Pictures & Records (6)

Show More

Stories

Isaac Millsaps' Last Alamo Letter

Isaac Millsaps' Last Alamo Letter & The Lavaca Precinct Election Return
by Chester Wilkes and Wallace L. McKeehan

In the 1960's the dramatic letter shown below dated 3 Mar 1836 from Alamo Defender and Gonzales Ranger Isaac Millsaps who was among the Gonzales Alamo Relief Force who entered the surrounded Alamo on 1 Mar 1836 surfaced on the Texas history document market passing through the hands of notorious dealer C. Dorman David. If authentic, such a find was of great historic and emotional value to Texas historians, Alamo buffs, library collections and therefore also monetary value on the documents market. The letter became cited and probably will continue to be a topic of discussion for a long time to come as exampled by this article in works related to Texas history and particular the Alamo.

The Millsaps letter is currently in the University of Houston's Texana collection which was purchased in 1964 and according to some authors has been proudly displayed as authentic and reproduced in histories sold at the Alamo and in Time-Life Books on the American West. The Millsaps letter ended up in the University of Houston in the E.B. Taylor collection which is believed in large part to have come from dealer C. Dorman David. David is an admitted forger of rare Texas history documents in addition to his legitimate business in them and in many people's eyes the suspect for creation of the Millsaps letter. Experts have pointed out from the onset the many signals in the Millsaps letter that make it unlikely authentic although the document has probably not been examined scientifically for paper and ink of the period. Although by no means proof of forgery, the letter contains language and descriptions that are not characteristic of the times which include description of the Alamo fortress itself and the uniforms of Mexican soldiers. There is nothing personal or unique in the letter that could not have been gathered from readily available histories of the period just before the letter appeared in the 60's.

With time attention turned away from David as the actual forger and the prime suspect for creation of the Millsaps letter is more recently John Laflin who was considered "one of the greatest forgers in American history." Laflin also used the surname John Lafitte and claimed descendancy from the famous corsair, Jean Lafitte of the Gulf and Caribbean of the early 19th century. Laflin is believed to have created the Journal of Jean Lafitte, not de novo, but from even earlier documents, some concocted and some authentic, that he inherited from his family and those in common records. It has more recently been suggested that Laflin had a hand in the creation of the La Pena Diary, which was the basis of reprinting of the book With Santa Anna in Texas: A Personal Narrative of the Revolution by Jose Enrique de la Pena. La Pena was a lieutenant in the centralist army of Santa Anna and gives great detail into the movements of the army, the Battle of the Alamo and fate of several defenders including Davy Crockett. It is agreed by multiple experts and authors that styles, even near direct quotes in places, with names and scenes changed to fit the work, and even handwriting in the La Pena diary, the LaFitte journal and the Millsaps letter are those with striking similarity to that of master forger John Laflin.

In February 1836 DeWitt Colonists in the Lavaca River valley like all freedom-loving Mexican Federalist Republicans found their dreams and livelihood and their very existence threatened by the centralist dictatorship of Santa Anna. Among the voters of the Lavaca Precinct on 1 Feb 1836 gathered to elect two delegates to the Texian independence convention at Washington-on-the-Brazos was Isaacs Millsaps. Millsaps along with neighbor Andrew Kent was appointed an election judge and along with another neighbor, Henry C.G. Summers who was election clerk, served as the executors of the election. The documentation of the election on the Lavaca was recorded and is in the Texas Archives (Lavaca Precinct Election Return). The document is assumed to have been recorded by election Clerk Henry C.G. Summers and signed by Judges Andrew Kent and Isaac Millsaps. A close comparison of the handwriting on the document reveals that the assumed signature of Clerk Henry C.G. Summers is probably the same as the entries on the entire document. The signature of Andrew Kent is clearly different from that of Summers and identical to his signature on other historic documents including his land grant title of 28 June 1831 assigned by DeWitt Colony land commissioner Navarro. However, the signature of Isaac Millsaps on the return has not been verified yet from independent historic documents. Summers presumed entry on the return spells the surname "Millsapps" with two "p's" rather than the "Millsaps" signature as Judge. However, it remains unclear whether the Millsaps signature is actually his own or was done for him by Clerk Summers. The handwriting of Summers on the entries has significant similarity to those of Millsaps signature as Judge. In fact the differences between the Millsapps entry and the Millsaps signature are no greater than the differences between Henry C.G. Summers signature as clerk and the entry of his own name on the return. The possibility arises that Isaac Millsaps may have been unable to write at all and that to save the embarrassment of signing with the usual "X" or "his mark," Summers signed for him. Since the vote was probably taken orally there may have been no need for election judge Millsaps to be able to read or write fluently. The reader can decide from the magnified illustrations of the individual entries on the Lavaca Precinct Return. In any event, none of the handwriting on the election list is similar to either the text or the signature "Isaac" of the Millsaps Alamo Letter.

Added by bgill

CONTROVERSIAL ALAMO DIARY

diary.jpg
Two unidentified Texans paid nearly $390,000 for a diary that challenges one of the most popular legends in their state's history: that Davy Crockett proudly fought Mexican troops to the bitter end of the 13-day siege at the Alamo.

The 200-page manuscript, purchased at an auction Wednesday in Hollywood, is supposedly a Mexican army officer's eyewitness account of Crockett's death on March 6, 1836.

The controversial diary says the King of the Wild Frontier was captured and executed with other volunteers in the force of 200 who were defending the former Spanish mission in their fight to create the state of Texas from Mexican territory. 

"Although they were tortured before they were killed, they did not cry out, they did not protest or humiliate themselves before their torturers," said Gregory Shaw, Vice president of Butterfield & Butterfield auction house, which sold the diary.

Many experts doubt the account, said to have been dictated in Spanish in the 1840s by Lt. Col. Jose Enrique de la Pena. It defies the traditional story of the Alamo's capture in which the volunteer force died on the walls or in hand-to-hand combat with Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's troops.

The traditional story holds that Crockett, the former congressman from Tennessee, fought to the end, wielding his long-rifle, "Betsy," like a club before he fell near the front doors of the Alamo's chapel.

Little was known about the buyers other than that they purchased the diary for $387,500 through a New York dealer with the intent of keeping it in Texas, Shaw said

Questions of validity

 

Among critics of the diary is Joseph Musso, a Los Angeles- based historic illustrator who is researching a biography on Alamo commander James Bowie.

Musso questioned the validity of the documents because they seemed to surface out of nowhere in 1955 in the hands of a Mexican coin dealer.

"It doesn't have 110 years of human records behind it," Musso said, asserting that not enough forensic tests have been conducted.

Bill Groneman, an Alamo historian, is also skeptical about the diary.

"It's hundreds of loose pages from all different types of paper manufacturers, all cut down to a uniform size," he said. "It has a number of different (styles of) handwriting in it."

Critics have dismissed de la Pena's memoir as a fake ever since an English translation by San Antonio archivist Carmen Perry was published in 1975.

Bill Groneman, a New York arson investigator, called the journal a forgery in his book, "Defense of a Legend: Crockett and the de la Pena Diary." He has acknowledged, however, that he cannot prove it.

But James Crisp, a history professor at North Carolina State University, has studied the documents and is convinced they are genuine.

"I have no doubt that they are authentic," Crisp said Wednesday. "They have passed every test."

Shaw said the memoir was written on paper of high rag content, typical of the early 19th century.

"We were able to determine, unequivocally, that the paper was manufactured between 1825 and 1832 and, perhaps more importantly, that the ink when applied to the paper was fresh and the paper has not been treated or tampered with in any way."

'Texans like their historical myths'

 

Musso acknowledged there are many who would refuse to believe that Crockett did not go down fighting. He said he is not one of them.

"If the document is real, I don't think it should change people's perceptions of Davy Crockett. Whether he died swinging his rifle ... or whether he was brought before Santa Anna" should not matter, Musso said.

The diary had been at the John Peace Library at the University of Texas at San Antonio for nearly 25 years, but was sold by John Peace III, son of the man for whom the library was named.

Don Carleton, director of the Center for American History at the University of Texas, said Texans associate the Alamo with a great sense of patriotic pride, so many would be offended at the thought of Crockett surrendering.

"Many Texans like to hold onto their historical myths," he said.

SOURCE: http://www.cnn.com/US/9811/19/alamo.auction/

Added by bgill

The Fall Of The Alamo~by Captain R. M. Potter

Date of Event: 1836

 

Written in 1860, Subsequently Revised by Author

 

Captain R.M. Potter lived near the Alamo at the time it fell, and was in a good position to learn many of the details of what happened there. He wrote the first draft of this narrative for the San Antonio Herald in 1860, and later revised it, after communications with Colonel Juan Seguin, USA, who was an officer of the Alamo garrison up to within six days of the assault. Due to great interest in the subject of the Alamo, this document was circulated extensively in pamphlet form.

To Read this document, link below

http://www.nationalcenter.org/Alamo.html

KENT CONWELL: Riddles of the Alamo


Although the fall of the Alamo and the subsequent defeat of Santa Anna at San Jacinto is one hundred and seventy years in the past, there are still several intriguing riddles surrounding the Alamo, riddles created by time itself. I'm surprised there has not been even more confusion as to what really took place in those pre-dawn hours on that day.

Believe it or not, few facts regarding the battle were committed to pen and paper for years. One of the first written Anglo documents was a pamphlet written by Captain Reuben M. Potter in 1860, twenty-four years after the Alamo.

And twenty-four years can massage facts in a person's memory and give birth to many puzzles. Probably one of the most dramatic moments in Texas' history was Travis drawing a line in the sand during the siege. Or did he?

William Zuber first related the story in 1873, almost forty years after the alleged incident. No one will ever know for certain, but one fact is that on March 3, the day when the incident was to have taken place, Travis still had hope. His letters dispatched on that day were filled with details on what the relief force would bring them. Why would he issue such a dire ultimatum at that point in time? Why not two days later when hope had faded?

So, did he draw the line? Mrs. Dickinson did not mention it, and in 1877, William Zuber admitted he had made up portions of Travis' last speech although most of the information had come from Louis Rose, the one who fled the Alamo.

There is no hard proof however that Travis did not draw the line. And if not, then let us believe what we wish.

Speaking of Travis, every picture I've seen of him depicted him in uniform. True, he had ordered one from a tailor, but he left for the Alamo before it was completed. Sergeant Felix Nunez, who took Travis' coat from his dead body, said that it was of homemade Texas jeans, a sort of blanket coat.

Did Travis commit suicide? One report was that Travis stabbed himself, but his slave, Joe, who claims he was at Travis' side, insisted his owner was killed by enemy gunfire. His report is substantiated by Captain de la Pena, of whom we've all heard, who stated Travis fell fighting.

Did Crockett surrender? This argument rocks back and forth. Colonel Pena says emphatically yes as do several other Mexican officers; yet Mrs. Dickinson insisted she saw his mutilated body between the church and the barracks. The very sergeant who procured Travis' coat supported her report. He stated he saw a buckskin clad man fighting ferociously until a Mexican officer struck him with a sword above his right eye. When the man fell, he was immediately impaled by over twenty bayonets.

Were all defenders were put to death?

No. Fourteen women, children, slaves, and one defender survived. The defender, Brigido Guerrero, talked himself free by claiming to have been a prisoner of the Texans. Guerrero is mentioned in the diaries of two of Santa Anna's officers. In fact, there was enough credence in his story that in 1878, he began receiving a pension from Bexar County for his part in the battle.

If you had a hundred reports on the number of Mexican dead, you'd have a hundred different numbers. Texas sources claim a thousand; Mexican, as low as 65. Probably the most accurate number comes from Dr. Joseph Barnard, a Texas physician captured by the Mexicans and sent to San Antonio to tend their wounded. Between the wounded and dead, he determined around six hundred casualties, two hundred dead, four hundred wounded.

One of the lesser known riddles is %u2018Did Houston really order the Alamo blown up?' He sent the orders with Bowie in January. The orders have been lost, but in a letter to Governor Smith on January 17, Houston wrote that he had ordered Bexar to be destroyed. "If you think well of it," he added. "I will remove all cannon . . .blow up the Alamo, and abandon the place."

And finally, the flag that flew over the Alamo--what happened to it? Or was there one? It certainly wasn't the Lone Star flag for it was not adopted until 1839.

The flag Santa Anna sent back to Mexico was the flag of the volunteer group of the New Orleans Greys. And today, with Santa Anna's victory message still attached, the flag remains at Chapultepec, not on exhibit, but buried in the files.

SOURCE: http://www.panews.com/opinion/local_story_104174045.html?keyword=secondarystory

Added by bgill

The Texas Declaration of Independence

declaration 2.jpg
2 images
The Texas Declaration of Independence was produced, literally, overnight. Its urgency was paramount, because while it was being prepared, the Alamo in San Antonio was under seige by Santa Anna's army of Mexico.

Immediately upon the assemblage of the Convention of 1836 on March 1, a committee of five of its delegates were appointed to draft the document. The committee, consisting of George C. Childress, Edward Conrad, James Gaines, Bailey Hardeman, and Collin McKinney, prepared the declaration in record time. It was briefly reviewed, then adopted by the delegates of the convention the following day.

As seen from the transcription below, the document parallels somewhat that of the United States, signed almost sixty years earlier. It contains statements on the function and responsibility of government, followed by a list of grievances. Finally, it concludes by declaring Texas a free and independent republic.

The full text of the document is as follows:

The Unanimous
Declaration of Independence
made by the
Delegates of the People of Texas
in General Convention
at the town of Washington
on the 2nd day of March 1836.

When a government has ceased to protect the lives, liberty and property of the people, from whom its legitimate powers are derived, and for the advancement of whose happiness it was instituted, and so far from being a guarantee for the enjoyment of those inestimable and inalienable rights, becomes an instrument in the hands of evil rulers for their oppression.

When the Federal Republican Constitution of their country, which they have sworn to support, no longer has a substantial existence, and the whole nature of their government has been forcibly changed, without their consent, from a restricted federative republic, composed of sovereign states, to a consolidated central military despotism, in which every interest is disregarded but that of the army and the priesthood, both the eternal enemies of civil liberty, the everready minions of power, and the usual instruments of tyrants.

When, long after the spirit of the constitution has departed, moderation is at length so far lost by those in power, that even the semblance of freedom is removed, and the forms themselves of the constitution discontinued, and so far from their petitions and remonstrances being regarded, the agents who bear them are thrown into dungeons, and mercenary armies sent forth to force a new government upon them at the point of the bayonet.

When, in consequence of such acts of malfeasance and abdication on the part of the government, anarchy prevails, and civil society is dissolved into its original elements. In such a crisis, the first law of nature, the right of self-preservation, the inherent and inalienable rights of the people to appeal to first principles, and take their political affairs into their own hands in extreme cases, enjoins it as a right towards themselves, and a sacred obligation to their posterity, to abolish such government, and create another in its stead, calculated to rescue them from impending dangers, and to secure their future welfare and happiness.

Nations, as well as individuals, are amenable for their acts to the public opinion of mankind. A statement of a part of our grievances is therefore submitted to an impartial world, in justification of the hazardous but unavoidable step now taken, of severing our political connection with the Mexican people, and assuming an independent attitude among the nations of the earth.

The Mexican government, by its colonization laws, invited and induced the Anglo-American population of Texas to colonize its wilderness under the pledged faith of a written constitution, that they should continue to enjoy that constitutional liberty and republican government to which they had been habituated in the land of their birth, the United States of America.

In this expectation they have been cruelly disappointed, inasmuch as the Mexican nation has acquiesced in the late changes made in the government by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who having overturned the constitution of his country, now offers us the cruel alternative, either to abandon our homes, acquired by so many privations, or submit to the most intolerable of all tyranny, the combined despotism of the sword and the priesthood.

It has sacrificed our welfare to the state of Coahuila, by which our interests have been continually depressed through a jealous and partial course of legislation, carried on at a far distant seat of government, by a hostile majority, in an unknown tongue, and this too, notwithstanding we have petitioned in the humblest terms for the establishment of a separate state government, and have, in accordance with the provisions of the national constitution, presented to the general Congress a republican constitution, which was, without just cause, contemptuously rejected.

It incarcerated in a dungeon, for a long time, one of our citizens, for no other cause but a zealous endeavor to procure the acceptance of our constitution, and the establishment of a state government.

It has failed and refused to secure, on a firm basis, the right of trial by jury, that palladium of civil liberty, and only safe guarantee for the life, liberty, and property of the citizen.

It has failed to establish any public system of education, although possessed of almost boundless resources, (the public domain,) and although it is an axiom in political science, that unless a people are educated and enlightened, it is idle to expect the continuance of civil liberty, or the capacity for self government.

It has suffered the military commandants, stationed among us, to exercise arbitrary acts of oppression and tyrrany, thus trampling upon the most sacred rights of the citizens, and rendering the military superior to the civil power.

It has dissolved, by force of arms, the state Congress of Coahuila and Texas, and obliged our representatives to fly for their lives from the seat of government, thus depriving us of the fundamental political right of representation.

It has demanded the surrender of a number of our citizens, and ordered military detachments to seize and carry them into the Interior for trial, in contempt of the civil authorities, and in defiance of the laws and the constitution.

It has made piratical attacks upon our commerce, by commissioning foreign desperadoes, and authorizing them to seize our vessels, and convey the property of our citizens to far distant ports for confiscation.

It denies us the right of worshipping the Almighty according to the dictates of our own conscience, by the support of a national religion, calculated to promote the temporal interest of its human functionaries, rather than the glory of the true and living God.

It has demanded us to deliver up our arms, which are essential to our defence, the rightful property of freemen, and formidable only to tyrannical governments.

It has invaded our country both by sea and by land, with intent to lay waste our territory, and drive us from our homes; and has now a large mercenary army advancing, to carry on against us a war of extermination.

It has, through its emissaries, incited the merciless savage, with the tomahawk and scalping knife, to massacre the inhabitants of our defenseless frontiers.

It hath been, during the whole time of our connection with it, the contemptible sport and victim of successive military revolutions, and hath continually exhibited every characteristic of a weak, corrupt, and tyrranical government.

These, and other grievances, were patiently borne by the people of Texas, untill they reached that point at which forbearance ceases to be a virtue. We then took up arms in defence of the national constitution. We appealed to our Mexican brethren for assistance. Our appeal has been made in vain. Though months have elapsed, no sympathetic response has yet been heard from the Interior. We are, therefore, forced to the melancholy conclusion, that the Mexican people have acquiesced in the destruction of their liberty, and the substitution therfor of a military government; that they are unfit to be free, and incapable of self government.

The necessity of self-preservation, therefore, now decrees our eternal political separation.

We, therefore, the delegates with plenary powers of the people of Texas, in solemn convention assembled, appealing to a candid world for the necessities of our condition, do hereby resolve and declare, that our political connection with the Mexican nation has forever ended, and that the people of Texas do now constitute a free, Sovereign, and independent republic, and are fully invested with all the rights and attributes which properly belong to independent nations; and, conscious of the rectitude of our intentions, we fearlessly and confidently commit the issue to the decision of the Supreme arbiter of the destinies of nations.

Richard Ellis, President
of the Convention and Delegate
from Red River.

Charles B. Stewart
Tho. Barnett




John S. D. Byrom
Francis Ruis
J. Antonio Navarro
Jesse B. Badgett
Wm D. Lacy
William Menifee
Jn. Fisher
Matthew Caldwell
William Motley
Lorenzo de Zavala
Stephen H. Everett
George W. Smyth
Elijah Stapp
Claiborne West
Wm. B. Scates
M. B. Menard
A. B. Hardin
J. W. Burton
Thos. J. Gazley
R. M. Coleman
Sterling C. Robertson

James Collinsworth
Edwin Waller
Asa Brigham



Geo. C. Childress
Bailey Hardeman
Rob. Potter
Thomas Jefferson Rusk
Chas. S. Taylor
John S. Roberts
Robert Hamilton
Collin McKinney
Albert H. Latimer
James Power
Sam Houston
David Thomas
Edwd. Conrad
Martin Palmer
Edwin O. Legrand
Stephen W. Blount
Jms. Gaines
Wm. Clark, Jr.
Sydney O. Pennington
Wm. Carrol Crawford
Jno. Turner



Benj. Briggs Goodrich
G. W. Barnett
James G. Swisher
Jesse Grimes
S. Rhoads Fisher
John W. Moore
John W. Bower
Saml. A. Maverick (from Bejar)
Sam P. Carson
A. Briscoe
J. B. Woods
H. S. Kimble, Secretary

 

Added by bgill

Treaties of Velasco

treaty 1.jpg
2 images
Treaties of Velasco
(14 May 1836)
The two treaties of Velasco were negotiated between officials of the ad interim government of the Republic of Texas and Santa Anna, the Mexican dictator and commander of forces, about three weeks after his capture by the Texans at the Battle of San Jacinto.

The "public" treaty, presented below, was to be published and implemented immediately after it was signed. A second "secret" treaty was to be implemented after the terms of the public treaty were fulfilled. In essence, the secret treaty provided for Santa Anna's immediate release in exchange for his recognition of Texas as an independent nation.

However, the treaties were soon violated by both parties. The Texas army blocked Santa Anna's release, as promised in the treaties. Meanwhile, the Mexican government declared void all of Santa Anna's acts while in captivity.

Together, the treaties somewhat loosely established Texas' southern border at the Rio Grande River, but this issue would not be finally resolved until 1848--after Texas statehood and the conclusion of the Mexican War.

Articles of an agreement entered into, between His Excellency David G. Burnet, President of the Republic of Texas, of the one part, and His Excellency General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, President General in Chief of the Mexican Army, of the other part. Articulos de un convenio celebrado entre S. E. el Gral. en Gefe del Ejercito de operaciones Presidente de la Republica Mejicana D. Ant. Lopez de Santa Anna por una parte, y S. E. el Presidente de la Republica de Tejas D. David G. Burnet por la otra parte. Article 1stGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna agrees that he will not take up arms, nor will he exercise his influence to cause them to be taken up against the people of Texas, during the present war of Independence. Articulo 1oEl Gral. Ant. Lopez de Santa Anna se conviene en no tomar las armas ni influir en que se tomen contra el Pueblo de Tejas durante la actual contienda de Independencia. Article 2ndAll hostilities between the mexican and texian troops will cease immediately both on land and water. Articulo 2oCesaran inmediatamente las hostilidades por mar y tierra entre las tropas Mejicanas y Tejanas. Article 3rdThe mexican troops will evacuate the Territory of Texas, passing to the other side of the Rio Grande del Norte. Articulo 3oLas tropas Mejicanas evacuaran el territorio de Tejas, pasando al otro lado del Rio Grande del Norte. 4thThe mexican Army in its retreat shall not take the property of any person without his consent and just indemnification, using only such articles as may be necessary for its subsistence, in cases when the owner may not be present, and remitting to the commander of the army of Texas or to the commissioner to be appointed for the adjustment of such matters, an account of the value of the property consumed--the place where taken, and the name of the owner, if it can be ascertained. Articulo 4oEl Ejercito Mejicano en su retirada, no usara de las propiedades de ninguna persona sin su consentimiento y justa indemnizacion, tomando solamente los articulos precisos para su subsistencia no hayandose presente los duenos y remitiendo al Gral. del Ejercito tejano o a los comisionados para el arreglo de tales negocios, la nota del valor de la propiedad consumida, el lugar donde se tomo, y el nombre del dueno si se supiere. 5thThat all private property including cattle, horses, negro slaves or indentured persons of whatever denomination, that may have been captured by any portion of the mexican army or may have taken refuge in the said army since the commencement of the late invasion, shall be restored to the Commander of the Texian army, or to such other persons as may be appointed by the Government of Texas to receive them. Articulo 5oQue toda propiedad particular incluyendo ganados, caballos, negros esclavos, o gente contratada de cualquier denominacion q. haya sido aprehendida por una parte del Ejercito Mejicano, o que se hubiere refugiado en dicho Ejercito desde el principio de la ultima invacion, sera devuelta al Comandante de las fuerzas Tejanas, o a las personas que fueren nombradas por el Gobierno de Tejas para recibirlas. 6thThe troops of both armies will refrain from coming into contact with each other, and to this end the Commander of the army of Texas will be careful not to approach within a shorter distance of the mexican army than five leagues. Articulo 6oLas tropas de ambos Ejercitos beligerantes no se pondran en contacto, y a este fin el Gral. Tejano cuidara q. entre los dos campos medie una distancia de cinco leguas por lo menos. 7thThe mexican army shall not make any other delay on its march, than that which is necessary to take up their hospitals, baggage [---] and to cross the rivers--any delay not necessary to these purposes to be considered an infraction of this agreement. Articulo 7oEl Ejercito Mejicano no tendra mas demora en su marcha, q. la precisa para lebantar sus hospitales, trenes, etc. y pasar los rios, considerandose como una infraccion de este convenio la demora q. sin justo motivo se notare. 8thBy express to be immediately dispatched, this agreement shall be sent to General Filisola and to General T. J. Rusk, commander of the texian Army, in order that they may be apprised of its stipulations, and to this and they will exchange engagements to comply with the same. Articulo 8oSe remitira por expreso violento este convenio al Gral. de Division Vicente Filisola y al Gral. T. J. Rusk, Comte del Ejercito de Tejas, para q. queden obligados a cuanto les pertenece y q. poniendose de acuerdo convengan en la pronta y debida ejecucion de lo estipulado. 9thThat all texian prisoners now in possession of the mexican Army or its authorities be forthwith released and furnished with free passports to return to their homes, in consideration of which a corresponding number of Mexican prisoners, rank and file, now in possession of the Government of Texas shall be immediately released. The remainder of the mexican prisoners that continue in possession of the Government of Texas to be treated with due humanity -- any extraordinary comforts that may be furnished them to be at the charge of the Government of Mexico. Articulo 9oQue todos los prisioneros tejanos q. hoy se hayan en poder del Ejercito mejicano, o en el de alguna de las autoridades del Gobno. de Mejico, sean inmediatamente puestos en livertad y se les den pasaportes para regresar a sus casas, debiendose tambien poner en libertad por parte del Gobno. de Tejas, un numero correspondiente de prisioneros Mejicanos del mismo rango y graduacion y tratando al resto de dichos prisioneros Mejicanos q. queden en poder del Gobno. de Tejas con toda la debida humanidad, haciendose cargo al Gobno. de Mejico por los gastos q. se hicieren en obsequio de aquellos, cuando se les proporcione alguna comodidad extraordinaria. 10thGeneral Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna will be sent to Veracruz as soon as it shall be deemed proper. Articulo 10El Gral. Ant. Lopez de Santa Anna sera enviado a Veracruz tan luego como se crea conveniente.
The contracting parties sign this Instrument for the above mentioned purposes, by duplicate, at the Port of Velasco this fourteenth day of May 1836.
David G Burnet

Ant. Lopez de
Santa Anna

Jas Collinsworth,
Sec of State

Bailey Hardeman,
Secy of Treasury

T W Grayson, Atty General

 

Ant. Lopez de Santa Anna

David G Burnet

Jas Collinsworth,
Secretary of State

Bailey Hardeman,
Secy of Treasury

T W Grayson, Atty General

 

Note: The above Spanish text for the Public Treaty of Velasco was transcribed for Lone Star Junction by Galen Greaser, Austin, Texas. Y para la constancia y efectos consiguientes, lo firman por duplicado las partes contratantes en el Puerto de Velasco a 14 de Mayo de 1836.

Added by bgill

~The Alamo Flag~

alamo_flag.jpg
Alamo Flag

The Mexican constitution of 1824 gave the people of Texas rights similar to those enjoyed at the time by the citizens of the United States, but every new Mexican government attempted to increase control over Texas. To call attention to this, Texans removed the coat of arms from the center of a Mexican flag, and replaced it with the date of the constitution. It was this banner that flew from the walls of the Alamo.

For 13 days, less that 200 Texans held off an army of more than 5,000 men. The alcalde of San Antonio, an eyewitness to the last day of the battle, recorded: "The deadly fire of Travis' artillery resembled a constant thunder. At the third charge of 830 (Mexican soldiers) only 130 were left alive. The gallantry of the Texans who defended the Alamo was really wondered at by the Mexican army. Even the generals were astonished at how dearly victory was bought."

The Alamo fell on March 6, 1836. In addition to the 182 Texans who died, approximately 1500 of the best Mexican soldiers were killed and another 1500 seriously wounded. The Texans in the Alamo were fighting to protect the rights outlined in the Mexican constitution of 1824 and never knew that Texas had declared its independence 4 days earlier.

Added by bgill

~Myths & Legends of the Alamo~

Countless hours have been spent proving or disproving the legends, lies and half-truths that have in them selves been woven into the Alamo's historical record. The only problem with trying to debunk the Alamo myths is the fact that theoretically, all of the American witnesses were killed, one way or the other, at the conclusion of the battle.

The first and probably most important question is how did Davy Crocket really die and is the fictionalized account of his death really accurate? Some historians believe that Crocket did not die in the heat of battle as immortalized by the Duke. Instead, it is surmised that Davy and several other survivors located in the ruins of the Alamo were given no quarter and executed on the spot.

In an attempt to answer this question, investigators have turned to the available Mexican records that chronicled the "victors" version of what happened after the battle. Translated documents written by José Enrique de la Pena, an aide to Santa Anna, indicate that Crocket, always the politician, attempted to talk his way out of his dire predicament. Claiming that he was a citizen of the United States, Crocket spun a yarn saying that he had sought refuge in the Alamo rather than have his "Foreigner" status called into question by any Mexican forces that he may have encountered while coincidently exploring the countryside in and around the old mission. Apparently the triumphant Santa Anna was unimpressed with Davy's silver tongue and he ordered Crocket and 6 other survivors be put death. The horrified De la Pena writes that upon Santa Anna's command, several Mexican officers, "fell upon these unfortunate, defenseless men just as a tiger leaps upon his prey."

Even thought this version of Crockets death raises the hackles of Alamo revisionist's everywhere, the fact remains that the surrender of Crocket and his subsequent execution was reported by several highly respected newspapers of the time. It proves just how barbaric and untrustworthy Santa Anna really was.
Either way, Davy Crocket died a heroic death as evidenced by De la Pena's final words about the execution, "though tortured before they were killed, these unfortunates died without complaining and without humiliating themselves before their torturers."

Another reoccurring conundrum is the location of certain documents and personal belonging taken from the dead Alamo defenders following the battle. "To the victors go the spoils", and as soon as the battle was over, Mexican soldiers pillaged the Alamo. Nothing was sacred. Every defenders body was stripped bare and any documents and personal baubles of value were recovered as spoils of war. Once the bodies of the dead had yielded their booty, they were burned unceremoniously on several huge funeral pyres.

Any paperwork, which hinted that it might contain information of intelligence value, was most assuredly seized for Santa Anna's personal perusal. Historians continue to debate what documents, if any, were actually collected by Mexican Officials and if the information exists today. Unfortunately, if the disputed documents do survive, they are secluded somewhere within the bowls of the Mexican National Archives where they will most likely never be made available for public examination.

This one unanswered enigma has fueled the imagination of many would-be treasure hunters. It is rumored that the Alamo defenders placed their valuable and personal effects inside a large bell. Prior to last days of the battle, the bell filled to overflowing with mementos, was buried at a secret location somewhere within the confines of the mission and has never been located.

In February 1894, The San Antonio Express News featured an article of particular interest because it perpetuated the rumor that there was a hidden treasure buried somewhere within the walls of the Alamo. The article went on to tell how Leon Mareschal and his fourteen-year-old daughter visited the Alamo. The pair met with Captain Jacob Coy, the night watch commander. The Mareschal's amused Captain Coy by telling him of how young Mary could communicate with the dead occupants of the Alamo. Having nothing to loose, Captain Coy allowed Leon Mareschal to hypnotize his daughter. While in this altered state of consciousness, Mary confirmed the presence of "spirits in the chapel" and that many of the paranormal activity experienced there was due in part to the fact that the ghosts were attempting to locate their buried treasure. If Mary had not captured Captain Coy's full attention already, she surely had him hooked when she told him that the treasure was 540,000 dollars in gold coins! Without mincing words, the good captain asked Mary where the treasure was hidden. She responded by pointing vaguely toward the dilapidated southwest corner of the crumbling old mission. Only after relinquishing all that the spirits knew about the gold, did the Mareschal's take their leave, vanishing into the night. Unfortunately, the article does not say if Captain Coy ever found the ghosts missing treasure. Officially, none of the sanctioned private or public archeological excavations at the site over the years has been able to put this one nagging question to rest.

The last mystery surrounding the Alamo that we will explore, is what happened to all of the bodies? Historians continuously question the final resting places of the dead from both sides. On orders from Santa Anna, the Texan dead were "stacked like cordwood" on two or three funeral pyres and burned without a Christian burial. It is said that the fires smoldered for days and that the charred remains were disposed of at various undocumented locations on the battlefield.

Apparently the bodies of the Mexican soldiers killed at the Alamo fared no better. It is said that when the local cemetery was filled to capacity with Mexican dead, Santa Anna ordered that the remaining corpses be thrown into the nearby San Antonio River. These remains could have theoretically ended up in the Gulf of Mexico but mostly likely they were swallowed whole by the muddy river and secreted away in dark places waiting still to be discovered.

Over the years, the skeletal remains of the Alamo defenders have been unearthed on an unnervingly regular basis both on and off the grounds of the mission. In 1937 alone, four different burial sites were located in the middle of busy San Antonio, not far from the Alamo.

To date, the exact burial location of almost 1000 persons related to the Alamo throughout its history, remains a mystery. This fact alone could be the single most important reason why strange noises, ghostly apparitions and cold spots seem to be an everyday occurrence within the limestone walls of the Alamo.
Added by bgill

News of the Fall of the Alamo Gets Out

By Ted W. Mayborn
NCSA Member #59

When you opened your morning newspaper today, you find reports of events that happened only the night before, locally, statewide and even internationally. You are confronted with bold headlines and in most cases a striking photograph, with a newsy caption.

Not so in 1836 when newspapers were universally printed on rag paper, four pages in all; printed in typefaces smaller than present day classified ads, with no more headlines than a one-line divider. Most unusual was the appearance on the front page of small squares of advertising announcing ship, rail and stagecoach departures, houses to be sold, and lists of merchandise just arrived at the dock to be sold by the barrel, crate, ton or in bulk.

There were essentials of life to a new Republic with a restless population reading continually westward, "News," as such, usually concerning federal laws, long speeches, and many one or two paragraph briefs of fragmented news gleaned from letters or dockside interviews with passengers. Newspapers brought by the ships provided additional information.

When you open a Philadelphia Ledger dated March 25, 1836, you learn that "Santa Anna is on the march to Texas."

(The Alamo had already fallen on March 6, and the 25th was the evening before Fannin and his 400 men were surrounded by General Urea with overwhelming forces.)

News within the province of Texas, and from it as well, was carried in various ways -- all of them slow, and not all of them reliable. An individual left Texas by land northeast through Natitoches, east by New Orleans -- or by sea from Galveston, Brazoria or Copano Bay. This required a pony ride to the coast of one or two days and a delay awaiting the ship's departure. Upon reaching New Orleans, the traveler from Texas was interviewed, cited as a man of good repute and his quotes published as fact. He brought no newspapers because only the Telegraph published by Gail Borden was in existence -- until it was hurriedly moved out of San Felipe ahead of Santa Anna, and subsequently dumped into Buffalo Bayou near San Jacinto.

Comparisons of the Texas conflict with that of the United States against British tyranny also include comparisons of communication. The time required to receive news, and subsequent confirmation, depending on the speed of the traveler and the distances covered. When the Minute Men fought at Concord and Lexington the later part of April, 1775, Governor Gage's official report to parliament left Massachusetts on April 24 in the Express Packet, Sukey, which was a "low ship and deep laden." Americans were anxious to inform Benjamin Franklin, in London, of the events "post haste."

Documents and newspapers were handed to Captain Derby, a Salem master who traded with the West Indies, and he outfitted a fast schooner, Quero, for open sea under the command of his eldest son. The Quero arrived in England on May 28. The news it brought upset the financial markets and stirred friction between hard-line royalists and sympathizers with the Colonies. The Sukey arrived with the confirming information on June 9. The need for faster communication was brought home to England in severe terms.

The only difference in news handling during the Texas conflict was due to an increased number of travelers arriving, or fleeing, and to better roads and more ships plying back and forth.

A letter leaving Texas on February 19, 1836, stating Santa Anna was on the march, and expected to arrive in the summer, was published in the New York Metropolitan on March 21, two weeks after the Alamo fell. News of Texas' Declaration of Independence was published by the Commercial Journal on March 30.

Loss of the Alamo on March 6 reached Sam Houston in San Felipe on the evening of March 7. It reached New York on April 7. Travis' famous letter from the Alamo, relayed by Texans March 3, was published by the New York American on April 14.

The massacre of Fannin and his 400 men on March 27 appeared in The Albion on May 7. These stories, and more of like nature, are among the collection of early newspapers, dating from 1754 through the Texas Revolution, Annexation and Civil War, owned by the author. These papers, together with maps of the same period and documents signed by many Texas colonists and statesmen, together present an accurate picture of the times.

As Houston retreated steadily across the central plains, burning San Felipe as he went, and with Santa Anna's three separate armies pursuing him, there were hordes of displaced persons fleeing toward Louisiana. Each had a viewpoint and rumors were rampant.

Interest in Texas affairs increased as alarming stories reached the populated eastern states and editors sought out every person that would talk. The beleaguered province was now news, at last, and fast communications were more important than confirmed facts.

Readers demanded news as well, for by now they had sons and relatives among the volunteers from Louisiana, Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky, and Ohio.

Naturally, stories varied. Conflicting news created bewilderment and even more demand for facts. Stephen Austin and his two commissioners were still soliciting loans in states along the Mississippi and were equally uninformed.

"The reports of the 5th inst., from the New Orleans Advertiser, settles the question about Santa Anna and the miraculous triumphs of the Texans, and the serious doubt that we were lead to believe. There were so many incongruities in the whole affair that the greatest and most enthusiastic well-wisher to the cause, might receive the news with distrust. The gulping letter of the 'Secretary of War' giving such a jumping account of such a battle after it was fought; just two days before, in which, after recounting the killing and capture of the whole Mexican army, called most vociferously for volunteers to come in like DrydenÕs Alexander and help her slay the slain."

It should be understood that many people in the New England and some eastern states were opposed to slavery and to any addition of states which tolerated it. England, too, used this as a pretext for aiding Mexico when her principal interest was in securing Texas cotton exports. Texans were regarded by an impressive number of observers as refugees from debts, as persons of callous nature, radical and even possibly criminal. "We trust for the future that 'Texian [sic] News' will not become as a great proverb . . . we cannot be sure even now whether Fannin's men have been butchered or not, whether Crockett is actually living, or dead with his 22 men. And more than all the rest, whether Santa Anna is really the awful raw-head and bloody-bones we have been made to believe, or the Texians [sic] themselves the veritable fire eaters they say they are."

On May 25, the editor concluded, "One thing is clear -- like the boy in the fable who was forever crying 'wolf', 'wolf', -- we hope it will not come to pass that the next time Texians [sic] DO conquer the whole Mexican army, and only shoot Santa Anna and all of his officers, that the good and gaping crowd, instead of believing it, will shake their heads, and say with the ballad: 'When next John Gilpin goes to ride, May I be there to see."

ot all newspapers took that view and not all wrote just to please their partisan readership. But it was difficult then -- as it is now -- to believe that Santa Anna would order the massacre, in cold blood, of 400 men after they had surrendered their arms. Or to believe that the military ability of Houston would submit to weeks of retreat almost across the entire province.

But it is even more difficult to believe that Houston with only 700 men under his final command could, and did, attack Santa Anna's 1,200 trained soldiers and kill half of them and capture the rest, including Santa Anna.

Over one hundred and sixty years later, most of the actual reports appearing in eastern newspapers concerning the Fall of the Alamo would appear on the next day after they occurred for we now have means of speeding up communications.

Added by bgill

Alamo Defender~James Bonham

James Butler Bonham (20 February 1807 –6 March 1836) was a 19th century American soldier who died at the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution.

James B. Bonham was born near Red Bank (now Saluda), South Carolina, on February 20, 1807, the son of James and Sophia Butler {Smith}.

Bonham entered South Carolina College in 1824. In 1827, during his senior year, he led a student protest over harsh attendance regulations and poor food being served at the school's boardinghouse. He was expelled along with the entire senior class. In 1830. Bonham practiced law in Pendleton, but was found in contempt of court after caning another attorney who had insulted one of Bonham's clients. When ordered to apologize by the sitting judge to the offended lawyer, he refused the offer and to which Bonham then threatened to tweak the judge’s own nose. Bonham was promptly sentenced to ninety days for contempt of court.

Bonham served as an aide to Governor James Hamilton Jr.. during the Nullification Crisis in 1832. Bonham’s fiery temperament resulted in his brandishing a sword and pistol condemning Andrew Jackson and the Washington politicians. His bold and outspoken position brought him the rank of lieutenant colonel. At the same time he served as captain of a Charleston artillery company.

In October of 1834, he moved to Montgomery, Alabama, where other members of his family had previously settled. He then went to Mobile where he helped organize a company of militia cavalry known as the Mobile Greys. The small force traveled to San Felipe, Texas in late November 1835, where Bonham was commissioned a lieutenant in the Texian Cavalry on December 3.

On 17 October 1835, Bonham led a rally of support for the Texian cause of independence. Three days later he was elected by citizens of Mobile to personally carry their resolutions of support to Sam Houston. Bonham reached Texas in November 1835. On 1 December he wrote to Houston from San Felipe volunteering his services for Texas and declining all pay, lands, or rations in return. On 20 December he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Texas cavalry. On 11 January 1836, Houston recommended to James W. Robinson that Bonham be promoted to the rank of major. Bonham accompanied legendary frontiersman Jim Bowie to San Antonio de Bexar, site of the former Catholic mission known as the Alamo that was being re-fortified by the Texians. Bonham became a trusted messenger for Alamo commander Lt. Col. William B. Travis.

Bonham departed the Alamo on 16 February for Goliad in an effort to convince the local commander, James Fannin, to send some of his troops to San Antonio as rumors persisted that General Antonio López de Santa Anna was approaching with a large Mexican army. Fannin refused and some sources suggest that Bonham may have returned to the Alamo. These accounts state that on 20 February, Bonham again left to seek more troops, traveling to Victoria and other towns, including Gonzales where he learned that their volunteers had already left for the Alamo. Other accounts combine these two trips into a single mission.

By early March, after nearly two weeks of siege warfare by Santa Anna's army, Bonham eluded Mexican cavalry patrols and lines and arrived back at the Alamo on 3 March, with a final message for Travis from Robert McAlpin Williamson assuring Travis that help was on its way and urging him to hold out. Bonham is often mistakenly remembered as bringing the news that Colonel Fannin was not coming to Travis's aid. Bonham died on 6 March 1836, when Santa Anna's army assaulted the Alamo compound. Bonham reportedly died while crewing a cannon in the interior of the chapel. His body is presumed to have been burned in a pyre along with most of the fallen defenders.

 

Added by bgill

Alamo Defender: Anthony Wolf

WOLF (WOLFE), ANTHONY (ANTONY)

(1782-1836)

Believed to have born in Spain, sources about Anthony Wolf’s early life are contradictory.  It has been speculated that he was Jewish and immigrated to Texas from England, but to date no firm evidence of this connection has surfaced.  He apparently settled in the Louisiana-Texas territory prior to 1818 and was employed as an Indian scout and interpreter.

On September 15 of 1818, he was sent as an emissary to the Wichita Indians on the Brazos River. On October 6, 1822, he traveled to Nacogdoches, Texas, where he was introduced to Governor José Félix Trespalacios by James Dill. Dill described Wolf as having been "born and raised a Spanish subject...." One month later Wolf accompanied José Antonio Mexía on an expedition to treat with the Cherokee Indians.
Prior to the Texas Revolution, Wolf went through a long illness and convalesced at the home of John W. Hall at Washington-on-the-Brazos.  Wolf served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

At the time of his death he was accompanied by two sons, aged eleven and twelve. Susanna Wilkerson Dickinson, an Alamo survivor, later stated that a defender named "Wolff" asked the Mexicans for clemency, but was killed. His two young sons were killed in a room with Alamo survivors, their bodies removed on bayonets. In 1841, Mary V. (Durst) Tauzin filed for one league and labor of land, claiming that she was Wolf's widow. She was apparently denied the claim, and David S. Kaufman was named the administrator of Wolf's estate.

Added by bgill

List of Alamo Defenders~Page One

ABAMILLO, JUAN
(?-1836)

As one of 24 native Texans, Juan Abamillo signed up to serve for 6 months in the Texas Revolution as well as taking part in the siege of Bexar.  It was during this time under the command of Juan N. Seguin that he arrived at the Alamo on February 23, 1836.  He died in battle on March 6, 1936.

ALLEN, ROBERT
(?-1836)

This native Virginian, Robert Allen was a member of a calvary company under the command of Capt. John H. Forsyth.  It was Capt. Forsyth’s company that accompanied Lt. Col. William B. Travis to the Alamo in January 1836.  Robert Allen died on March 6, 1836.

ANDROSS, MILES DEFOREST
(1809-1836)

Born in Vermont in 1809, Miles DeForest Andross moved from his native state to Texas, settling in San Patrico. He participated in the siege of Bexar under the command of Lt. Col. James Clinton Neill.  After, he remained in Bexar after the battle due to illness. 

Once recovered, Andross became part of Capt. William Blazeby’s infantry company to defend the Alamo.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

AUTRY, MICAJAH
(1794?-1836)

At the age of 18, Micajah volunteered for service to fight against the British in the War of 1812, and later joined the US Army in SC where he served until 1815. Upon leaving the military, Micajah became a farmer.  However, due to health issues, he gave up his farming lifestyle, became a teacher, and then moved to Tennessee in 1823 to study law. He was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Jackson, Tennessee from 1831-1835. He and his law partner - Andrew Miller - started a mercantile business which did not find success.

In 1835, Micajah was traveling in New York and Philadelphia on business and became aware of opportunities in Texas.  Leaving his family and slaves in the care of his step-daughter’s husband, Micajah left Nashville by steamboat and, in 1836, ended up in Nacogdoches.  It was here that he joined the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas.  He entered the Alamo under the command of Lt. Col. William B. Travis on February 23, 1836, and died in battle on March 6, 1836.

Born in Sampson County, NC, Micajah Autry was the son of Theophilus and Elizabeth (Greer) Autry.  He was married to Martha Wyche Putny Wilkinson and together they raised three children – two belonging to Micajah and Martha, and one fathered by Martha’s previous husband who was deceased.

Autry was an amateur poet, writer, artist, and musician. A letter to his wife, dated February 11, 1834, is on display at the Alamo.

BADILLO, JUAN ANTONIO
(?-1836)

A native Texan, Juan Antonio Badillo, was among the many Texans who enlisted for six months of service.  He fought under Capt. Juan A. Seguin in the Siege of Bexar, and then accompanied his Capt. to the Alamo in February, 1836. 

When Seguin was sent out to rally reinforcements, Badillo remained behind and became involved in the battle of the Alamo and subsequently died on March 6, 1836.

BAILEY, PETER JAMES III
(1812-1836)

Born in Kentucky in 1812, Peter James Bailey, the son of Gabriel and Sabra Bailey, was a graduate with a degree in law from Transylvania University.  In January 1936, he accompanied Daniel W. Cloud and others from Logan, Kentucky and took the Texas Army “oath of allegiance” in Nacogdoches on January 14, 1836.  Bailey was a member of the Tennessee Mounted Volunteers and died in battle with David Crockett on March 6, 1936.

In honor of Bailey’s service, his heirs received land parcels that are now in Archer, Baylor, and Hamilton Counties. Bailey County in the Texas panhandle is also named in his honor.

BAKER, ISAAC G.
(1804-1836)

Born in Arkansas, Isaac G. Baker immigrated to Texas in 1830, settling in Green DeWitt's colony.  On June 14, 1832, he received title to property in Gonzales, and joined the relief force from Gonzales. 

On March 1, 1836, Baker arrived at the Alamo and died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BAKER, WILLIAM CHARLES M.
(?-1836)

Born in Missouri, William Baker was a volunteer from Mississippi during the Texas Revolution.  Beginning in November of 1835, Baker joined Capt. Thomas F.L. Parrott’s company and participated in the siege of Bexar. 

When the Texan forces were reorganized, Baker was part of Capt. John Chenoweth’s company.  He left Bexar for a short period of time, and returned on January, 1836 as a Captain in charge of the volunteers who were accompanying James Bowie.  He died at The Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BALLENTINE, JOHN J.
(?-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, John J. Ballentine was single and resided in Bastrop for years before the Texas Revolution.

He became part of Capt. William R. Carey’s artillery company in defending the Alamo.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BALLENTINE, RICHARD W.
(1814-1836)

Originally from Scotland, Richard W Ballentine made his way to the U.S. and initially lived in Alabama.  He traveled to Texas aboard the Santiago, disembarking on December 9, 1835. 

Upon arriving, he stated, “We have left every endearment at our respective places of abode in the United States of America, to maintain and defend our brethren, at the peril of our lives, liberties and fortunes.”  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BAUGH, JOHN J.
(1803-1836)

A native Virginian, John J. Baugh traveled to Texas in 1835.  He was a First Lieutenant as part of the New Orleans Grey’s and was a member of Thomas H. Breece’s company in the siege of Bexar.

Promoted to Captain after this battle, he served under the command of Lt. Col. James C. Neill, and arrived at the Alamo – the same time as the Mexican Army - with Lt. Col. William Barrett Travis’ garrison on February 23, 1836.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BAYLISS, JOSEPH
(1808-1836)

A native from Tennessee, Joseph Bayliss was unmarried and traveled to Texas in January, 1836. 

He enlisted in the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas, and as a member of Capt. William B. Harrison’s company, he and others – including David Crockett – defended The Alamo.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BLAIR, JOHN
(1803-1836)

Born in Tennessee, John Blair registered as a married man for a league of land on February 19, 1835.  It is believed he was one of the many volunteers who joined James Bowie on the Siege at Bexar as well as the Alamo in early 1836.  Louis Rose, who left the Alamo before the final battle, later testified that he "left [John Blair] in the Alamo 3 March 1836".  Blair died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BLAIR, SAMUEL
(1807-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Samuel Blair registered as a single man for a quarter league of land in the Power and Hewetson colony on August 4, 1834.

On September 10, 1834, he registered for a headright of land in James McGloin's colony.  Blair took part in the siege of Bexar and later served as a Captain in the Alamo garrison, assisting Ordinance Chief Robert Evans.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BLAZEBY, WILLIAM
(1795-1836)

A native from England, William Blazeby’s travels took him to the U.S., initially arriving in New York.  He eventually made his way to New Orleans where he became a Second Lieutenant in the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece. 

Blazeby participated in the siege of Bexar where he remained after that battle in his new role as Captain and Commander of the Greys under Lt. Col. James C. Neill.  Blazeby died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BOURNE, DANIEL
(1810-1836)

Born in England, Daniel Bourne and his brothers immigrated to America.  On his own, Bourne moved to Gonzales, Texas where he became a member of two artillery companies:  one lead by Capt. T.F.L. Parrott, and the other lead by Capt. William R. Carey.  He died at The Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BOWMAN, JESSE
(1785-1836)

Although born in Tennessee, Jesse Bowman relocated to Illinois in 1811.  He made a living in Illinois as a trapper and hunter, married, and had three children, including a son – Joseph – who would later serve with him in battle.

Bowman took his family and moved to Arkansas in 1824, becoming one of the first known settlers of Camden in Ouachita County.  In 1828, he and his family relocated to Hempstead, Arkansas. Sometime in the 1830s, Bowman, his son, his brother, and nephews immigrated to Texas where they received land in Red River County.  Once there, Bowman and his son, Joseph, joined and served in the Texas army during the Texas Revolution. He later became a member of the Alamo garrison, and died at the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BROWN, GEORGE
(1801-1836)

Born in England, George Brown immigrated to America and lived in Yazoo, Mississippi, before settling in Gonzales, Texas. 

He was one of four George Browns in the Texas army during the Texas Revolution. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BROWN, JAMES MURRY
(1800-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, James Murry Brown moved to Texas in 1835. On April 17 of that year, Brown registered in De León's colony. He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison.  Brown died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

BROWN, ROBERT
(1818-?)

Believed to have been born around 1818, Robert Brown arrived in Texas in October, 1835.  In a letter written by William Barret Travis dated February 25, 1836, Brown is mentioned as being “one of the men who sallied forth from the Alamo to La Villita to burn huts that were affording cover to Mexican troops.” At some point during the battle of the Alamo, it is believed Brown was sent out as a courier.

He continued to serve during the Texas revolution and guarded baggage and supplies at Harrisburg.  There is no record of his death.

BUCHANAN, JAMES
(1813-1836)

James Buchanan and his wife, Mary, registered as colonists of Stephen F. Austin in 1834.  As a member of the Alamo garrison, Buchanan died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BURNS, SAMUEL E.
(1810-1836)

Born in Ireland, Samuel E. Burns was a resident of Natchitoches, Louisiana, at the beginning of the Texas Revolution. He served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey' sartillery company, and died in battle on March 6, 1836.

BUTLER, GEORGE D
(1813-1836)

Born in Missouri, George D. Butler traveled to New Orleans.  He later relocated to Texas where he served during Texas Revolution as well as part of the Alamo garrison.

He died in battle on March 6, 1836

CAIN, JOHN
(1802-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, John Cain became a resident of Gonzales, Texas.  He took part in the siege of Bexar after which he was issued a donation certificate for 640 acres of land for his service.  He remained in Bexar as part of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. 

It is believed he may have left Bexar before the siege of the Alamo began, and, on March 1, 1836, returned with relief forces from Gonzales.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

CAMPBELL, ROBERT
(1810-1836)

Although born in Tennessee, Robert Campbell moved to Texas in January 1836.  It was here he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps. 

He traveled to the Alamo as an officer as part of Capt. William B. Harrison's company of volunteers, and died in battle on March 6, 1836.

CAREY, WILLIAM R.
(1806-1836)

Born to Moses Carey and his wife in Virginia, William Carey immigrated as a single man to New Orleans.  On July 28, 1835, he arrived at Washington-on-the-Brazos, and joined as a Texas Army volunteer when the Texas Revolution began. 

He marched with troops to Gonzales and was appointed Second Lieutenant on October 28, 1835.  During the siege of Bexar, Carey received a slight wound to his scalp while manning a cannon.  He was promoted to first lieutenant in the field for his actions in the battle.

On December 14, 1835, he was elected by popular vote to be captain of his 56-man artillery company, named the “Invincibles.”  His company remained in Bexar as part of the garrison under Lt. Col. James C. Neill. During the weeks before January 14, Neill moved his entire force into the Alamo.  Carey commanded the Alamo compound while Neill commanded the town of Bexar. Neill utilized Carey's company for tough tasks and even, on one occasion, as military police.

During the siege and battle of the Alamo, Carey commanded the fort's artillery. He died in battle on March 6, 1836.  His father traveled to Texas to settle his estate and received $198.65 for Carey's military service.

CLARK, CHARLES HENRY
(?-1836)

Born in Missouri, Charles Henry Clark was part of the New Orleans Greys.  In November of 1835 while under the command of Capt. Thomas Breece, Clark took part in the siege of Bexar.  Clark died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Born in Mississippi, M. B. Clark enlisted on January 27, 1836 in Texas as part of the company of Capt. John M. Chenoweth.  It is believed he may have been one of the many volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to the Alamo.

Louis Moses Rose, who left the Alamo before its fall, stated that he had seen Clark at the mission.  There is no information as to how and when Mr. Clark died.

CLOUD, DANIEL WILLIAM
(1814-1836)

Born on February 20, 1814 in Logan County, Kentucky, Daniel William Cloud was the son of Daniel and Nancy Cloud.  He was a lawyer, and he and fellow lawyer - Peter J. Bailey - traveled to Texas via Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana.  

On January 14, 1836 in Nacogdoches, Cloud and Bailey both enlisted in the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas - along with B.A.M. Thomas, William Fauntleroy, and Joseph G. Washington - all of whom were also from Logan County, Kentucky. 

On February 11, 1836, Cloud, Bailey, Thomas, Fauntleroy, Washington, Micajah Autry, and others traveled to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo.  They became members of the Tennessee Mounted Volunteers under the command of William B. Harrison. Cloud died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

COCHRAN, ROBERT E.
(1810-1836)

Born in New Jersey, it is believed that Robert E Cochran lived in Boston and then New Orleans before immigrating to Texas in 1835.  Cochran conducted business with Ammon Underwood.

Cochran took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's Artillery Company. He died in the Battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.  Cochran County, Texas is named in his honor.

COTTLE, GEORGE WASHINGTON

(1811-1836)

Known as one of the first messengers to gather reinforcements, George Washington Cottle had a very full life before the war.
He was the son of Jonathan and Margaret Cottle, and it’s believed that Cottle was born in either Tennessee or Missouri.  In July, 1829, his parents immigrated to Texas and settled in Green DeWitt’s colony on the Lavaca River. 

He was married twice.  His first marriage was in 1830 to his first cousin Eliza Cottle.  Together they had a daughter but their marriage was annulled in October of 1831.  Several years later, in January, 1835, he married again to Nancy Curtis Oliver.  They had twin sons who were born after Cottle’s death.

His involvement in the war started when Mexican troops arrived south of Gonzales in September, 1835.  He was sent out for reinforcements and returned to fight in the battle of Gonzales.  He enlisted in the Gonzales Company under Lt. George C. Kimbell on February 24 and rode with 32 others to the Alamo on March 1.  Cottle was killed on March 6, 1836, at the battle of the Alamo, alongside his brother-in-law, Thomas Jackson.

Cottle received a league of land at the headwaters of the Lavaca River near Gonzales on September 12, 1832.  Cottle County was named for him.

COURTMAN, HENRY

(1808-1836)

Born in Germany, Henry Courtman traveled to Texas from New Orleans as part of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas Breece.  He took in the siege of Bexar, remaining in Bexar until he died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. His brother, George F. Courtman, was killed in the Goliad Massacre.

CRAWFORD, LEMUEL

(1814-1836)

Born in South Carolina, enlisted in the service of Texas in early October 1835 and served until December 26 of that year as an artilleryman under Col. James C. Neill.  It is believed he took part in the siege of Bexar. Crawford reenlisted on February 11, 1836, and served in the Alamo garrison, probably as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

CROSSMAN, ROBERT

(1810-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania (although there are several reports that he was from Massachusetts), Robert Crossman was the son of Samuel V. Crossman.  He traveled to Texas by way of New Orleans as a member the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece. Crossman took part in and was wounded in the siege of Bexar.  However, he later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Crossman died in battle on March 6, 1836.

CUMMINGS, DAVID P.

(1809-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, David Cummings graduated from Jefferson College in Canonsberg, PA in 1835.  Upon graduation, he left by boat, initially arriving in New Orleans and reaching his final destination in Texas in mid-December, 1835.  His initial plans were to join a ranger unit for action against the Indians.  During a transaction in which he sold his best rifle for $30, he encountered Sam Houston.  Cummings gave Houston a letter of introduction from his father, David Cummings, who was an officer in the war of 1812 and served in the Pennsylvania legislature.  As a result, Houston instructed Cummings to proceed to Goliad and would rendezvous with him later.  Cummings traveled to Gonzales and then San Antonio, joining the garrison in early 1836.  As a surveyor, Cummings departed San Antonio in mid-February to survey lands titled to him located in Cibolo Creek.  He then returned to San Antonio and joined relief forces to enter the Alamo.  He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

CUNNINGHAM, ROBERT W.

 (1804?-1836)

Although born in New York (and it’s unclear whether that was in 1804 or 1806), Robert W. Cunningham lived with his family (parents David and Anna Cunningham) in various states including Indiana, Kentucky, and Arkansas before arriving in Texas.

His journey started in 1832 when he worked as a cargo flatboatman on the Mississippi River in New Orleans.  His original plans – as expressed through letters to his family – indicated he would stay in New Orleans.  However, by March of 1833, he had moved to Texas.  He received title to a league of land on Skull Creek in Austin’s Colony.  He remained unmarried.

In 1836, Cunningham wrote to his family advising them about his enlistment in the Texas Army. He took in the siege of Bexar as a sergeant and second gunner in Capt. T. L. F. Parrott's artillery company.  He remained in Bexar after the battle as a private in Capt. W. R. Carey's artillery company. He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

 

Added by bgill

List of Alamo Defenders~Page 2

DARST, JACOB C.

(1793-1836) 

Born in Woodford County, Kentucky, to David and Rosetta (Holman) Darst, Darst’s original occupation was that of a farmer.

In 1813, he married Elizabeth Bryan in St. Charles County, Territory of Missouri. After her death in 1820, he married Margaret C. Hughs.  Darst, his second wife, and his two children left for Texas in 1830 and arrived in DeWitt's colony on January 10, 1831 where he registered for 24 labores of land on the Guadalupe River, one labor of land on a small creek that emptied into the Lavaca.

In September, 1835, Darst become one of the original "Old Eighteen" defenders of the Gonzales cannon.  On February 23, 1836, he was mustered into service in the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. He entered the Alamo with this unit on March 1, 1836, and died in battle five days later.

DAVIS, JOHN

(1811-1836)

Born in Kentucky, John Davis, immigrated to Texas in the early 1830’s.  In 1831, he received title to a quarter league of land on Lavaca Creek in DeWitt's colony.  During this time, he gained a reputation as an Indian fighter.  In late February of 1836, Davis was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. With this unit he arrived at the Alamo on March 1, 1836 and died in battle five days later.

DAY, FREEMAN H. K.

(1806-1836)

There is very little known about Freeman Day regarding birth origin or how he arrived in Texas.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of the Bexar Guards under the command of Capt. Robert White's.  Day died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

DAY, JERRY C.

(1818-1836)

Born in Missouri, Day’s father was Jeremiah Day, a wagoner who served with the Texas forces.  Jerry Day lived near Gonzales, Texas.  He was a member of the Alamo garrison during the Texas Revolution, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

DAYMON, SQUIRE

(1808-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Squire Daymon, become a resident of Gonzales, Texas, in 1836.  After taking part in the siege of Bexar, he served in the Bexar garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. It is believed that in early February, 1836, Daymon left Bexar for his home, but returned to the Alamo, possibly with the relief forces from Gonzales, on March 1, 1836. He died 5 days later in the battle of the Alamo.

DEARDUFF, WILLIAM

(?-1836) 

Born in Tennessee, William Dearduff, immigrated to Texas in early November, 1831.  Upon arrival, he registered for a quarter league of land in DeWitt's colony.  He entered the Alamo with the relief force from Gonzales on March 1, 1836, and died in battle five days later.

DENNISON, STEPHEN

(1812-1836)

Born in Europe – either England or Ireland - Stephen Dennison was a glazer and painter by trade.  He traveled to New Orleans, then Texas, and became a member of the New Orleans Grays under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Dennison died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

DESPALLIER, CHARLES

 (1812-1836) 

Born in Louisiana, Charles Despallier lived in Rapides Parish.  His older brother, Blaz Philippe Despallier, traveled to Texas and took part in the siege of Bexar.  However, Blaz became ill and returned to Louisiana, and Charles moved to Texas, arriving in San Antonio de Béxar in mid-February 1836.

Charles distinguished himself during the siege of the Alamo by sallying from the fort under fire to burn huts that were affording the Mexican army cover.  His actions were praised by William B. Travis. He left the Alamo sometime after February 25, 1836, as a courier.  However, he returned with the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers on March 1, 1836, and died in battle at the Alamo 5 days later.

DEWALL, LEWIS

 (1812-1836) 

Born in New York as the son of a New York City mason, Lewis Dewall, lived in Manhattan and worked as an East River boatman.

He left New York at a time when abolitionist riots and cholera epidemics were sweeping the city and immigrated to Texas. On late October, 1835, he registered for a league of land on Harmon's Creek in Joseph Vehlein's colony.  It was during this registration that his name was recorded as “Duel” instead of Dewall.  He held many occupations including blacksmith, plasterer, or mason.

Dewall took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. Robert White's infantry company, the Bexar Guards. Dewall died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

DICKINSON, ALMARON

(ca. 1800-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, Almaron Dickinson, served as an artilleryman in the United States Army.  He became a Mason in the area of Bolivar, Tennessee.

On May 24, 1829, he eloped with Susanna Wilkerson.  In 1831, the couple moved to Gonzales, Texas, took up residence, and had a daughter, Angelina Dickinson, in 1834.  Dickinson and his family were colonists in Green DeWitt's colony and it was here that Dickinson received a league of land on the San Marcos River.

In eary October, 1835, Dickinson participated in the battle of Gonzales which began the Texas Revolution.  He participated in the siege of Bexar, distinguishing himself as a lieutenant of artillery, and during the battle of the Alamo, he was the Captain in charge of artillery.

On the morning of March 6, 1836, as the troops of Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna stormed the mission, Dickinson ran to his wife, reported that all was lost, and expressed hope that she could save herself and the child. Although he died at the Alamo, his wife and child survived.

DILLARD, JOHN HENRY

(1805-1836)

Born in Smith County, Tennessee, John Henry Dillard, Alamo defender, immigrated to Texas and settled at Nashville-on-the-Brazos.  He served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

DIMPKINS, JAMES R.

(?-1836)

Born in England, James R. Dimpkins, there is no record as to how Dimpkins arrived in the US.  His first documented involved was a a member of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas Breece.  He took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison as a sergeant in Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Dimpkins died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

DUVALT, ANDREW

(1804-1836)

A native of Ireland, Andrew Duvalt arrived in the US and made his way to Texas via Missouri.  He settled in Gonzales and became a plasterer by trade.

Duvalt took part in the siege of Bexar and, after this battle, remained in the town as a member of the Bexar Guards.

Sometime after February 2, 1836, he returned to his home in Gonzales.  It was there he was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers by Byrd Lockhart on February 23, 1836. Duvalt returned to the Alamo, probably as a member of the relief force from Gonzales, on March 1, 1836 and died five days later.

ESPALIER, CARLOS

(1819-1836) 

A native Texan, Carlos Espalier, was said to be a protégé of James Bowie. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, at age seventeen. 

Because of similarity in name, the claim has been made that Carlos Espalier and Charles Despallier are the same person, but the claim is not accepted by most historians. Espalier's aunt, Doña Guardia de Luz, was his heir and was granted lands for his service.

EVANS, ROBERT

(1800-1836)

Born in Ireland, Robert Evans, entered the US in New York and traveled to New Orleans and then to Texas.

After the siege of Bexar in December, 1835, Evans served as master of ordnance of the Bexar garrison.

An interesting fact from Susanna W. Dickinson, wife of fellow Alamo defender Almaron Dickinson, states the during the final moments of the battle of the Alamo, Evans attempted to blow up the Texans' remaining supply of gunpowder with a torch. He was shot down before he could do so.  Dickinson also described him as being black-haired, blue-eyed, nearly six feet tall, and always merry.

EVANS, SAMUEL B.

(1812-1836)

Born in Jefferson County, New York, Samuel B. Evans was the son of Musgrove and Abi (Brown) Evans.  His grandfather, Samuel Evans, was a general in the colonial army during the American Revolution. His uncle, General Jacob Brown, was at one time commander of the United States Army.  It’s unclear how Evans arrived in Texas, but he died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

EWING, JAMES L.

(1812-1836)

Born in Tennessee, James L. Ewing took part in the siege of Bexar as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company.  He later served as secretary to Lt. Col. James C. Neill, commander of the Texan forces occupying Bexar.  Ewing died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

FAUNTLEROY, WILLIAM H.

(1814-1836)

Born in Logan County, Kentucky, William H. Fauntleroy traveled to Texas with Peter J. Bailey, Daniel W. Cloud, Joseph G. Washington, and B. Archer M. Thomas in late 1835.

In January 14, 1836, he and his companions took the oath of allegiance to Texas and were mustered into the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps at Nacogdoches.  Fauntleroy traveled to the Alamo as a member of Capt. William B. Harrison's company, which included David Crockett. He arrived on or about February 9, 1836, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6.

His name is often misspelled as Fontleroy or Furtleroy.

FISHBAUGH, WILLIAM

(?-1836)

A resident of Gonzales, Texas, William Fishbaugh (Fishback) was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers by Byrd Lockhart on February 23, 1836.  He rode to the Alamo with this unit and arrived on March 1, 1836. Fishbaugh died in battle five days later.

FLANDERS, JOHN

(1800-1836)

Born in Salisbury, Massachusetts, John Flanders was the son of Levi and Mary (Sargent) Flanders.  He was in business with his father in Massachusetts until they argued over foreclosing on a mortgage held by a widow. Flanders left for Texas and never communicated with his family again. He settled in Gonzales and was part of the force from that town that rode to the relief of the Alamo. He entered the Alamo on March 1, 1836, with this company and died in the battle five days later.

FLOYD, DOLPHIN WARD

(1804-1836)

Born in Nash County, North Carolina, Dolphin Ward Floyd, was the son of Thomas Penuel and Mary (Beckwith) Floyd. He immigrated to Texas and settled in Gonzales, where he made his living as a farmer.  On April 26, 1832, he married Ester Berry House. 

Floyd joined the relief force from Gonzales and rode to the besieged Alamo, where he arrived on March 1, 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on his 32nd birthday, March 6, 1836. Floyd County is named in his honor.

FORSYTH, JOHN HUBBARD

(1797-1836)

Born in Avon, New York, John Hubbard Forsyth was the son of Alexander and Mary (Treat) Forsyth.  He was raised on his father's farm in Livingston County, New York. 

Although he studied medicine, he never went into actual practice.

On April 3, 1822, Forsyth married Deborah Smith.  When his wife died in 1828, Forsyth left New York in late December of that year, leaving his son, Edmund Augustus, with his father's family.

Forsyth traveled to Texas from Kentucky in 1835.  He was captain of a volunteer company before obtaining a commission as a captain in the Regular Texan Cavalry.  He used all of his available cash to outfit and supply his company.  Forsyth and his men traveled to the Alamo with Lt. Col. William B. Travis and arrived in San Antonio de Béxar in early February 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

FUENTES, ANTONIO

(1813-1836)

A native Texan born in San Antonio de Béxar, Antonio Fuentes was one of a group of native Texans recruited by Juan N. Seguín for six months' service during the Texas Revolution.

Fuentes took part in the siege of Bexar as a member of Seguín's company. Fuentes figured in the rift that occurred between William B. Travis and James Bowie just before the siege of the Alamo.  He had been found guilty of theft by a jury that included both Travis and Bowie and had been sentenced to jail by Seguín, who acted as judge. When Bowie was elected commander of the volunteers among the troops at Bexar, he got drunk and freed the prisoners. 

Although Fuentes was ordered back to jail by Seguín, upon the arrival of the Mexican troops on February 23, 1836, he entered the Alamo with the rest of Seguín's command. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

FUQUA, GALBA

(1819-1836)

Born in Alabama, Galba Fuqua, was the son of Silas and Sally (Taney) Fuqua.  Although he was of French Huguenot descent, it was speculated that he was also thought to be of Mexican or Jewish descent.

As a resident of Gonzales, Texas, in February, 1836, he was enrolled by Byrd Lockhart in the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. He rode to the relief of the Alamo garrison with this group and arrived on March 1, 1836.  He died with the other Alamo defenders on March 6, 1836, three days short of his seventeenth birthday.

Susanna W. Dickinson, wife of Almaron Dickinson who also died in the battle of the Alamo later claimed that Fuqua came to her and tried to tell her something. However, he was unable to deliver his message because his jaw had been broken in the fighting.

GARNETT, WILLIAM

(1812-1836)

A native Virginian, William Garnett immigrated to Texas and settled at Fall-on-the-Brazos, Robertson colony.  Garnett has been described as a man of unblemished character and a great admirer of William B. Travis.  It is believed that Garnett may have been one of the men who accompanied Travis to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo in February of 1836. Once there, he received a furlough, signed by Travis, and traveled to Velasco. He made Massillon Farley his agent, gave him his papers, and assured him that he would return in three months. He returned to Bexar in time for the battle of the Alamo.  He died in the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

GARRAND, JAMES W.

(1813-1836)

While his birth origin is unknown, as is the manner by which he arrived in Texas, James W. Garrand was a resident of Louisiana at the time of the Texas Revolution.  He served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

GARRETT, JAMES GIRARD

(1806-1836)

Born in Tennessee, James Girard Garrett made his way to Louisiana where he became a resident.  In 1835, he became a member of the New Orleans’s Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece.  Garrett took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison. He died in battle on March 6, 1836.

GARVIN, JOHN E.

(1809-1836)

While is birth origin is unknown, as is the circumstances that brought him to battle, John E. was a resident of Gonzales at the time of the Texas Revolution.  On December 14, 1835, he joined the Texas artillery under Lt. Col. James C. Neill at San Antonio de Béxar. It is believe that Garvin left for Gonzales and returned to the Alamo on March 1, 1836, with the relief forces. He died in battle 5 days later.

GASTON, JOHN E.

(1819-1836)

John E. Gaston was the son of widow Rebecca (Warfield) Gaston and stepson of George Washington Davis.  At the time of the Texas Revolution, he was a resident of Gonzales, and arrived at the Alamo as a member of the relief force from Gonzales on March 1, 1836. He died in battle 5 days later.

GEORGE, JAMES

(1802-1836)

James George was the son of William and Elizabeth (Bland) George, as well as husband to Elizabeth Dearduff, the sister of Alamo defender William Dearduff.

At the time of the Texas Revolution, George he was a resident of Gonzales.  In the fall of 1835, a yoke of oxen and a set of gearing owned by George was pressed into service to haul the famous Gonzales "Come and Take It" cannon.   George rode to the Alamo with the relief force from Gonzales and arrived on March 1, 1836, dying in battle five days later.

GOODRICH, JOHN C.

(1809-1836)

Born in Virginia (although some records shown him as being from Tennessee, John C. Goodrich was recommended by Tennessee Congressman Sam Houston to be a purser in the US Navy.  In spite of the recommendation, Goodrich decided not to server.

In 1834, he immigrated to Texas with his brother, Benjamin Briggs Goodrich.  They settled in Grimes County.  In late November, 1835, Goodrich offered his service to the Texas army via a letter he wrote to Congressman Sam Houston.  He received a commission as cornet in the regular Texas cavalry.

Goodrich may have entered Bexar and the Alamo in early February 1836, along with the cavalry force accompanying Lt. Col. William B. Travis, or he may have already been in Bexar as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company.  While Goodrich was besieged in the Alamo, his brother signed the Texas Declaration of Independence, on March 2, 1836. Goodrich died in battle four days later.

There is mixed information about John’s middle name as being either Calvin or Camp.

GRIMES, ALFRED CALVIN

(1817-1836)

As one of nine children born to Martha (Smith) and Jesse Grimes, Alfred Calvin Grimes (listed in most records as Albert) was born in Georgia.  He lived in Texas near the site of present-day Navasota.

There is speculation he rode to the Alamo as a member of Capt. John H. Forsyth's cavalry company, which accompanied Lt. Col. William B. Travis.  While Grimes was besieged in the Alamo and died in battle there, his father signed the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836.

GUERRERO, JOSE MARIA (possible aka of Bridigo Guerrero)

There is no recorded biographical information about Jose Maria Guerrero, although he is listed on many web sites and even referenced as one of several Tejanos involved. 

In some accounts of the Alamo, there is reference to Brigido Guerrero, a Mexican soldier born in Tallenango, Mexico.  He traveled to Texas with forces of Domingo de Ugartechea either in 1832 or 1835.  When the Texas Revolution broke out, Guerrero deserted the Mexican Army, joining the revolutionaries. 

In early 1836, Guerrero served with James Bowie, and helped obtain cattle for the Bexar garrison.  Guerrero later served in the Alamo garrison. During the battle of the Alamo, he convinced Mexican soldiers that he was a prisoner of the Texans, and his life was spared.

After the revolution he lived in San Antonio, married in 1846, and fathered several children.  The Guerrero’s lived in a house near the Alamo until 1853, and then moved to another house nearby where they remained until 1870.

In 1874, Guerrero testified, along with a witness, to his participation in the Texas Revolution. A year later he received a pension based on his participation in the siege of Bexar and the battle of Concepción.

GWYNNE, JAMES C.

(1804-1836)

Born in England, James C. Gwynne moved to Texas from Mississippi and took part in the siege of Bexar.  He later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company, and died in battle on March 6, 1836.

On the Alamo monument, Gwynne’s name is spelled, Groyn.

 

Added by bgill

List of Alamo Defenders~Page Three

HANNUM, JAMES

(1815-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, James Hannum was the son of Washington Lee and Martha (Robertson) Hannum.  There is no information as to how he made his way to Texas.  He served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HARRIS, JOHN

(1813-1836)

Born in Kentucky, John Harris, and moved to Gonzales, Texas in 1836 in Gonzales, Texas. He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Bexar garrison in Capt. Robert White's infantry company, the Bexar Guards.

Sometime before the siege of the Alamo began, Harris returned to his home in Gonzales, where he was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers on February 23, 1836.  He returned to the Alamo with this group on March 1, 1836, and died in the battle of the Alamo five days later

HARRISON, ANDREW JACKSON

(1809-1836)

Born in Tennessee, there is very little known about Andrew Jackson Harrison.  Although he was killed in the battle at the Alamo 1836, his heirs fought to receive land for Harrison’s service.  In October, 1860, Commissioner of Claims W. S. Hotchkiss rejected a land bounty claim of Harrison's heirs, claiming that there was "no law for giving donation for dying in service."  However, they later received 320 acres of land for Harrison's "service until 6 March 1836 and having fallen at the Alamo."

HARRISON, WILLIAM B.

(1811-1836)

Born in Ohio, William B. Harrison was commanding officer of the company known as the Tennessee Mounted Volunteers, which included David Crockett.  This company traveled to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo by way of Washington-on-the-Brazos, arriving on or about February 9, 1836. Harrison died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HAWKINS, JOSEPH M.

(1799-1836)

 Born in Ireland, Joseph M. Hawkins, arrived in Louisiana and later traveled to Texas. Before the Alamo siege, he served as an express rider to Gen. Sam Houston. Hawkins was a strong supporter of Governor Henry Smith and an advocate of Texas independence. He may have been one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836

HAYS, JOHN M.

(1814-1836)

Originally from Nashville, Tennessee, John M. Hays He ran unsuccessfully for one of the two positions for delegates to the Texas convention representing the garrison at Bexar.  He joined Capt. John Chenoweth's company on January 14, 1836, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HASKELL, CHARLES M.

(1813-1836)

Charles M. Haskell, son of George and Elizabeth (Fry) Haskell, served in the Bexar garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company.  Although he left on the Matamoros expedition of 1835-36, it is believed he returned to Bexar and the Alamo with the volunteers under James Bowie on January 19, 1836.  Haskell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HERNDON, PATRICK HENRY

(1802-1836)

Born in Virginia to John and Judith (Hampton) Herndon, Patrick Henry Herndon moved with his family to Lexington, Kentucky, in 1811.  Patrick married Parmelia (or Pamela) Smith in Fayette County, Kentucky, on November 1, 1824.  After her death in February, 1825, Herndon moved to Navidad, Texas.

In 1831, Ezekiel Hays of New Orleans filed the first of six petitions against Patrick Henry Herndon for the return of his slave, Sarah.  Hays claims Herndon ran away with her and brought her to Texas.

In December of 1835, Herndon joined the Texas army at Bexar. In January, 1836, he became attached to Capt. John Chenoweth's company.  Herndon may have been one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to Bexar and the Alamo on January 19, 1836.  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HERSEE, WILLIAM DANIEL

(1805-1836)

Born in England, William Daniel Hersee arrived in the US where he lived in New York with his wife and four children.

He traveled to Texas by way of Louisiana and was wounded in the siege of Bexar.  He later served in the Alamo garrison and as a sergeant in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company.  It is not known if his wounds prevented him from taking an active part in the fighting, but Hersee died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HOLLAND, TAPLEY

(1810-1836)

Born in Ohio, Tapley Holland and his father immigrated from Canada to Louisiana and moved to Texas in 1822 as one of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred settlers. Tapley Holland, a resident of Grimes County, took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Holland died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

All authorities who recount the "Rose Story," tell that when Travis drew the line with his sword and invited all who were willing to die with him to cross it to his side, Tapley Holland was the first man to leap across it to stand beside his chief.

HOLLOWAY, SAMUEL

(1808-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, Samuel Holloway came to Texas by way of Tennessee and New Orleans.  He became a member of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece, and took part in the siege of Bexar.  He remained in Bexar as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

HOWELL, WILLIAM D.

(1797-1836)

Born in Massachusetts, William D. Howell was a doctor and lived in New York.  He was a member of Capt. Thomas H. Breece's company of New Orleans Greys, and took part in the siege of Bexar.  He later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Howell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

The Alamo Monument incorrectly spells this name Homrell

JACKSON, THOMAS

(?-1836)

 Born in Ireland, Thomas Jackson, settled in Texas in 1831.  He registered for land in DeWitt's colony, married Louise Cottle, and fathered four children.

At the outbreak of the Texas Revolution, Jackson was one of the "Old Eighteen” - the original defenders of the Gonzales cannon in the battle of Gonzales.  He entered the Alamo with the relief force from Gonzales on March 1, 1836 and died in battle five days later.

JACKSON, WILLIAM DANIEL

(1807-1836)

Born in Ireland, William Daniel Jackson was a sailor who moved from Kentucky to Texas. He took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison, possibly as a lieutenant of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

JAMESON, GREEN B.

(1809-1836)

Born in either Kentucky or Tennessee, Green B. Jameson was the grandson of John Jameson, an early lieutenant governor of Virginia. Jameson, a lawyer, moved to Texas in 1830 and settled in Brazoria.  He took part in the siege of Bexar in 1835, and then remained in Bexar under the command of Lt. Col. James C. Neill as chief engineer of the garrison occupying the town and the Alamo.

Jameson's correspondence with Sam Houston in the weeks before the Alamo siege began gave detailed descriptions of the Alamo's defenses. 

On the first day of the siege, February 23, 1836, Jameson was sent by James Bowie as a messenger to the Mexican forces. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

JENNINGS, GORDON C.

(1780-1836)

Born in Connecticut, Gordon C. Jennings was married to Catherine Cynthia Overton with whom he had two sons and two daughters. Jennings, a farmer, immigrated to Texas from Missouri in 1835. He took part in the siege of Bexar as a corporal in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Jennings was the Alamo's oldest defender at age 56.  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. His brother, Charles B. Jennings, died in the Goliad Massacre.

JIMÉNEZ, DAMACIO

(?-1836)

Damacio Jiménez was a member of Col. Juan N. Seguín's militia during the Texas Revolution.  That he defended the Alamo was discovered in 1986, when a land petition was found that had been filed in the courts of Bexar County in 1861 by his surviving heir. 

Damacio was with Col. William B. Travis at Anahuac and was among those who helped bring an 18-pound cannon to Bexar in December 1835.  This cannon was to become the centerpiece of the Alamo siege and the cannon with which Travis answered Mexican surrender terms on February 23, 1836.

Jiménez is described as a resident of Texas who had been married and had one son who died in 1835. In 1861, Juan and Gertrudes Jiménez were designated as Damacio's sole heirs and legal representatives.  As such, they petitioned for a first-class headright grant as promised by the Constitution of 1861. The Jiménez petition was supported by affidavits of Colonel Seguín and Cornelio Delgado. In his affidavit, Seguín stated that Jiménez was one of his volunteer soldiers and that he had last seen Jiménez at the Alamo when Seguín himself left to serve as a messenger for Travis.  Delgado was among those engaged in the burial of the dead after the battle of the Alamo on the morning of March 6, 1836, and he identified Jiménez's body among the fallen.

The Jiménez petition was filed but never ruled on by the court because of failure to pay filing fees. Therefore, the heirs of Damacio Jiménez did not receive a grant of land. Consequently, the Jiménez petition, the only known record of Damacio Jiménez's sacrifice for Texas liberty, was stored in the Bexar County archives, where it remained until its discovery in 1986.

JOHN

(?-1836)

John, a slave and Alamo defender, was said to have belonged to Francis L. Desauque and worked as a clerk in his store.  He was left in the Alamo when Desauque was sent out for supplies. Joe, Travis's slave, stated that there were other blacks in the Alamo besides himself.  John died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

JOHNSON, LEWIS

(ca. 1813-1836)

 Lewis Johnson was one of five known children of James Johnson, Sr., a Virginian who moved to Texas in 1829 with his family.

On September 24, 1835, Lewis, from the Trinity jurisdiction, entered service as a volunteer in Capt. Robert M. Coleman's First Company of the revolutionary army. He undoubtedly was one of the 13 privates in that company at Camp Cibolo on October 17, 1835, and one of the 18 noncommissioned officers and privates of that company in the First Division of Col. John H. Moore's regiment at Camp Salado on October 21, 1835.

He and his brother Frank participated in the siege of Bexar, after which his brother was honorably discharged and returned to his family in the Nacogdoches Municipality.

Lewis, who was unmarried, chose on November 24, 1835, to remain at Bexar under the command of Gen. Edward Burleson.

On December 14, 1835, he volunteered to garrison Bexar under the command of Lt. Col. James C. Neill. 

In February, 1836, he was one of those at the Alamo who participated in the election ordered by the General Consultation for members of the coming convention. On March 6, 1836, Lewis was killed at the battle of the Alamo.

JOHNSON, WILLIAM

(?-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, William Johnson served in the Alamo garrison during the siege of the Alamo, possibly in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

JONES, JOHN

 (1810-1836)

Born in New York, John Jones traveled to Texas by way of New Orleans.  He became a member of the New Orleans’s Greys as a sergeant under the command of Capt. Thomas Breece.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as lieutenant of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Jones died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

KELLOGG, JOHN BENJAMIN

 (1817-1836)

Born in Kentucky, John Benjamin Kellogg, became a resident of Gonzales, Texas in 1835.  He joined the relief force from Gonzales and rode to the Alamo, where he arrived on March 1, 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Kellogg was married to Sidney Gaston Miller, the former wife of Thomas R. Miller

KENNY, JAMES

(1814-1836)

 Born in Virginia, James Kenny immigrated as a single man to Texas in 1834.  In September, 1835, he enlisted in the service and served in Capt. Robert M. Coleman's company until December 14, 1835.  He then enlisted for another four months' service.  Kenny served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

KENT, ANDREW

 (ca. 1798-1836)

Born in Kentucky, Andrew Kent was the son of Isaac and Lucy (Hopkins) Kent.  In 1816, he married Elizabeth Zumwalt of Kentucky in Montgomery County, Missouri.  Later, he and his family immigrated to Texas and settled in Gonzales, where Kent farmed and may have also done carpentry work.

On February 23, 1836, he and his son, David, were mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers.  Kent rode to the relief of the Alamo with this group and arrived on March 1, 1836.  His son stayed behind in Gonzales. Kent died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Kent County, established in 1876, was named for him.

KERR, JOSEPH

(1814-1836)

Born in Lake Providence, Louisiana, Joseph Kerr embarked on his journey to Texas with his brother, Nathaniel.  Both Kerr’s were part of the Louisiana Volunteers for Texas Independence under the command of Capt. S. L. Chamblis.

In early February 1836, both brothers were given honorable discharges from Chamblis's company because their horses were disabled. 

However, the brothers continued on to San Antonio de Béxar, where Nathaniel died of a sudden illness. Joseph remained with the Texan garrison, entered the Alamo on February 23, 1836, and died on March 6 in the battle of the Alamo.

KIMBELL, GEORGE C.

 (1803-1836)

George C. Kimbell arrived in Texas in March, 1825, after a cross-country journey from New York.  He settled in Gonzales where he owned and operated a hat factory on Water Street in partnership with Almaron Dickinson (another Alamo defender).

On November 28, 1831, Kimbell received title to one-quarter sitio of land.

On June 26, 1832, he married Prudence Nash with whom he had two children.

On February 23, 1836, Kimbell was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers as a lieutenant and commander of the unit.

On March 1, 1836, he entered the Alamo with his company and returning members of the Alamo garrison. He took with him fifty-two pounds of coffee from Stephen Smith. Kimbell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Kimble County is named in his honor.

KING, WILLIAM PHILIP

 (1820-1836)

William Philip King was the son of John Gladden and Parmelia (Parchman) King.  While it’s unknown where he lived for the first 16 years of his life, in 1836 his family took up residence 10-15 miles north of Gonzales, Texas.

When his father was about to ride to the Alamo with the relief force from Gonzales, the youngest King took his place so that his father could care for the rest of his family. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, at the age of fifteen. He was the youngest defender of the Alamo.

LEWIS, WILLIAM IRVINE

 (1806-1836)

Born in Virginia, William Irvine Lewis was the son of Dr. Charles W. and Mary Bullen (Irvine) Lewis.  At some point he left Virginia and became a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Lewis travel to North Carolina to visit and a friend and it was then he decided to travel to Texas.  His journey led him to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo.  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Sometime after his death, Lewis's mother wrote to Texas requesting some memento of her son and was sent a small monument carved from a stone from the Alamo ruins.

LIGHTFOOT, WILLIAM JOHN

 (1805-1836)

Born in Mercer County, Kentucky, William John Lightfoot was the son of Henry Taylor and Nancy (Webster) Lightfoot.

In 1816, the Lightfoot family moved to the Missouri Territory, and then in 1824, moved to Union County, Arkansas.  William John lived in Fort Bend County, Texas in 1830 and then in Gonzales in 1836.

Lightfoot took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a third corporal of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

LINDLEY, JONATHAN

 (1814?-1836)

While there is no official source for parentage or birth, it is believed that Jonathan Lindley was born in Sangamon County, Illinois, Lindley to Samuel Washington and Elizabeth "Polly" (Hall) Lindley. 

Possibly in 1833, Lindley entered Mexican Texas.  In November, 1834, Lindley was a stockraiser and applied for a land grant in Joseph Vehlein's colony, identifying himself as single.  While he was given a quarter-league grant by Lake Livingston in Polk County on July 17, 1835, the grant was later invalidated because a previous grant had been surveyed and issued to William Pace in May of 1835.  Lindley didn’t appear to be aware of this fact since it is believe he occupied the land until the fall of 1835 when the Texas Revolution started.

In November, 1835, Lindley participated in the siege of Bexar under Capt. John Crane.  However, on December 14, Lindley joined William R. Carey's artillery company and helped garrison the Alamo under the command of Lt. Col. James C. Neill. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Lindley’s probate inventory listed his possessions as including eighteen head of cattle, eleven hogs, and a "Brand Iron."  It is believed the Lindley was illiterate since he only signed his name with an “X” on legal documents.

LINN, WILLIAM

(?-1836)

 A resident of Boston, Massachusetts, William Linn, Alamo defender traveled to New Orleans and became one of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece.  He took part in the siege of Bexar. 

He is listed on the roster of Lt. Col. James C. Neill's Bexar garrison as having been taken prisoner.  It is possible that Neill wrote this list earlier than February 1836 and that Linn had been taken prisoner during the siege of Bexar and then released after the Mexican capitulation. It is believed that Linn served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company, and that he died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

LOSOYA, JOSÉ TORIBIO

(1808-1836)

 Born in the Alamo barrio, José Toribio Losoya was one of the Tejanos involved in the battle of the Alamo.

As the son of Ventura Losoya and Concepción de Los Angeles Charlé, Losoya and his family lived in a two-room stone Indian dwelling that had been deeded to them.  He married Concepción Curbier, and became the father of three children.

By 1830, Losoya was a private in the Álamo de Parras military company, serving under Lt. Col. José Francisco Ruiz. That year, the company built and occupied Fort Tenoxtitlán, where Losoya and his family remained until the company's return to San Antonio de Béxar in September of 1832.

Losoya was one of many Mexican soldiers who opposed Antonio López de Santa Anna's despotic rule. By the fall of 1835, he had deserted the Mexican army to enlist as a private (a rifleman) in Seguín's company of Tejanos.  In December of that year he participated in the siege of Bexar.

The Losoya family was displaced from their home for many months as the Texans used it and other structures surrounding the Alamo to defend their position.  As Santa Anna's troops converged on San Antonio in February 1836, Seguín rode from the Alamo, leaving seven of his men, including Losoya, behind as reinforcements. Losoya's wife and three children sought refuge in the mission chapel with several other women, children, and slaves.

Losoya died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.  In the aftermath, his body was found in the chapel of the mission and was cremated. His ashes, like those of the other martyrs of the Alamo, were for long (and almost certainly in error) thought to have been placed in San Fernando Church (now San Fernando Cathedral).  His wife, son, and two daughters survived the siege.

 

Added by bgill

List of Alamo Defenders~Page Four

MAIN, GEORGE WASHINGTON 

(1807-1836)

Born in Virginia, George Washington Main took part in the siege of Bexar in 1835 and was severely wounded in the battle. He remained in Bexar as a second lieutenant in the Bexar Guards under the command of Capt. Robert White. It is unknown if Main was prevented by his wounds from playing an active role in the battle of the Alamo in which he died on March 6, 1836.

MALONE, WILLIAM T.

(1817-1836)

 Born in Athens, Georgia, William T. Malone, Alamo moved with his family to Alabama.  After getting drunk and incurring his father’s wrath, he left home and headed to New Orleans.  His father followed him as far as New Orleans; however, Malone had crossed over into Texas by late 1835.  He wrote to his family only once after arriving in Texas.  This letter, according to family tradition, was carried by his mother until it wore away. 

Malone took part in the siege of Bexar as a member of Capt. Thomas F. L. Parrott's artillery company. He later served in the Alamo garrison in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Malone has been described as having dark hair and complexion and missing the little finger of his left hand.

MARSHALL, WILLIAM

(1808-1836)

Born in Tennessee, William Marshall, Alamo defender was living in Arkansas at the time of the Texas revolution.  He came to Texas as a member of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece.  He took park in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Marshall died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. No bounty or donation land was ever recorded in his name.

MARTIN, ALBERT

 (1808-1836)

Born in Providence, Rhode Island, Albert Martin followed in the footsteps of his father and older brothers, moving to Gonzales, Texas in 1835 after stops in Tennessee and New Orleans.
At the outbreak of the Texas revolution, Martin was one of the "Old Eighteen," defenders of the Gonzales "Come and Take It" cannon.  He was part of the Texas force that besieged San Antonio de Béxar in the autumn of 1835. By December 19, 1835, he was back in Gonzales recovering from a foot injury inflicted by an ax.

Martin returned to Bexar sometime before the Alamo siege. On February 23, 1836, the first day of the siege, he was sent by Lt. Col. William B. Travis as an emissary to the Mexican force.  He met Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna's adjutant, Col. Juan N. Almonte, who rejected Martin's invitation to come to the Alamo and speak directly to Travis.

On the following day, Martin left the Alamo carrying Travis's famous letter "To the People of Texas." He passed the message to Lancelot Smither in Gonzales. Martin returned to the Alamo with the relief forces from Gonzales and arrived on March 1, 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MCCAFFERTY, EDWARD

(?-1836)

Edward McCafferty was a resident of Refugio County who served in the Alamo garrison with the rank of lieutenant. He may have been one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to the Alamo, where he died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MCCOY, JESSE

 (1804-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Jesse McCoy immigrated to Texas in March, 1827 and became an original settler of DeWitt's colony. He served as the town sheriff of Gonzales. He was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers on February 23, 1836, and entered the Alamo with this unit on March 1, 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MCDOWELL, WILLIAM

(1794-1836)

Born in Kishacoquillas, Pennsylvania, William McDowell relocated to Tennessee but eventually ended up in Texas with John Purdy Reynolds in 1835.

On January 14, 1836, McDowell was sworn into the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of the Texas Army at Nacogdoches. He rode to San Antonio and the Alamo as a member of Capt. William B. Harrison's company, along with David Crockett, and arrived about February 9, 1836. McDowell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MCGEE, JAMES

(?-1836)

James McGee (McGehee) came to Texas by way of New Orleans as a member of Capt. Thomas H. Breece's company of New Orleans Greys.  He took part in the siege of Bexar in which he was severely wounded. He later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. McGee died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MCGREGOR, JOHN

(1808-1836)

Born in Scotland, John McGregor lived in Nacogdoches, Texas in 1836.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a second sergeant of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. It is said that during the siege of the Alamo, McGregor engaged in musical duels with David Crockett, McGregor playing the bagpipes and Crockett the fiddle. McGregor died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MCKINNEY, ROBERT

 (1809-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Robert McKinney may have been one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to the Alamo in January 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MELTON, ELIEL

 (1798-1836)

Born in Georgia, Eliel Melton registered in Texas as a single man on January 25, 1830, and settled in Nashville-on-the-Brazos, where he made his living as a merchant in business with Joseph L. Hood.

Melton took part in the siege of Bexar, and remained in Bexar as a member of Lt. Col. James C. Neill's staff, where he served as quartermaster with the rank of lieutenant.

By the time of the Alamo siege, it is possible that Melton had married and brought his wife, Juana (Losoya), into the Alamo with him.  He may have attempted to flee the fortress in the final moments of the battle of the Alamo and died outside of the walls. Susannah W. Dickinson later described a defender whom she called "Milton" as vaulting the wall where it was lowest.

MILLER, THOMAS R.

 (1795-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Thomas R. Miller immigrated to Texas in June 1830 and settled in DeWitt's colony, where he owned a general store and farmed.

On March 11, 1832, he married sixteen-year-old Sidney Gaston by bond.  Their one child died in infancy.  The couple separated on July 21, 1833.

Miller served as clerk of the Gonzales Town Council, and in 1834 his home served as its meeting place.

At the outbreak of the Texas Revolution, he was one of the original Old Eighteen, defenders of the Gonzales "Come and Take It" cannon. From November 3 to 14, 1835, he served as a member of the Consultation.

On March 1, 1836, Miller entered the Alamo as a member of the relief force from Gonzales, furnishing supplies for the company from his general store. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MILLS, WILLIAM

(1815-1836)

Born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, William Mills moved to Texas from Adamsville, Mississippi in 1833 and settled in Stephen F. Austin's colony. On December 3, 1833, he married Martha Lee Adams.

Mills may have accompanied either William B. Travis or James Bowie to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo in early 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MILLSAPS, ISAAC

(1795-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Isaac Millsaps, son of Thomas and Bathsheba (Williams) Millsaps, entered the Tennessee militia on September 20, 1814, and served as a private.

He married Mary Blackburn of Pike County, Mississippi.  He and his blind wife had seven children.

At the time of the Texas Revolution he was a resident of Gonzales. On February 23, 1836, Millsaps was mustered into the service of Texas as a member of the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. He rode to the relief of the Alamo with this unit and arrived on March 1, 1836. Millsaps died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

A letter once believed to have been written by Millsaps, in which details of the Alamo siege are described, has recently been proved a forgery.

MITCHELL, EDWIN T.

 (1806-1836)

Edwin T. Mitchell served in the Alamo garrison as a member the Bexar Guards under the command of Capt. Robert White.  Mitchell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, possibly bayoneted while trying to protect Juana N. Alsbury.  His brother, DeWarren Mitchell, died in the Goliad Massacre.

MITCHELL, NAPOLEON B.

(1804-1836)

 Born in Tennessee, Napoleon B. Mitchell arrived in Texas in 1834.  Since his arrival was prior to March of 1836, this entitled him to a first-class grant of land from the Republic of Texas.

During the revolution, he served in the Alamo garrison as a private in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company.  He was present during the siege of Bexar in December 1835.  Mitchell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. His heirs received title to this grant, one-third league in Bastrop County, in 1838.

Juana Navarro Alsbury, an Alamo survivor, later stated that a man named Mitchell was bayoneted while trying to protect her during the battle.  This man may have been Napoleon Mitchell or another defender, Edwin T. Mitchell.

MITCHASSON, EDWARD F.

 (1806-1836)

Born in Virginia, Edward F. Mitchasson was a doctor and moved to Texas by way of either Missouri or Mississippi.  He entered the service of Texas on November 30, 1835 as a private in Captain Edwards's company.

It is not known if Mitchasson served the Texan forces in the capacity of a physician.  He was severely wounded in the siege of Bexar.  On January 1, 1836 he was listed as a member of Capt. John Chenoweth's company.  His wounds may have prevented him from playing an active role in the defense of the Alamo. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

MOORE, ROBERT B.

(1781-1836)

Born in Martinsburg, Virginia, Robert B. Moore, in 1835 he became a member of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Thomas Breece's.  He took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. Moore was a cousin of Alamo defender Willis A. Moore.

MOORE, WILLIS A.

(1808-1836)

Born in Mississippi, Willis A. Moore immigrated to Texas where, November 1835, he joined the Texas army, taking part in the siege of Bexar. On January 1, 1836, he joined Capt. John Chenoweth's company.  Moore died in the battle on March 6, 1836. He was cousin of Alamo defender Robert B. Moore.

MUSSELMAN, ROBERT

(1805-1836)

Born in Shelby County, Ohio, Robert Musselman was a resident of Pennsylvania and served in the United States Army in the Seminole Indian War.  When his father died and left him no inheritance, Musselman went to New Orleans, joining Capt. Thomas Breece’s company of New Orleans Greys.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and served in the Alamo garrison as a sergeant in Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Musselman died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

NAVA, ANDRÉS

(1810-1836)

A native Texan, Andrés Nava enlisted for six months service under the command of Juan N. Segues. He took part in the siege of Bexar and served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Seguín's company. Nava died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Demasio de los Reyes, who had been ordered into the Alamo to remove bodies to be burned, recognized Nava's body in the ruins and later swore to this fact. Nava's half-brother, Carmel Gonzara, and his sister, Dorotea Muñís, swore in an application for a grant of land that Nava died at the Alamo.  On March 25, 1861, a note was placed in their file stating that they were too poor to carry the claim any further.

NEGGAN, GEORGE

(1808-1836)

 Although born in So. Carolina, George Neggan was a resident of Gonzales at the time of the Texas Revolution.  He rode to the relief of the Alamo with the forces from that town, and died in battle on March 6, 1836.

NELSON, ANDREW M.

(1809-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Andrew M. Nelson served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.  The only other fact known about Nelson is that he was single at the time of his death.

NELSON, EDWARD

(1816-1836)

Born in So. Carolina, Edward Nelson joined the Texas army at San Antonio on November 26, 1835.  He took part in the siege of Bexar as a member of Capt. John W. Peacock's artillery company. On January 1, 1836, Nelson became a member of Capt. John Chenoweth's company.

Nelson may have been one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to the Alamo in January 1836.  Both Edward and his older brother, Georgia, died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

NELSON, GEORGE

(1805-1836)

Born in So. Carolina, George Nelson was a member of Capt. Thomas Breece's company of New Orleans Greys.  Although he was wounded in the siege of Bexar, he also served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company.  Nelson and his younger brother, Edward, both died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

NORTHCROSS, JAMES

(1804-1836)

A native Virginian, Methodist minister, and a widower, James Northcross moved to Texas in 1831.  He married Sarah Parrent Jenkins, a widow with three children, in 1835, and the couple had one son.

Northcross served in Capt. Robert M. Coleman's company during the Grass Fight, took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

NOWLAN, JAMES

 (1809-1836)

Coming to the US from either England or Ireland, James Nowlan joined Capt. William Gordon Cooke's company of New Orleans Greys. Although during the siege of Bexar he was severely wounded, it is likely that his previous wounds prevented his playing an active role in the battle.  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

PAGAN, GEORGE

 (1810-1836)

Although he was at one time a resident of Natchez, Mississippi, George Pagan took part in the siege of Bexar, serving under Lt. Col. James C. Neill's.  He also served in the Alamo garrison, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

PARKER, CHRISTOPHER ADAMS

 (1814-1836)

A single man, Christopher Adams Parker was a descendent of the Sparrow family - English Quakers who had immigrated to Ireland during the Cromwell Protectorate.  One of his ancestors fought in Emmett's Rebellion and was expelled from Ireland.  His grandfather, James Armstrong, served under George Washington at Valley Forge, and his father was a veteran of the battle of New Orleans.

Parker traveled from Natchez, Mississippi to Texas where he was listed Joseph Vehlein's colony on November 20, 1835.  He signed the controversial Goliad Declaration of Independence of December 20, 1835. He may have been one of the men who accompanied Philip Dimmitt to the Alamo. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

PARKS, WILLIAM

(1805-1836)

Born in Rowan County, No. Carolina, William Parks immigrated to Texas in 1836 and became a resident of Austin's colony.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as part of the Bexar Guards under the command of Capt. Robert White. Parks died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

PERRY, RICHARDSON

(1817-1836)

A native Texan, Richardson Perry was the son of early Texas settler, Burwell Perry.  He was single and received a land grant in Brazos County on October 10, 1835.  Perry took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

POLLARD, AMOS

(1803-1836)

Although born in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, Amos Pollard was raised in Surry, New Hampshire.  He graduated from Vermont Academy in Castletown, Vermont in 1825 with a degree in medicine.  From 1825 to 1834, he lived in New York where he practiced medicine.  During this time, he married and had a daughter, but his wife died in 1831. 

In 1834, Pollard arrived in New Orleans and made his way to Texas, where he settled in Gonzales.  He took part in the fight for Gonzales’ “come and take it” cannon, which was the opening skirmish of the Texas Revolution on October 2, 1835.  Later that month, he joined Capt. John York’s volunteer company and was appointed surgeon by the regiment of Stephen F. Austin.

After the siege of Bexar, Pollard remained in the town as chief surgeon of the Texan garrison, on the staff of Lt. Col. James C. Neill.  He cared for the sick and wounded of the garrison and also set up a hospital within the Alamo.  On February 23, 1836, Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army besieged the Alamo and Pollard died probably defending the hospital.

A portrait of Pollard was done sometime before he moved to Texas.  Besides Travis, Bowie, and Crockett, he is the only Alamo defender of whom a portrait was done from life.  A copy of the portrait is on display in the Alamo.

REYNOLDS, JOHN PURDY

 (1806-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania to Judge David and Mary (Purdy) Reynolds, John Purdy Reynolds graduated from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1827.  He practiced medicine in Mifflin County for seven years.

In 1835, Reynolds traveled to Texas with William McDowell.  On January 14, 1836, the two joined the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas at Nacogdoches.  They then went to San Antonio de Béxar as members of Capt. William B. Harrison's company, which included David Crockett. They arrived at Bexar on or about February 9, 1836. It is not known if Reynolds worked as a surgeon in the Alamo garrison. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836

ROBERTS, THOMAS H.

(?-1836)

Very little is known about Thomas H. Roberts including where he was born and in what year.  He joined the company of Capt. John M. Chenoweth on January 13, 1836 and he might have one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to the Alamo. Roberts died in the battle on March 6, 1836

 

Added by bgill

List of Alamo Defenders~Page Five

ROBERTSON, JAMES WATERS

 (1812-1836)

Born in Tennessee, James Waters Robertson was the son of Felix and Lydia (Waters) Robertson and was married to Sarah Carson.  Robertson came to Texas from Louisiana where he took part in the siege of Bexar, served in the Alamo garrison, and died in battle on March 6, 1836

ROBINSON, ISAAC

 (1808-1836)

Born in Scotland, Isaac Robinson arrived in Louisiana and made his way to Texas where he took part in the siege of Bexar.  He served in the Alamo garrison as a fourth sergeant in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company, and  died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

ROSE, JAMES M.

(1805-1836)

Born in Ohio to Dr. Robert Henry and Frances Taylor (Madison) Rose, James M. Rose, was a nephew of James Madison, fourth president of the United States.

Rose came to Texas from Arkansas at the time of the Texas Revolution and joined David Crockett sometime between early January and early February of 1836. He served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Alamo survivor Susannah W. Dickinson remembered Rose talking to her husband, Almaron Dickinson, about a narrow escape during the early stages of the Alamo siege. She described Rose as being of medium height and heavy set, having a full square face, and speaking very rapidly. She also stated that he had light freckled skin, sandy hair, blue grey eyes, and broad, stooped shoulders.

RUSK, JACKSON J.

(?-1836)

Born in Ireland (although the year is unknown), Jackson J. Rusk, became a resident of Nacogdoches, Texas where he registered in Lorenzo de Zavala's colony on September 30, 1835; however, his land title was never completed.  Rusk was probably one of the volunteers who accompanied James Bowie to the Alamo, where he died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

RUTHERFORD, JOSEPH

(1798-1836)

Born in Kentucky, Joseph Rutherford immigrated to Texas.  He was married with a small daughter who was raised following the Texas Revolution by Joseph Durst.

Rutherford took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

RYAN, ISAAC

(1805-1836)

Born in St. Landry Parish, Louisiana to Jacob and Marie (Hartgrove) Ryan, Isaac Ryan took part in the siege of Bexar and served in the Bexar Guards under the command of Capt. Robert White.  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

SCURLOCK, MIAL

 (1809-1836)

Born in No. Carolina, Mial Scurlock also resided in Tennessee and Mississippi.  In 1834, he and his brother, William, took their slaves through Louisiana to Texas and settled in San Augustine. Scurlock volunteered for service in the Texas army on October 17, 1835, and took part in the siege of Bexar. He subsequently served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

The name “Mial” is taken from the Norse language and means “narrow field or hill.”  It has its origin in Scotland.

SEWELL, MARCUS L.

 (1805-1836)

 Born in England, Marcus L. Sewell traveled to Texas, settling in Gonzales where he was a shoemaker by trade.

On February 23, 1836, Sewell was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company by Capt. Byrd Lockhart.  He rode to the relief of the Alamo with this group, which arrived on March 1, 1836. Sewell died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836

SHIED, MANSON 

(1811-1836)

Born in Georgia, Manson Shied immigrated to Texas and subsequently became a resident of Brazoria where he made his living as a carpenter. He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Shied died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

There are other spellings of his last name including Shead and Shudd.

SIMMONS, CLEVELAND KINLOCK

(1815-1836)

Born in Charleston, So. Carolina, Cleveland Kinloch Simmons traveled to Texas in January 1836 aboard the schooner Santiago. Simmons received a commission as a lieutenant in the Regular Texas Cavalry from Henry Smith, before leaving San Felipe for Bexar. He arrived at the Alamo as an officer of Capt. John H. Forsyth's cavalry company, which accompanied Lt. Col. William B. Travis. Simmons died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

There are variations on his name including a first name of “Clelland” and a middle name of “Kenlock.”

SMITH, ANDREW H.

(1815-1836)

Although born in Tennessee, it is not clear as to when Andrew H. Smith migrated to Texas.  He is considered one of the men who died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, but there is some evidence that this may not have been the case.

On January 28, 1836, William B. Travis, while traveling to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo, wrote a letter to Governor Henry Smith, listing six men who had deserted from Capt. John H. Forsyth's cavalry company. Among these deserters is listed an Andrew Smith. It is not known if this Andrew Smith and the Andrew H. Smith listed among the Alamo casualties were two distinct people, or if Smith did desert and then either rejoined the company or showed up later at the Alamo.

SMITH, CHARLES S.

(1806-1836)

Born in Maryland, Charles S. Smith moved to Texas where he enlisted in the service of Texas on October 10, 1835.  He took part in the siege of Bexar under the command of Capt. Thomas F. L. Parrott's.  In December, 1835, Smith volunteered to serve an additional four months and remained in Bexar as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Smith died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.  Col. James C. Neill later stated of Smith that he "served faithfully and fell in the Alamo."

SMITH, JOSHUA G.

(1807-1836)

Born in No. Carolina, Joshua G. Smith was the son of Alexander and Rachel Gist Porter Smith.  His family lived in Green County, Tennessee and moved to Bedford County, Tennessee, while Joshua was still in his teens.  Smith later moved to Pickens County, Alabama, where he bought a farm in partnership with his half-brother, John Porter.  In 1828, Smith was living in Jackson County, Tennessee.

Smith immigrated to Texas and in March, 1835, he received a quarter league of land in Robertson County.  The following year, he became a sergeant in the Regular Texas Cavalry and traveled to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo in Capt. John H. Forsyth's company.  Smith died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Alamo survivor Susanna W. Dickinson described Smith as "a man of about 5 feet some inches in height, spare made, dark eyes and complexion and appeared to be between 25 and 35 years of age."

SMITH, WILLIAM H.

(1811-1836)

A native Texan, born in Nacogdoches, William H. Smith served in the revolutionary army for six months before the siege of the Alamo. He took part in the siege of Bexar and served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Smith died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

STARR, RICHARD

(1811-1836)

Born in England, Richard Starr became a member of the New Orleans’s Greys and traveled to Texas under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece.  He took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. Starr died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

STEWART, JAMES E.

(1808-1836)

Very little is known about James E. Stewart (with the spelling of the last name sometimes shown as “Stuart”) other than he was born in England and, during the Texas Revolution, he served in the garrison of the Alamo. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

STOCKTON, RICHARD LUCIUS

(1817-1836)

Born in Newark, New Jersey, Richard Lucius Stockton, was the son of Anna Williamson Stockton.  When his father died in 1823, Stockton and his mother moved to Charlottesville, Virginia.

Stockton left Virginia at an unknown time, arriving in Nacogdoches, Texas around the same time as David Crockett and the other Tennessee volunteers.  He enlisted in the Texas Volunteer Auxiliary Corps in December of 1835.  He was sent to San Antonio de Béxar with Crockett and was killed with the others in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Since he was unmarried at the time of his death, his sister - Emma Matilda Stockton Cox - filed a bounty land certificate on the basis of his service in 1845.  The land was ultimately patented on land in Bosque and Hamilton County. In 1849, Emma married Commodore Edwin Ward Moore of the Texas Navy.

SUMMERLIN, A. SPAIN

(1817-1836)

Born in Tennessee, A. Spain Summerlin immigrated to Texas from Arkansas with his parents and settled in Nacogdoches. He volunteered for the revolutionary army on October 17, 1835, and took part in the siege of Bexar.  He later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. Robert White's infantry company, the Bexar Guards.  Summerlin died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

SUMMERS, WILLIAM E.

(1812-1836)

Born in Tennessee, William E. Summers moved to Gonzales, Texas where he was mustered into the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers on February 23, 1836. He rode to relieve the Alamo with this group and arrived on March 1. He died five days later in the battle of the Alamo.

SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM DEPRIEST

(1818-1836)

William DePriest Sutherland was the nephew of Alamo courier Dr. John Sutherland, Jr.  When his parents left for Texas in 1830, Sutherland lived with his uncle in Tuscumbia, Alabama, and became a medical student at LaGrange College.

Sutherland made his way to Texas by 1835 and on July 17, he attended a meeting at the Navidad and Lavaca rivers, calling for a consultation of Texas committees. Sutherland joined the Texan garrison at San Antonio de Béxar on January 18, 1836, where he probably arrived with his uncle in the company of Capt. William H. Patton. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

TAYLOR, EDWARD

(ca. 1812-1836) 

Born in Tennessee, Edward Taylor was the older brother of Alamo defenders, George and James Taylor.

At the outbreak of the Texas Revolution, he and his brothers were employed picking cotton for a Captain Dorsett on a farm near Liberty, Texas.  Upon finishing the job, they left to join the revolutionary army. It is believed the brothers died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, although some evidence suggests that Taylor and his brothers were victims of the Goliad Massacre.  Their names were carried on a list of the Alamo casualties a week before the Goliad executions occurred.

TAYLOR, GEORGE

(ca. 1816-1836)

Born in Tennessee, George Taylor was the younger brother of Alamo defenders, Edward and James Taylor.

At the outbreak of the Texas Revolution, he and his brothers were employed picking cotton for a Captain Dorsett on a farm near Liberty, Texas.  Upon finishing the job, they left to join the revolutionary army. It is believed the brothers died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, although some evidence suggests that Taylor and his brothers were victims of the Goliad Massacre.  Their names were carried on a list of the Alamo casualties a week before the Goliad executions occurred.

TAYLOR, JAMES

(ca. 1814-1836)

Born in Tennessee, James Taylor was the brother of Alamo defenders, Edward and George Taylor.

At the outbreak of the Texas Revolution, he and his brothers were employed picking cotton for a Captain Dorsett on a farm near Liberty, Texas.  Upon finishing the job, they left to join the revolutionary army. It is believed the brothers died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836, although some evidence suggests that Taylor and his brothers were victims of the Goliad Massacre.  Their names were carried on a list of the Alamo casualties a week before the Goliad executions occurred. 

TAYLOR, WILLIAM

(1799-1836)

Born in Tennessee, William Taylor was one of at least three William Taylors who served in the revolutionary army. As a member of the Alamo garrison, he died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

THOMAS, B. ARCHER M.

(1818-1836)

Born in Kentucky, B. Archer M. Thomas traveled to Texas from Logan County, Kentucky, with Daniel W. Cloud, Peter J. Bailey, William H. Fauntleroy, and Joseph G. Washington.  He and his companions joined the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas at Nacogdoches on January 14, 1836, and proceeded to San Antonio de Béxar as members of Capt. William B. Harrison's company, which included David Crockett. Thomas died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

THOMAS, HENRY

(1811-1836)

Born in Germany, Henry Thomas was a member of the New Orleans Greys under the command of Capt. Thomas H. Breece's.  He took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William Blazeby's infantry company. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

A court of claims application says that this man was killed with Travis at the Alamo. However, there was some flaw in the proof of heirship on the part of those applying for the land due Henry Thomas, so the certificates were postponed till they could establish their identity as heirs. Several affidavits stated that Henry Thomas died at the Alamo. No certificates granting land in his name can be found.

THOMPSON, JESSE G.

(1798-1836)

Born in Arkansas, Jesse G. Thompson immigrated to Texas and became a resident of Brazoria.  He enlisted in the service of Texas on October 23, 1835, and served in Captain Seal's ranger company until January 25, 1836.  He later served in the Alamo garrison. Thompson died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

THOMSON, JOHN W.

(1807-1836)

Born in Virginia, John W. Thomson was a doctor by profession.  He traveled to Texas from North Carolina in late 1835, and joined the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas at Nacogdoches on January 14, 1836. From Nacogdoches, Thomson traveled to Washington-on-the-Brazos as a member of Captain Gilmer's company. There he left the company and traveled on to San Antonio de Béxar. Although it is not known conclusively, Thomson may have served the Alamo garrison in the capacity of surgeon. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Records show two depositions were taken regarding Thomson.  One of these was made by Mrs. M. J. Rainey, the aunt of Thomson, who said that he belonged to Crockett's company. The other was made by Captain William Gilmer, who says that in January, 1836, he and Thomson went together to Washington, Texas, but there they separated, with Thomson going on to San Antonio to join Crockett.

THURSTON, JOHN M.

(1812-1836)

 Born in Pennsylvania, John M. Thurston may have actually been named Mountjoy Luckett Thurston at birth.  It is believed he took the name of his brother, John, who died in infancy in 1811.

Thurston came to Texas where he lived in San Antonio and was a clerk in Francis De Sauque's store.  He received a commission as a second lieutenant in the regular Texas cavalry on December 21, 1835.  In January 1836, he delivered 36 pounds of rifle powder to Capt. Philip Dimmitt, for which he received a pay voucher.  He later signed this claim over to T. D. Hendrick.  Thurston traveled to the Alamo as an officer of Capt. John H. Forsyth's cavalry company, accompanying Lt. Col. William B. Travis, and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

TRAMMEL, BURKE

(1810-1836)

Born in Ireland, Burke Trammel took part in the siege of Bexar. He later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Trammel died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

TUMLINSON, GEORGE W.

(1814-1836)

Born in Missouri, George W. Tumlinson moved to Texas and settled in Gonzales.  He entered the Texan Artillery under Almaron Dickinson on September 23, 1835, and took part in the siege of Bexar and was discharged afterward.

Tumlinson reenlisted on December 14 for six months of service in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company.  Sometime before the siege of the Alamo began, Tumlinson may have left for his home in Gonzales, returning to the Alamo on March 1, 1836, with the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers. Tumlinson died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

TYLEE, JAMES

(1795-1836)

Born in New York, James Tylee was a farmer.  In December, 1834, he and his 24-year old wife, Matilda, applied for land in Texas.  Tylee later became estranged from Matilda and on December 12, 1835, he ran a notice in the Telegraph and Texas Register stating that he would not pay any debts contracted by her on his account.  Tylee served in the Alamo garrison and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WALKER, ASA

(1813-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Asa Walker moved to Texas in November of 1835 at the expense of his friend, William Washington Gant, settling at Nacogdoches. On November 28, 1835, he wrote a letter at Washington-on-the-Brazos to Gant, explaining why he had stolen his gun and overcoat.  In the letter, Walker stated, “...the hurry of the moment and my want of means to do better are all the excuses I have."

Walker took part in the siege of Bexar and was either wounded in the battle or fell sick afterward.  Col. James C. Neill's return of his men lists Walker as "in hospital." Walker served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. Robert White's infantry company, the Bexar Guards. Walker died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. He was a cousin of fellow Alamo defender Jacob Walker.

The University of Texas Archives contains a letter from Asa Walker to W. W. Gant, November 28, 1835.  With this letter are notes signed by Walker for $35 for a rifle, and $20 for an overcoat, and another for $35,87 1/2 for transportation from Columbia, Tennessee, to Washington, Texas, altogether an indebtedness of $96. As a passing comment on how the lands of dead soldiers were manipulated in those days, it may be stated that W. W. Gant became administrator of Walker's estate. The Lands due Walker were something more than 4000 acres. After all the costs of administration, the debt of $96, and other costs were paid, the estate of this soldier remained $210 in debt to the administrator. In other words, the 4,000 acres of land lacked $210 of paying an indebtedness of $96.

WALKER, JACOB

(1799-1836)

Born in Tennessee, Jacob Walker married Sara Ann Vauchere with whom he four children.  At some point, Walker relocated and became a resident of Nacogdoches.

He took part in the siege of Bexar and afterwards remained in Bexar as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Susanna W. Dickinson recalled that, during the siege of the Alamo, Walker often spoke to her about his children. She also recalled that during the battle, Walker rushed into her room pursued by Mexican soldiers who shot and bayoneted him to death as she looked on.

Walker was the cousin of fellow Alamo defender Asa Walker and brother of the famous mountain man Joseph R. Walker.

WARD, WILLIAM B.

(1806-1836)

Born in Ireland, William B. Ward served in the Alamo garrison as a sergeant.  Prior to the Alamo siege, he gained a reputation for drunkenness in San Antonio de Béxar.  When the Mexican army appeared on February 23, 1836, however, Ward was seen manning the artillery position at the Alamo's main gate, calm and sober, while the rest of the garrison retreated into the Alamo. Ward died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WARNELL (WORNEL), HENRY

(1812-1836)

Although it is unknown where he was born, Henry Warnell lived in Arkansas before immigrating to Texas, where he made his living as a jockey and hunter.  He and Ludie Ragsdale became parents of a son in November 1834. When Miss Ragsdale died in childbirth, Warnell left his infant son in the care of friends and left for Texas.

In January 1835 he settled in Bastrop, where he lived with and worked for Edward Burleson.  Warnell took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison as a member of Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. There is some evidence that he escaped from the Alamo during the battle of March 6, 1836, but died in Port Lavaca in June 1836 from wounds received in the battle.

Warnell's son, John, was his only heir and in 1860 received two-thirds league and one labor of land, plus a donation grant of 640 acres.

Certificates state that Henry Warnell died at the Alamo.  Lists vary as to the spelling of the name, giving Warnell, Wornel, Warnal, Wurnall, but all give the initial H., or the name Henry.  There is an administrator's claim against the Texan government for $39.59 of salary due to the Alamo soldier, Henry Warnell. Edward Burleson was the administrator. Wherever the documents cited above give any personal description of the man at all, it is to state that he was a single man, but Court of Claims Voucher states that Henry Warnell was married, that his wife died in Arkansas in November, 1834, whereupon he left his infant son, John, with friends and went to Texas. He arrived in January, 1835, and hired himself to Edward Burleson, at whose home he lived. C. M. S. R., No. 108, proves that Burleson was the administrator of Warnell's estate, and describes the man as unmarried. The Court of Claims document further describes this man as being twenty-four years old, small--weighing less than 118 pounds--blue-eyed, red-headed, freckled, and "an incessant tobacco chewer." It also states that he had been a jockey and a great hunter in Arkansas.

WASHINGTON, JOSEPH G.

(1808-1836)

Born in Kentucky, Joseph G. Washington traveled to Texas in late 1835 with Peter J. Bailey, B. Archer M. Thomas, Daniel W. Cloud, and William Fauntleroy, all future Alamo defenders. Washington and his companions took the oath of allegiance to Texas before Judge John Forbes at Nacogdoches on January 14, 1836. They joined the Volunteer Auxiliary Corps of Texas and traveled to San Antonio de Béxar and the Alamo in Capt. William B. Harrison's company, which included David Crockett. Washington arrived at Bexar on or about February 9, 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WATERS, THOMAS

(1812-1836)

Born in England, Thomas Waters immigrated to Texas by way of New Orleans as a member of Capt. Thomas Breece's company of New Orleans Greys. Waters took part in the siege of Bexar and later served in the Alamo garrison in Capt. William R. Carey's artillery company. Waters died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WELLS, WILLIAM

(1798-1836)

Born in Georgia, William Wells may have traveled to Bexar and the Alamo as a member of Capt. William H. Patton's company. Wells borrowed $20 dollars from Dr. John Sutherland to purchase a Yeager rifle, on his way to the Alamo where he died in battle on March 6, 1836.

WHITE, ISAAC

(?-1836)

Born in Kentucky, Isaac White resided in Alabama or Kentucky before immigrating to Texas.  He was a married man with one daughter. White served the Alamo garrison in the rank of sergeant although it is uncertain to which specific unit he belonged. White died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WHITE, ROBERT

(1806-1836)

A native Texan, Robert White was a resident of Gonzales and served in the siege of Bexar with the rank of lieutenant. Following the battle, White was promoted to captain and commanded one of the Bexar garrison's infantry companies, the Bexar Guards. It is possible that White left Bexar before the siege of the Alamo for his home in Gonzales and then returned with the relief force from the town. White died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WILLIAMSON, HIRAM JAMES

(1810-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, Hiram James Williamson immigrated to Texas and settled at Washington-on-the-Brazos. Williamson took part in the siege of Bexar, and later served the garrison at Bexar as sergeant-major, making him the highest ranking enlisted man in the Alamo. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

In certificates related to Williamson, his name is written H. S. Williamson, but they give the description as above and state definitely that the man died at the Alamo. The administrator of Williamson's estate, Thomas S. Saul, clears up the obscurity in the name by a statement that he made before the Land Board of Washington County, February 6, 1838. Saul said that H. S. and H. J. were variants of the initials of the same man, and that the error was on the part of a recorder. He furthermore stated that the name should be written "Hiram J. Williamson."  Other indicators show Williamson was an unmarried man.

WILLS, WILLIAM

(?-1836)

William Wills was a farmer in Brazoria County, Texas. Very little is known about him other than that he is recognized as having died in defense of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

WILSON, DAVID L.

(1807-1836)

Born in Scotland, David L. Wilson lived in Nacogdoches with his wife, Ophelia.  Wilson was probably one of the volunteers who accompanied Capt. Philip Dimmitt to Bexar and the Alamo in the early months of 1836. He remained at the Alamo after Dimmitt left on the first day of the siege. Wilson died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

His widow acted as administrator of his estate and married Albert Henning

WILSON, JOHN

(1804-1836)

Born in Pennsylvania, John Wilson was one of six John Wilson’s in the Texan army in 1836.  Most of them used distinguishing middle initials.  Even so, it is confusing to trace them through the documents.  However, the documents make it clear that one John Wilson was massacred at the Alamo with Travis.

WRIGHT, CLAIBORNE

(1810-1836)

Born in No. Carolina, Claiborne Wright entered the Texan army on November 1, 1835, and took part in the siege of Bexar. He was discharged on December 13, 1835, and left Bexar for his home in Gonzales. Wright returned to the Alamo with the relief force from Gonzales, arriving on March 1, 1836. He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

ZANCO, CHARLES

(1808-1836)

Born in Denmark, Charles Zanco and his father emigrated to America in 1834 after the death of Charles's mother. They settled in Harris County, Texas. The Zancos were farmers, and Charles was also a painter by trade.

In the fall of 1835, Zanco joined the first volunteers at Lynchburg for service in the Texas Revolution.  He helped design the company's flag, which featured a painted star and the controversial legend, "Independence."  Zanco may have been the first person ever to paint a Lone Star on a Texan flag.

He took part in the siege of Bexar as a member of the Texan artillery. He remained in Bexar as part of the garrison under Lt. Col. James C. Neill. He was promoted to lieutenant and served as an assistant to the garrison's ordnance chief.  Zanco entered the Alamo on February 23, 1836, at the approach of the Mexican Army.  He died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.

Different variations on Zanco’s name have been given including Charles Danor and Charles Lance, although all references give the place of birth as Denmark.  All certificates for land record the name as Charles Zanco.

Added by bgill

Not Present During the Assault:

Francis L. Desauque San Antonio merchant who loaned Travis $200 to keep the fort operating. He was sent to Fannin with a message from Travis. Was captured with Fannin's command and executed with them. James L. Allen Age 21 at the time, he was sent out as a courier the night before the assault. He later became a Texas Ranger and a Confederate officer, dying in 1901. Although he was in the fort for the bulk of the siege, and could have cleared up many mysteries, there is no record that he was ever interviewed. John Walker Baylor He was sent out as a courier shortly after the siege began. Joined Fannin's command and escaped the final collapse because he had a horse. Was wounded at San Jacinto, and died the next year of complications. Robert Brown Teenage courier sent out during the siege. Antonio Cruz y Arocha Was an orderly for Capt. Juan Seguin, and left with the latter. Alexando de la Garza One of Seguin's men, who was sent out as a courier. Benjamin Franklin Highsmith Teenage courier who was sent to Fannin just before the siege began. Returning, he was turned back and pursued by a Mexican cavalry patrol but escaped. Met James Bonham, another returning courier, and urged him to turn back, but the latter pressed on. Highsmith later took another message to Fannin for Houston, and was at San Jacinto. He was later in the Texas Rangers, and died in 1905. (William P.?) Johnson A courier who was evidently sent to Fannin at the start of the siege and died with the latter. William Sanders Oury Was sent out as a courier and later was at San Jacinto. Later was with the Mier Expedition, and was in the Texas Rangers in the Mexican-American War. He joined the California gold rush, and ended up as sheriff of Tuscon, Arizona. Lewis (or Louis or Moses) Rose Elected to leave before the assault, possibly on March 3. A former French soldier, he later became a butcher in Nacogdoches, eventually moving to Louisiana, where he died in 1850. Juan Seguin Left the fort on February 22 to rally reinforcements. Did gather 25 men, and met another 12 coming from Gonzales, but the fort fell before they could get back. Later he was at San Jacinto. After the war he was active in local politics -- including a term as mayor of San Antonio -- but was forced into exile by political opponents after hostilities renewed in 1842. The Mexicans arrested him and took him along during their brief recapture of San Antonio. He moved back to the city after the Mexican-American War. John William Smith Was sent out as a courier shortly after the Mexican Army arrived. He returned as a guide with the Gonzales Ranging Company. He was sent out again on March 3. He was organizing a group of 25 men to return with him when the fort fell. After the war he was mayor of San Antonio several times and was an opponent of Juan Seguin. John Sutherland Sent as a courier to Gonzales shortly after the Mexican Army arrived. Henry Warnell Died of wounds in Port Lavaca in June 1836. He was either wounded during the final assault but escaped, or while serving as a courier on February 28. Identified With Garrison:Philip Dimmit This Texas Army captain was outside the fort when the Mexican Army arrived, and decided to return to his former post on the coast. He was captured by a Mexican Army raiding party in 1841, and killed himself in prison after the other Texan prisoners, held seperately, escaped without him. Byrd Lockhart He apparently rode into the Alamo with the Gonzales Ranging Company, and then was sent back to Gonzales to organize relief supplies. Benjamin F. Nobles Left with Dimmit (above.) William Hester Patton Left for another post before the Mexican Army arrived. Was killed by Mexican raiders in 1842. Launcelot Smither Left San Antonio shortly after the Mexican Army arrived to take word of this event to Gonzales, either ordered by Travis or by his own choice. He was later involved in San Antonio politics with Juan Seguin, and was killed by Mexican raiders in 1842. Andrew Jackson Sowell Left for Gonzales with Byrd Lockhart (see above.) Was later in the Texas Rangers and the Confederate Army.
Added by bgill

Slave Naratives

JOE:

Joe was the slave of William Travis, and there are several accounts of the interview he gave after escaping into Anglo Texas with Susanna Dickinson. The points he makes: 

  • The garrison had been exhausted by constant watching and fighting.
  • The attack came half a hour before daylight, and the Mexicans were not detected until close to the walls.
  • Joe with the Travis to the wall and saw him mount the wall and fire down on the attackers, to be immediately shot and fall back within the wall, where he grappled with and killed an officer coming over the walls. (Joe said it was the Mexican commanding general.)
  • Joe then hid. The defenders retired to the barracks building and fought there to the end. As the dead were being removed a man named Warner was found alive, taken to Santa Anna, and executed.
  • After the fighting, Joe heard a Mexican officer asking in English if there were any negroes around. Joe emerged, and two soldiers tried to kill him. He was only lightly wounded, and was brought before Santa Anna.
  • The latter -- "dressed like a Methodist preacher" -- had called his soldiers into a square for an animated speech that Joe did not understand. They responded with vivas. Joe was later shown a review of the army and told the Mexicans had 8,000 men. (Which they did, counting the whole national army.) Santa Anna asked if there were American soldiers with the Texans, or on the way. Joe said there were, and Santa Anna said he had enough men to march to Washington (which he had boasted of doing to foreign ambassadors before leaving Mexico City.)
  • The Texan dead were burned.

Later accounts have Joe either escaping to freedom a year later, and/or living in Austin in 1875. 

BEN:

Interviewed in 1838 and 1840. Being black, his Southern interviewers were not going to make a big deal about him. The cook at Santa Anna's headquarters, he said he served an agitated Santa Anna coffee during the night before the attack, where Almonte was arguing against the attack. High points: 

  • The two left about 4 a.m. Signal rockets lit up the scene as the fight began and the noise was tremendous. The fighting ended before dawn.
  • Santa Anna returned with Almonte, the latter complaining that another such a victory would ruin them.
  • Having seen former congressman Crockett before (evidently while working at a hotel in Washington) Ben was sent into the fort to identify Crockett's body. It was surrounded by about 16 Mexicans, his knife stuck in one.
  • Bodies removed for the fort were buried, not burned. (He may have seen only what happened with the Mexican dead.)
  • Mexican losses were 1,200.

 

Added by bgill

Survivor~Louis (Moses?) Rose (William P. Zuber)

A man named Louis Rose of Nacogdoches filed a veterans land claim based on having been a defender of the Alamo, leaving there three days before the storming. He also testified in favor of land claims for the families of several other defenders. This Rose is usually identified with the Moses Rose described in an 1873 Texas Almanac story by William P. Zuber. 

That Rose, says the story, showed up at the home of Zuber's parents during March 1836 and stayed there several days, recuperating, telling of having escaped from the Alamo. Zuber himself was in the Texas army. He heard the story from his parents, and wrote it down for the almanac decades later after a sudden "refreshment of memory." He included with the manuscript a note from his mother saying the story reflected what Rose said. (Rose himself died about 1848.) Roses's story according to Zuber: 

  • On the evening of March 3 the Mexican bombardment suddenly fell silent and Travis called the defenders together, making a long speech that the Zuber account gives word for word.
  • Travis announces that escape is impossible and surrender will lead to execution, so they may as well fight to the death and sell their lives and steeply as possible.
  • "My choice is to stay in this fort and to die for my country, fighting a long as breath shall remain in my body. This I will do even if you leave me alone. Do as you think best -- but no man can die with me without affording me comfort at the moment of my death," the account has Travis concluding.
  • Travis then draws a line in the dirt with his sword, and asks that everyone willing to follow him to the death step across that line. Everyone but Rose did.
  • Bowie, sick, asked that his cot be carried across the line.
  • Rose slipped out that night, startled by the sight of dead Mexican and pools of blood outside the wall. He slipped through the town, to some place in the countryside where he heard the fighting end three days later.
The story has a visual quality that has attracted movie producers. Others respond with derision. Where and how did Rose hide for three days? Where did all those dead Mexicans come from that stage of the siege? And who can accept a verbatim speech fourth-hand decades later? And that speech -- it's the kind you give during half-time at a football game. During a siege, who would strip the walls to tell the men what they already knew? And what leader seeks to win his men over by embracing death? 

Well, maybe Travis would have. A lawyer, he would have leaned toward verbal flourishes, and his letters had already announced "victory or death." Susanna Dickinson later gave a similar story. Esparza's account indicates that the garrison considered a surrender demand from Santa Anna during a break in the fighting, and presumably must have met as a body to do so. Santa Anna mentions a surrender demand being considered and rejected between his final council of war and the storming (which places it on the fifth.) Even one of Joe's interviews mentions ten days of fighting, rather than 13. 

Meanwhile, yes, you can rally people with grim reminders of death. Remember Churchill: "We will fight on the beaches," etc.? And if a story has to be documented in every detail before we accept the gist, then there is not much history left. 

(On the other hand, there is a documented line-in-the-sand story from the earlier siege of Bexar, when Ben Milam refused to retreat to Gonzales, and asked for those willing to attack the city to step across the line he had drawn in the dirt.) 

All we can be sure about is the outcome: the Alamo garrison stood its ground. Somehow, Travis brought this about. Zuber's story is the only available explanation. 

Moses Rose "Surviror of the Alamo" Gravesite

Moses Rose is described as the "survivor of the Alamo". When Col. Travis drew the line in the sand Rose crossed it and left. He was from France and had fought under Napoleon there. He did not want to go to war again. He wandered about Texas for several years and finally came to Logansport where the Aaron Ferguson family took him in. At his death he was buried in the Ferguson cemetery northeast of Logansport on the Bethel Road.

 

Added by bgill

Survivor~Juana Navarro Alsbury

The 28-year-old niece of Senor Veramendi and therefore an in-law of Bowie, she had married a Texan soldier, Dr. Horace Alsbury, two months earlier, and had a small child (Alejo Perez) from a previous marriage. (Her first husband was yet another cholera victim.) Her new husband was absent when the Mexican army arrived, and she entered the Alamo with her younger sister, Gertrudis Navarro, and was in a room on the west wall of the fort during the assault. High points: 

  • As the firing approached their room. Gertrudis called on the soldiers not to shoot into the room. They barged in, looking for loot.
  • A sick Texan in the room tried to protect Juana Alsbury and was killed. A Tejano who ran into the room seeking cover was killed.
  • Looting began in earnest. An officer took them outside. Another officer had them move out of the way of a cannon about to be fired. Then, her ex-brother-in-law found them and got them to safety. (One accounts says he was a sergeant in the Mexican army.)
  • Behind her, firing continued until noon.
Added by bgill

Alamo Timeline

The Alamo was already a hundred years old at the time of the siege and battle. It was founded in 1718 as a Spanish mission for the purpose of Christianizing the Indians indigenous to the area. The Indians themselves built the mission under the supervision of the Spanish priests and it was named Mission "San Antonio de Valero." The church was designed without the benefit of a master engineer, the roof collapsed almost immediately, and this portion of the mission was never actually completed.

By 1793, most of the Indians had died from disease and "San Antonio de Valero" was closed as a mission. In 1803, a Spanish cavalry unit from Alamo de Parras, Mexico, was quartered In the mission and it was from this unit that the mission received the name "PuebLo del Alamo." The Spanish word "alamo" means "cottonwood" and may refer to the cottonwood trees that grew along the San Antonio River.

In 1821, Mexico won her independence from Spain and claimed all the land that Spain owned that included Texas. In 1824, Mexico created a democratic constitution based on the United States Constitution. Mexico opened Texas for colonization, offering land very cheaply to new settlers. Many people. both Americans and Europeans, relocated to the area which offered the opportunity for a fresh start. In 1833, a Mexican general, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, was elected President of Mexico, but it wasn't long before he turned his presidency into a dictatorship. He began to collect hi-h taxes and passed harsh and unreasonable laws, making the settlers very unhappy with their new home. By 1835. many colonists began to threaten revolt. Alarmed by these threats. Santa Anna sent his brother-@ln-law,. General Martin de Cos, to reinforce the Alamo General Cos arrived in San Antonio. quartered himself and his troops in the Alamo, and converted the old mission into a fortress. He added some 21 cannons which he placed around the walls and began to prepare for a siege and battle. Declaring martial law, he jailed people for no reason and soon the threat of revolution became a reality. Almost two months after Cos' arrival. in December of 1835, a force of 400 Texans led bv Ben Milam made their way into San Antonio and engaged General Cos in battle. After several days of fighting Cos surrendered by raising, a white flag above the Alamo.

The Texan force of 400 suffered 19 casualties while. defeating Mexican forces of l,1OO and gained the most important military stronghold north of the Rio Grande. Leaving his cannons behind, General Cos fled to Mexico promising not to return. The defeat of Cos angered Santa Anna. It became a matter of honor to teach the Texans a lesson and he began to raise an army which he would personally lead to San Antonio.

In the meantime, despite the obvious importance of the Alamo location, Texas Army Commander Sam Houston ordered the Alamo abandoned and destroyed. Feeling that the outpost was far too isolated. he sent Colonel James Bowie with 30 men to carry out his orders. After arriving in San Antonio. somehow Bowie couldn't bring himself to destroy the old mission. Hearing that Santa Anna was marching toward The Alamo. He became even more determined to save the Alamo

The Battle Of The AlamoUnsheathing his sword during a lull in the virtually incessant bombardment Colonel William Barret Travis drew a line on the ground before his battle-weary men. In a voice trembling with emotion he described the hopelessness of their plight and said, "those prepared to give their lives in freedom's cause, come over to me."

Without hesitation, every man, save one, crossed the line, Colonel James Bowie, stricken with pneumonia, asked that his cot be carried over.

For twelve days now, since February 23, when Travis answered Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's surrender ultimatum with a cannon shot, the defenders had withstood the onslaught of an army which ultimately numbered 4,000 men.

Committed to death inside the Alamo were 189 known patriots who valued freedom more than life itself. Many, such as the 32 men and boys from Gonzales who made their way through the Mexican lines in answer to Travis's plea for reinforcements, were colonists. Theirs was a fight against Santa Anna's intolerable decrees. Others were volunteers such as David Crockett and his "Tennessee Boys" who owned nothing in Texas, and owed nothing to it. Theirs was a fight against tyranny wherever it might be. A handful were native Texans of Spanish and Mexican descent who suffered under the same injustices as the other colonists.

Now with the ammunition and supplies all but exhausted, yet determined to make a Mexican victory more costly than a defeat, those who rallied to the Texas cause awaited the inevitable.

It came suddenly in the chilly, pre-dawn hours of March 6. With bugles sounding the dreaded "Deguello" (no quarter to the defenders) columns of Mexican soldiers attacked from the north, the east, the south and the west. Twice repulsed by withering musket fire and cannon shot, they concentrated their third attack at the battered north wall.

Travis, with a single shot through his forehead, fell across his cannon. The Mexicans swarmed through the breach and into the plaza. At frightful cost they fought their way to the Long Barrack and blasted its massive doors with cannon shot. Its defenders, asking no quarter and receiving none, were put to death with grapeshot, musket fire and bayonets.

Crockett, using his rifle as a club, fell as the attackers, now joined by reinforcements who stormed the south wall, turned to the chapel. The Texans inside soon suffered the fate of their comrades. Bowie, his pistols emptied, his famous knife bloodied, and his body riddled, died on his cot.

Present in the Alamo were Captain Almeron Dickinson's wife, Susanna, and their 15-month-old daughter, Angelina. After the battle, Santa Anna ordered Mrs. Dickingson, her child, and other noncombatants be spared. Other known survivors were Joe, Travis servant; Gertrudis Navarro, 15, sister by adoption to James Bowie's wife, Ursula; Juana Navarro Alsbury, sister of Gertrudis, and her 18-month-old son, Alijo; Gregorio Esparza's wife Ana, and her four children: Enrique, Francisco, Manuel and Maria de Jesus; Trinidad Saucedo and Petra Gonzales. Another survivor was Lewis "Moses" Rose, who by his own choice left the Alamo on the fifth day of March.

Santa Anna, minimizing his losses which numbered nearly 600, said, "It was but a small affair," and ordered the bodies of the heroes burned. Colonel Juan Almonte, noting the great number of casualties, declared, "Another such victory and we are ruined."

The Texans' smoldering desire for freedom, kindled by the funeral pyres of the Alamo, roared into flames three weeks later at Goliad when Santa Anna coldly ordered the massacre of more than 300 prisoners taken at the Battle of Coleto Creek.

On April 21, forty-six days after the fall of the Alamo, less than 800 angered Texans and American volunteers led by General Sam Houston launched a furious attack on the Mexican army of 1,500 at San Jacinto. Shouting "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!", they completely routed the Mexican army in a matter of minutes, killing six hundred and thirty while losing nine. Santa Anna was captured. Texas was free; a new republic was born.

An independent nation for nearly 10 years, Texas was officially annexed to the United States on December 29, 1845. With the change in government, and the lowering of the Texas flag on February 19, 1846, outgoing President Anson Jones declared, "The final act in the great drama is now performed; the Republic of Texas is no more."


13 DAYS OF THE SIEGE OF THE ALAMO

First Day Tuesday, February 23, 1836

General Santa Anna with the vanguard of his army arrived in San Antonio close to sundown. A blood-red banner was run up an San Fernando Cathedral, signifying no quarter. Colonel William 'Travis ordered the red banner answered

with a cannon shot. The Mexican soldiers fired back and the siege of the Alamo began. It lasted 13 days.



Second Day, Wednesday, February 24, 1836

Colonel Bowie, gravely ill, turns over command to Colonel Travis. Travis sends Albert Martin. with a letter "To the people of Texas and All Americans in the World."

Third Day, Thursday, February 25, 1836

Messengers reach Fannin in Goliad. The Mexican batteries move closer. A strong norther blows in around 9:00 P.M.



Fourth Day, Friday, February 26, 1836

A skirmish takes place east of the fort while the Texans are hunting for wood. Mexican trooos try to cut water supply.

Fifth Day, Saturdav, February 27, 1836

Bonham leaves for Goliad and Gonzales. The Mexican Army causes many night alarms, giving Texans very little sleep. The Mexicans try to cut off water supply to north.



Sixth Day, Sunday, February 28, 1836

Fannin starts for the Alamo and then returns to Goliad. Mexicans cannonade ail day. Crockett with fiddle, Mc Gregor with bagpipes, stace musical to cheer Texans. Drizzles.

Seventh Day, Monday, February, 29, 1836 Mexicans move earthworms closer. Santa Anna reconnoiters troops. The 32 men. leave Gonzales for the Alamo.



Eighth Day, Tuesday, March 1, 1836

3:00 a.m., Texans elated at arrival of 32 men from Gonzales. Texans fire two 12-pound shots at house Santa Anna is in on Main Plaza; one shot hits the house.



Ninth Day Wednesday, March 2, 1836

Heavy Mexican cannonading continues. Weary men in Alamo unaware Texas Declaration of independence declared at Washington-on-the-brazos.



Tenth Day, Thursday, March 3, 1836

Bonham returns from Gokiad-to report Fannin not coming. John W. Smith sent to Governor Smith with final message from the Alamo.



Eleventh Day, Friday, March 4, 1836

CannoTa-ding starts early and continues all day. Little return fire from the Alamo.



Twelfth Day, Saturday, March 5, 1836

Colonel Travis draws line on ground with sword for ail who will stand and fight with him. Mexican bombardment ends at 1O:00 p.m.



Thirteenth Sunday, March 6, 1836

1:00 a.m. Weary Texans sleep. - Mexican troops move into positions.

2:00 a.m. Santa Anna and Almonte discuss battle plans.

3:00 a.m. Troops still moving into positions.

4:00 a.m. Silence. Troops in position. Just after

5:00 a.m. Santa Anna gives signal. Mexican bugler sounds Dequello. Four columns of Mexican Army advance on Alamo. Twice repelled by Texans. Intense fighting, heavy Mexican casualties. Mexicans breach north wall, pour into plaza barracks, and former church.

6:30 am The Alamo has fallen

Added by bgill

Topic Details

Add Facts

Looking for more information about ~The Fall of the Alamo~?

Search through millions of records to find out more.

About this Memorial Page

This page is locked. Want to contribute to this page? Contact bgill

Contributors:
bgill
Created:
Modified:
Page Views:
12,970 total (106 this week)

×