farmer, living at Podbuszyce, near ¯yradów, Skierniewice prov.
687. WRÓBLEWSKA, his wifeMurdered by gendarmes in March 1941 with the 2 Jews sheltered by them, one of them by the name Wajnsztok688. WYDMAÑSKI, Józef, farmer, living at Krêpa, near Miechów, Cracow prov.shot by Gestapo on Sep. 23, 1944, with the hidden Jew. His farm was burnt down689. WYSMULSKA, Zofia, farmer, living at Moszeñki, near Jastków, Lublin prov.gave refuge to 4 Jews in an underground shelter and provided also 16 other Jews hiding in the forest with food and medicines. She was shot by military police on Sep. 25, 1943. Her husband escaped; the sheltered Jews and Marianna Barszcz, a Wysmólski employee, were killed also (see: 29)690. WYSOCKI, Janusz, living in Warsawarrested on Mar. 7, 1944, for helping Mieczys³aw Wolski in constructing an underground shelter and in helping the 34 Jews in that shelter; died in unknown circumstances. Posthumously awarded the medal "Righteous Among the Nations" (see: 667)691. WYSOCZAÑSKA, pharmacist, living at Sokal (incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine)murdered in February 1942 together with the 3 sheltered Jewish girls
692. ZABOROWSKI, Franciszek, 40, from Zaj¹czków, near Ciepielów, Radom pr.killed in January 1943 by military police from Ciepielów with the Wo³owiec family, for sheltering Jews (see: 668-673)
693. ZAGAÑCZYK, Jan, living at Cisie, near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov.
killed on June 28, 1943, with many others, for help to Jews (see: 9)694. ZAGÓRSKI, Piotr, farmer, living at Koz³ówek, near Strzy¿ów, Rzeszów prov.shot by gendarmes in a group of people in June 1943 at Markuszowa, for help to Jews hiding in the forest (see: 426)695. ZAJ¥C, Franciszek, from Wola Skrzydlañska near Limanowa, Nowy S¹cz pr.sent to Dachau, where he died, for sheltering a Jewish woman, also killed
696. ZAJ¥C, Ludwik, living at Cisie near Ceg³ów, Siedlce prov. killed on June 28, with many Cisie villagers, for help to Jews
697. ZAJDEL, Karolina , living at Nadolno, near Krosno arrested at the end of 1944 by gendarmes, for sheltering a Jew, who was shot while trying to escape; she was murdered in the prison of Dukla698. ZÊBALA, living at Pos¹dza, near Koniusza, Cracow prov. shot in a group of 8 Poles on June 22, 1943 at Pos¹dza for sheltering Jews (see: 399-400)699. ZIELIÑSKA, an industrialist’s wife, from Lwów (incorporated into the Soviet Ukraine);arrested in autumn for sheltering a Jew of 40 years, also an industrialist; sent to Majdanek, from where she never returned700. ZIELIÑSKA, Rozalia, 35, farmer, from Gumniska, near Dêbica, Tarnów pr.shot by gendarmes on July 17, 1943 for sheltering Samuel Wind, a taylor from Dêbica
701. ¯ELICHOWSKA, Janina, living in Warsawarrested on Dec. 2, 1943, together with her sisters, Anna Rycerz and Jadwiga ¦led¼ and a relation of that last, Helena ¦led¼, for help rendered to Jewish families. All four were put in Pawiak prison and shot in the ruins of ghetto on Dec. 10, 1943 (see: 607)702. ¯MUDA, Katarzyna, 40, living at Pos¹dza, near Koniusza, Cracow prov.
703. ¯MUDA, Teresa, 18, daughter
704. ¯MUDA, Zdzis³aw, 10, sonshot on June 22, 1943 at Pos¹dza in a group of 8 Poles for sheltering Jews (see: 399-400)
Rev. Marian Jacek Dabrowski
January 15, 1905
Born: Niewodowo, Poland
January 15, 1905
Marian was raised by Catholic parents in Niewodowo, a town in Poland's Bialystok Province near Lomza. His family lived there under Tsarist rule until 1918, when Poland regained its independence. Following high school, Marian joined the Capuchin Franciscan Order of Friars. After eight years of study in France and Italy, he returned to Poland to teach philosophy to students of his order.
1933-39: When Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, I was at our monastery near Grodno. We evacuated the monastery three weeks later when Soviet troops, invading from the east, reached Grodno. I returned to Lomza. Our new Soviet rulers rejected religion, claiming it exploited the working people. I challenged this in my sermons. When I learned that the Soviets were about to arrest me, I escaped to German-occupied Poland.
1940-45: In 1941 the Nazis arrested me in Warsaw. I was told that there was no real reason for my arrest, but that as an educated Pole, I couldn't be trusted to cooperate. I was held in Pawiak Prison and then deported to Auschwitz. There, the commandant lectured us about working hard. An interpreter was translating his ranting into Polish, but I understood German. He yelled that we'd only be freed through the crematorium chimney. Instead of translating those words, the interpreter said, "You will overcome everything."
Rev. Dabrowski was deported to Dachau where he was subjected to malaria experiments. He was liberated on April 29, 1945, by American troops and emigrated to the United States in 1949.
July 2, 1928
Born: Jaworzno, Poland
July 2, 1928
Maria was born to a poor family in the industrial town of Jaworzno, not far from Krakow, in southwestern Poland. Both of Maria's parents worked. Like her parents, Maria was baptized in the Roman Catholic faith.
1933-39: I took care of the house when my parents were working. I was 11 years old when the Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. German troops reached Jaworzno that same month. Jaworzno was in an area of Poland that became formally annexed to Germany.
1940-44: The Germans arrested me when I was 14 for using black-market ration cards to get food, which they said I then sold at "profiteering prices." I was deported to Auschwitz, and put in the "Bunker of Death," which was near the wall where prisoners from our Bunker 11 were executed every day. For some reason, instead of being shot I was transferred to a slave-labor camp for children in Lodz's Jewish ghetto. My parents, meanwhile, were notified that I had been executed, and my father died of a heart attack from the shock.
Emaciated from typhus, scurvy and malnutrition, 16-year-old Maria was released from the camp on November 9, 1944, towards the end of the war. She returned to Jaworzno.
June 21, 1919
Born: Plock, Poland
June 21, 1919
Janusz was the eldest of four children born to Catholic parents in Plock, a town located in a rural area north of Warsaw. His father was an accountant. Janusz attended local schools, and became active in scouting.
1933-39: Janusz went to Warsaw to study civil engineering. On September 1, 1939, the Germans began bombing Warsaw. One week later, all able-bodied men who had not been mobilized were directed to retreat east. On September 17, Janusz was 90 miles from the Romanian border. That night, the Soviets invaded Poland from the east, cutting off any escape route. Trapped, Janusz returned to German-occupied Poland, to his family in the town of Wyszogrod.
1940-44: Janusz was arrested in his parents' home in Wyszogrod on April 6, 1940. Some 129 community leaders, professionals and university students were taken that day. Two weeks later, Janusz arrived with a transport of 1,000 Polish political prisoners to the Dachau concentration camp. One month later, he was in the first transport to the Gusen camp in Austria. Janusz spent most of the next five years in Gusen, working in the quarry for the first year, and then in the camp's construction office. He was a member of the camp's underground organization.
At 5 p.m. on May 5, 1945, Janusz was liberated in Gusen by soldiers of the U.S. 3rd Army. He emigrated to the United States on March 23, 1948.
1892~September 18, 1942
Born: Plock, Poland
Wladyslaw was born to Catholic parents in Russian-occupied Poland. He grew up in Plock, a town located in a rural area north of Warsaw. Wladyslaw married in 1918 and he and his wife, Marie, raised four children.
1933-39: Wladyslaw worked as a bookkeeper, and then as an accountant for a local farmers' cooperative. In 1931 he was sent to the town of Wyszogrod to close a failing branch of the farmers cooperative. A year later, he organized a new, successful cooperative in Wyszogrod with local farmers and landowners. After Germany invaded Poland in 1939, the cooperative was taken over by the Germans, and Wladyslaw and the employees were ordered to stay on.
1940-42: On April 6, 1940, Wladyslaw and his eldest son Janusz were arrested at home in Wyszogrod by German police. They were taken to a large empty hall, where many men had been placed facing the wall. One by one, more men were brought in. After several hours, Wladyslaw was told to go home. His son was among the 129 arrested and deported to concentration camps. After that Wladyslaw, who had returned to the cooperative, joined the Polish resistance. In May 1942 he was arrested, and tortured for four months.
On September 18, 1942, Wladyslaw and 12 other prisoners were publicly hanged by the Germans in the former Jewish section of Plock.
Wladyslaw Tadeusz Surmacki
October 20, 1888~ May 28, 1942
Born: Proszowice, Poland
October 20, 1888
Born to Catholic parents, Wladyslaw attended schools in Warsaw and earned a degree in survey engineering in Moscow in 1914. After fighting in World War I, he commanded a horse artillery division in Warsaw, worked for Poland's Military Geographic Institute, and taught topography courses. He started a family in 1925, and after he retired from the army in 1929 he founded a surveying company.
1933-39: When war with Germany became imminent in the summer of 1939, Wladyslaw volunteered to fight but was rejected as too old. In early September, when Germany overwhelmed Poland's western defenses, he fled, hoping to fight in the defense of eastern Poland. In mid-September, a day before the Soviets invaded Poland, he was given a chance to leave the country and go to Great Britain but chose to stay and fight with the Polish resistance.
1940-42: Wladyslaw became chief of staff of TAP, one of the groups of the Polish underground. In the summer of 1940 he was arrested and sent to Auschwitz. As prisoner #2759 he worked as a surveying engineer in the camp's construction office. His work enabled him to go outside the camp. He used his status to smuggle letters and, by October, to help organize a military underground. In November 1941 he was released on the intercession of a former German engineering colleague, but was immediately rearrested and put in Warsaw's Pawiak Prison.
Wladyslaw was taken to a forest near Magdalenka and machine-gunned along with 223 Poles on May 28, 1942. They were buried in mass graves and later moved to the local cemetery.
Born: Zegrowek, Poland March 7, 1930
Gertruda was one of five children born to a poor family in the rural community of Zegrowek in western Poland. The Nowaks lived near Gertruda's grandparents. Like their parents, Sylwester and Joanna Nowak, the Nowak children were baptized in the Roman Catholic faith.
1933-39: As a young girl, I helped with chores around the house, and after school I looked after my younger brothers and sisters. I was 9 years old when the Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Nazi troops reached Zegrowek that same month. Zegrowek was in an area of Poland that became formally annexed to Germany.
1940-44: When I was 12 the Germans took my father; he had been accused of working for the Polish underground. Three months later, the Germans came for his wife and children, but I managed to escape by hiding at my grandmother's house. The Nazis arrested me as well on September 30, 1943. I was sent to a slave labor camp for children in Lodz's Jewish ghetto, where I found my two brothers. Children died there every day. Sometimes the guards would bury people in the Jewish cemetery who were barely alive, together with the corpses.
Gertruda was freed in Lodz on January 19, 1945. She and her youngest brother, Edward, were the only members of her family to survive. After the war, she remained in Poland.
September 30, 1922
Born: Siedlce, Poland September 30, 1922
Michal was one of two children born to Catholic parents living in Siedlce, a large town some 65 miles east of Warsaw. Michal's father was an intelligence officer in the Polish army. Because his duty station frequently changed, the family lived in several towns along the Polish-Soviet border. As a child, Michal enjoyed photography and was active in the boy scouts.
1933-39: We were living in Wilejka, a town near Vilna, when the Germans attacked Poland on September 1, 1939. The Soviet army invaded from the east on September 17, and my father left with his unit to avoid being captured by the Soviets. My mother, sister and I remained in Wilejka. In school, my teachers were replaced by Russian army officers who taught us Russian and Communist Party doctrine.
1940-45: In 1940 I escaped to Warsaw in German-occupied Poland. My mother and sister joined me later and we opened a delicatessen outside of Warsaw. In September 1942 I was arrested by the SS, suspected, like many Polish youth, of being in the underground. I escaped, but was arrested again in March 1943 and held in Warsaw's Pawiak Prison. After interrogation and beatings, I was shipped to Auschwitz where I barely survived starvation, brutality and untreated pneumonia. In 1944 I was sent to the Flossenbürg camp in Germany.
Michal was liberated while on a death march to Dachau in April 1945. He worked with the U.S. Army for five years in Germany and France before emigrating to America in 1950.
March 19, 1925~ April 19, 1943
Born: Rzeszow, Poland March 19, 1925
Jozef was the youngest of three children born to Roman Catholic parents in the town of Rzeszow in southern Poland. Jozef's father was a career officer in the Polish army. Jozef excelled in sports, and his favorite sport was gymnastics. He also studied the piano.
1933-39: Jozef was 14 when Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939. The invasion affected him deeply. Brought up in a patriotic family, he had been taught to love and defend Poland. The Germans were bombing Warsaw, the Polish capital, but Jozef was too young to join the army. The Germans reached Rzeszow on Sunday, September 10. After that, Jozef made his way to Warsaw, where he joined his two older sisters.
1940-43: In Warsaw Jozef became a sapper in a special unit of the Polish resistance. His code name was "Orlik." On April 19, 1943, during the Warsaw ghetto uprising, his unit was ordered to blow open part of Warsaw's ghetto wall so Jews could escape. As his unit approached the wall on Bonifraterska Street with explosives and weapons under their coats, his friend "Mlodek" tripped and his pistol accidentally dropped to the pavement. A policeman spotted the pistol and opened fire. Chaos erupted. German units opened fire on the unit before it could reach the wall.
Jozef and "Mlodek" were killed. Their retreating unit detonated the explosives, blowing up Jozef's and "Mlodek's" bodies to make them unrecognizable. Jozef was 18.
Pawel Zenon Wos
December 22, 1920
Born: Warsaw, Poland December 22, 1920
Pawel was the oldest of four children born to Roman Catholic parents in Poland's capital of Warsaw. Pawel's father had worked for the Polish merchant marine before starting his own textile business in 1930. The family moved to a comfortable apartment near the Royal Castle and the Vistula River. Pawel excelled in sports, including basketball and tennis. His favorite sport was rowing.
1933-39: In May 1939 I became an army reserve officer and went to training camp near Augustow. On the morning of September 1, 1939, German planes bombed our camp in a surprise attack. We retreated, moving by night to avoid German air attacks. Then on September 17 our unit was attacked by the Soviets; we surrendered 3 days later. With 20 zloty and a watch, I bribed a Soviet guard and escaped from a POW camp.
1940-44: Back in Warsaw I went to work for my father after he had been allowed to reopen his textile factory. Business required that we visit the Jewish ghetto. Twice I was caught smuggling food into the ghetto and twice my father bribed the Germans to get me released. In 1942, I joined the Polish Home Army and fought in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising. Thirty-two days into the uprising, the Germans arrested my family, and deported my father and me to the Flossenbürg concentration camp as political prisoners.
Pawel was liberated in Flossenbürg by American troops in April 1945. After the war, he returned to Warsaw. In 1961 he emigrated to the United States.
IREK FROM THE UNDERGROUND
By: Terese Pencak Schwartz
"Irek" was his code name. But most people knew him as Tadeusz Borowski. Only other Polish resistance fighters knew him by his pseudonym, "Irek". As 2nd Lieutenant in the Polish Home Army, (Armia Krajowa), "Irek" was responsible for men with names like: "Szczur", "Ludwik", "Jurek", and "Chawcki". He took his orders from "Waligora", a.k.a. Major Jan Tarnowski, commander of "Wola" Region in Warsaw.
Wearing either stolen German uniforms or just plain street clothes, these homemade soldiers were the Polish Underground -- the resistance fighters of Nazi-occupied Poland. Fathers, grandfathers and young boys fought side by side with only red and white armbands for identification. They came together to defend, as best as they could, their beloved homeland. They fought with Polish pistols and German "shmyzers", automatic sub-machine guns, which they either stole or bought from the Nazis. They concealed their precious cache in cemeteries and hospital grounds.
The city sewers became their staging area, their Headquarters and their passage ways. The younger ones -- teenagers worked as liaisons, running through the sewers smuggling supplies and passing cryptic messages and orders.
"One night," says Borowski, "we got the order that our armbands must be switched before dawn from our left arms to our right arms." The Germans had infiltrated their ranks. "In the morning we were instructed to shoot anyone wearing an armband on their left arm."
Through the wet stinking sewers they moved like rats in sewage that was sometimes chest high. "We would have to dismantle our weapons," says Borowski, "and carry them along with our ammunition over our heads so they would not get wet."
In one almost comic military operation, Borowski, who speaks perfect German, dressed himself in a stolen Tirolean mountaineer's outfit -- complete with a feathered hat. With the help of three of his men, who followed discreetly in a "borrowed" German automobile, Borowski befriended three Nazi police officers. The charlatan then coyly maneuvered the German officers into a quiet cull-de-sac where his three partners were waiting.
By day Borowski worked within the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto as an engineer at the Tyton Fabryka at Dzeilna 62. Taking advantage of his freedom to pass through the well-guarded gates without suspicion, Borowski smuggled weapons, ammunition and forged documents inside for the Jewish Underground. He also worked with the Jewish Underground secretly preparing selected Jewish men and boys for combat.
"Zegota" was the cryptic code that became the word for the Polish Council of Assistance to the Jews (Rada Pomocy Zdom) established with the approval of several Polish organizations on December 4, 1942. Headquartered in Warsaw, Zegota had branches in several cities and major villages throughout Poland. Zegota aided the Jews both inside and outside the ghettos by providing forged documents, food, lodging, medicine and financial support.
Tadeusz Ireneusz Borowski, Sr. was only one of several thousand Polish resistance fighters. With his ability to speak four languages fluently and his cunning talent for the art of war, he became a hero many times over. For his active participation in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, and for his part in smuggling arms into the Ghetto, Borowski was awarded the Cross of Valour and The Cross of Merit with Sword. In 1948, he received the highest medal of honor to be bestowed on a Polish soldier, the Virtuti Militari Class V. Even 40 years later, Borowski flew to Warsaw where he was, again decorated with medals, including one inscribed, "To the Heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto 1940 - 1943."
Not all of Borowski's heroism was of a military type. There is a Jewish woman alive today in a coastal town in California because she was rescued by "Irek" when she was five years old. He placed the young Jewish girl with a Polish Catholic family who also had a young daughter. Each month he sent money to the family for her support. The two girls lived and played together as sisters until the Catholic girl, Basha, was killed during a Soviet air attack in June 1942. Basha's parents gave the Jewish girl their daughter's identity. This new name and paperwork enabled the new "Basha" to elude the Nazis.
Pursued by the Soviet Political Police, (NKVD), even after the war, Borowski left Poland in 1950. He emigrated to the United States with his wife, Helena, who had worked as a double agent in a German submarine base for the Polish Intelligence. They raised three children while Mr. Borowski worked as a design engineer for Lockheed. Today, Borowski, now a widower, lives in Southern California with his dog, "Lady". A true Polish patriot even in his 80's, Borowski is still active in Scouting and the Polish community. His home is a museum of books, photos, medals, and Polish folk art. He is unabashedly proud of his wartime accomplishments but his feelings of pride are clouded by the neo-criticism of occupied Poland and the Polish people during the Holocaust. "I risked my life to save lives," says Borowski, in a proper Eastern European accent. "I'm not looking for glory. I just want people to know the truth [about] what happened."
Polish victims of ethnic cleansing by Nazi Germans visited Auschwitz Memorial
15 May 2006
Monday, 15 May 2006 On May 5, the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum played host to 51 residents of the village of Skierbieszów and the vicinity. They and their families were members of the local branch of the Polish Union of Former Nazi Penitentiary and Concentration Camp prisoners.
They included a large contingent of "Zamo?? Region Children"—the victims of ethnic cleansing carried out on a mass scale by the German occupation authorities in 1942-43. After expelling the Poles, the Germans turned their homesteads, along with all the furnishings and livestock, over to German settlers brought in from other locations such as Romania.
The Polish victims of ethnic cleansing were sent to special transit camps, the largest of which was in the city of Zamo??. After their families were broken up and they were separated from their relatives, the Poles were deported to slave labor in Germany or to concentration camps. Many members of the visiting group lost their parents or other relatives in Auschwitz.
Six Million Polish Citizens Were Killed During the Holocaust
On August 22, 1939, a few days before the official start of World War II, Hitler authorized his commanders, with these infamous words, to kill "without pity or mercy, all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. Only in this way can we obtain the living space [lebensraum] we need".
Heinrich Himmler echoed Hitler's decree:
"All Poles will disappear from the world.... It is essential that the great German people should consider it as its major task to destroy all Poles."
On September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland from three directions. Hitler's invincible troops attacked from the west, the north and the south. Poland never had a chance. By October 8, 1939, Polish Jews and non-Jews were stripped of all rights and, were subject to special legislation. Rationing, which allowed for only bare sustenance of food and medicine was quickly set up.
- Young Polish men were forcibly drafted into the German army.
- The Polish language was forbidden. Only the German language was allowed.
- All secondary schools and colleges were closed.
- The Polish press was liquidated. Libraries and bookshops were burned.
- Polish art and culture were destroyed.
- Polish churches and snyagogues were burned.
- Most of the priests were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
- Street signs were either destroyed or changed to new German names. Polish cities and towns were renamed in German.
- Ruthless obliteration of all traces of Polish history and culture.
Hundreds of Polish community leaders, mayors, local officials, priests, teachers, lawyers, judges, senators, doctors were executed in public.
Much of the rest of the so-called Intelligentsia, the Polish leading class, was sent to concentration camps where they later died.
The first mass execution of World War II took place in Wawer, a town near Warsaw, Poland on December 27, 1939 when 107 Polish non-Jewish men were taken from their homes in the middle of the night and shot.
This was just the beginning of the street roundups and mass executions that continued throughout the war.
At the same time, on the eastern border of Poland, the Soviet Union invaded and quickly conquered. Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland in half. The western half, occupied by the Nazis, became a new German territory: "General Gouvernment". The eastern half was incorporated within the adjoining Russian border by Soviet "elections". This new border "realignment" conferred Soviet citizenship on its new Polish inhabitants. And all young Polish men were subject to being drafted into the Soviet army.
Just like the Nazis the Soviets also reigned terror in Poland. The Soviets took over Polish businesses, Polish factories and destroyed churches and religious buildings. The Polish currency (zloty) was removed from circulation. All Polish banks were closed and savings accounts were blocked.
During the period of the Holocaust of World War II, Poland lost:
- 45% of her doctors,
- 57% of her attorneys
- 40% of her professors,
- 30% of her technicians,
- more than 18% of her clergy
- most of her journalists.
Poland's educated class was purposely targeted because the Nazis knew that this would make it easier to control the country.
Non-Jews of Polish descent suffered over 100,000 deaths at Auschwitz. The Germans forcibly deported approximately 2,000,000 Polish Gentiles into slave labor for the Third Reich. The Russians deported almost 1,700,000 Polish non-Jews to Siberia. Men, women and children were forced from their homes with no warning. Transferred in cattle cars in freezing weather, many died on the way. Polish children who possessed Aryan-looking characteristics were wrenched from their mother's arms and placed in German homes to be raised as Germans.
The Polish people were classified by the Nazis according to their racial characteristics. The ones who appeared Aryan were deported to Lodz for further racial examination. Most of the others were sent to the Reich to work in slave labor camps. The rest were sent to Auschwitz to die. Polish Christians and Catholics were actually the first victims of the notorious German death camp. For the first 21 months after it began in 1940, Auschwitz was inhabited almost exclusively by Polish non-Jews. The first ethnic Pole died in June 1940 and the first Jew died in October 1942.
Because of the obliteration of the Polish press by the Nazis, most of the world was not aware, including many parts of Nazi-occupied Poland, of the atrocities going on. Even to this day, much documentation of the Holocaust is not available. The entire records of Auschwitz were stolen by the Soviets and not returned. It was Hitler's goal to rewrite history.
The Nazis destroyed books, monuments, historical inscriptions. They began a forceful campaign of propaganda to convince the world of the inferiority and weakness of the Polish people and likewise, their invincible superiority and power.
Citizens in Warsaw look up at planes flying over as they line-up to build barricades against German tanks.
German poster announcing officially the death penalty to every Pole who assists Jews
Winicjusz Natoniewski~A Polish Victim of Nazi Crimes
"I burned like a living torch"
Reported from Danzig by Ulrich Krökel
Winicjusz Natoniewski was five years old when the Nazis carried out a massacre in his home village, setting houses and people on fire. He survived the flaming inferno, and now he claims justice – but judicial authorities reject him out of fear about compensation claims in the billions.
When the old man tells is story, the images from his childhood are immediately present again: the potato pit into which the father dragged the boy, and the burning house on the other side. "The hole in the basement filled with smoke. It choked me, I thought I would suffocate", Winicjusz Natoniewski remembers. It sounds like as if he were apologizing when he says: "I panicked and jumped out. But flames meters wide carried across the yard and grabbed me. I burned like a living torch."
Winicjusz Natoniewski was five and a half years old on that 2nd of February 1944 – the day, "when the Germans came". In their hunt for partisans special units of police and Wehrmacht combed through the forest area around the village of Szczecyn in eastern Poland, home to the Natoniewski family. In the evening 368 people were dead, almost exclusively civilians, shot or burned alive. The Szczecyn massacre is one of the many war crimes, mostly not atoned for, that Hitler’s death squads committed in occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945.
750 comparable terror operations in Poland with at total of almost 20,000 murder victims have been researched by the late historian Czeslaw Madajczyk. The survivors and the families of many victims suffer from the consequences to this day. In their name Winicjusz Natoniewski has for years been fighting "for justice", as he says. He claimed indemnity from the German Federal Republic before Polish courts – so far without success. Now the 72-year-old man is going to the European Court for Human Rights in Strasburg.
The fire has disfigured Natoniewski
Pain and suffering can hardly be compensated by money. Nobody knows this better than Natoniewski. It is a miracle that five-year-old Winicjusz in 1944 survived the flaming hell of Szczecyn. "My father grabbed me and smothered the fire on the wet floor", he remembers. Again and again Natoniewski takes his arm to his mouth during the conversation, but instead of a hand only a balloon of skin with a few finger stubs emerges from the sleeve of his shirt. With it he tries to separate his lips distorted by burn scars.
"At first the doctors wanted to amputate everything", he recalls, "but my parents denied their approval." Nevertheless his face, upper body and arms were burned to such an extent that Natoniewski remained disfigured for good. The old man claims 250,000 Euro as indemnity from Germany – money he intends to give to disabled children.
Yet the Federal Government refuses this, because it fears indemnity claims in the billions in similar cases. The number of such cases amounts to 30,000 in Poland alone. Under legal aspects the matter is extremely complicated. The German Federal Republic’s Constitutional Court determined in 2006 that victims of war crimes are not entitled to individual indemnity payments from the German state (2 BvR 1476/03 – Resolution of 15 February 2006).
Nationiewski therefore claimed against the German Federal Republic before Polish courts. But all instances up to the Supreme Court declared themselves not competent. They justified this with the principle of state immunity according to international law. This is also invoked by the Federal Government. "No state may be claimed against before the courts of another state", argues the Foreign Office in Berlin. "No state stands above another and is entitled to judge another state."
Natoniewski’s Danzig attorney Roman Nowosielski sees it differently. "In case of war crimes and crimes against humanity the principle of state immunity does not apply", he says and points to "new tendencies in international law". Indeed there are precedents in Greece and Italy that apparently prove him right. The Supreme Tribunal in Athens determined already in 2000 that the families of the SS massacre at Distomo in the summer of 1944 are entitled to compensation from the German state.
Does state immunity apply in case of war crimes?
Only at the last minute the Greek government stopped an execution against German patrimony in Greece back then. Also the Supreme Tribunal in Rome sentenced the German Federal Republic in October 2008 to paying an individual indemnity to nine families of victims of the Arrezo massacre. In this little town in Toscana German troops had killed more than 200 people in June 1944, allegedly as a reprisal for a partisan attack.
The parallels to the massacre in Polish Szczecyn and the Natoniewski case are obvious. Also in Italy 10,000 similar claims are in preparation, and Greek victim associations are still claiming billions in compensation from Germany. Does state immunity apply in case of war crimes? The Federal Government has requested clarification of this fundamental question from the International Tribunal in Den Haag. This court’s decision is still pending.
Against this background Polish courts have so far refused to handle the Natoniewski case. Now the old man hopes for help from Strasburg. Attorney Nowosielski makes clear the whole absurdity of the procedure when he says: "We are claiming before the Human Rights Court against the Polish judiciary because it denies our right to claim. If we are pronounced to be in the right, Poland will have to pay for German war crimes in the end."
In any case a shadow is cast on Germany and it handling of its own past, so often praised internationally. The main problem: the German Federal Republic has at all times selectively indemnified Nazi victims. The Jewish state of Israel received compensation. Later there was money for NS-victims in countries of Western Europe.
Homosexuals, Sinti and Roma and resistance fighters got nothing for a long time. In the last but one action more than four million Euros from the foundation "Erinnerung, Verantwortung, Zukunft" ("Remembrance, Responsibility, Future") went to former NS forced laborers, mainly from Eastern Europe. But the Pole Natoniewski cannot be helped by the fund. After all Hitler’s henchmen did not deport him to Germany but pushed him into a flaming hell on site.
Jacek Goldman and his Sister Wanda. Krakw, 1924
Jacek Goldman and his sister Wanda. Krakw, 1924. "My mother Wanda Meloch (nee Goldman) was killed in Bialystok after the Germans invaded in the summer of 1941. Jacek left the Warsaw Ghetto to join the partisans and nobody ever heard from him again. I received this photograph from my family in New York." Katarzyna Meloch, Warszawa
Passport found at the end of the 1950s in the attic of a renovated building on the town square in Grebw, near Tarnobzeg. It belonded to Debora Fortgang. In the passport are visas to Romania, Portugal, and Palestine.
Boleslaw Montag was born and raised in Cz?stochowa in the 1920s-30s. They had always felt very Polish, attended Polish schools, and spoke Polish at home. An uncle had even been an officer in the Polish army.
Boleslaw and his sister Anna were in hiding when the ghetto was liquidated and were taken to the Hasag-Pelcery work camp. While there his sister became ill with typhus. Boleslaw stole an apple so she would have something to eat and was caught and severely beaten by a guard. He was only twenty years old.
Out of an extended family of over twenty living in Cz?stochowa, only Boleslaw, his sister and their ex-officer uncle survived the war. They came back to their homes but found that they had been occupied by Poles during their incarceration. They moved to the nearby town of Katowice and tried to rebuild their lives. The uncle died soon after the war from cancer (possibly caused or exacerbated by working conditions in Hasag).
Anna moved to Israel in the mid-1950s and was only allowed to visit the family after the fall of Communism in 1989. Boleslaw, who changed his name to Tadeusz, wanted to leave too but his wife felt that Poland was their home and they should stay. Tadeusz and his family, which now include children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, still live in Poland today.
By James W. “Jim,” Chico, California:
Sydney (born Zysman Szlamkowicz in Czestochowa, Poland in 1921) is a Holocaust survivor and the last of my grandmother Esther’s family. My grandparents got out of Poland in 1920, but left her three brothers and two sisters and their families behind.
“Aunt Esther” was well remembered and helped her family until 1939. After the war she found four survivors; a niece and three nephews. In 1949 three, Abram, Esther, and Moshe, went from DP camps in Europe to Israel, where they married and raised “Sabra” families. They have now passed away.
In 1950 Sidney came to the United States and New York City. He tells of the time when he was a courier sneaking in and out of the Czestochowa ghetto. He was shot in the stomach by the Nazis, but was able to get himself back inside the ghetto, where a Jewish doctor operated and saved his life.
His second story is about when he was finally caught by the Nazis. He and two other youths were lined up against a wall to be shot, but was saved at the last minute. He was taken to jail then sent to Buchenwald, where he, together with his cousin Abram, survived as skilled labor, doing tailoring and shoemaking, and other work.
His third story of survival happened somewhere near Buchenwald where he was slave labor in a steel mill making rails for the railroad. He worked right at the ovens and molten steel dripped on his foot, burning down to the bone. Severely wounded, he knew he would be killed. Instead, the SS Guard got him a Jewish doctor, who said Sidney would need surgery and drugs they did not have. The SS guard took a list from the Jewish doctor and got the supplies and drugs he needed to save Sidney’s foot and life. He cries every time he tells that story and asks why did that SS guard save him, “the boy” as the guard referred to him.