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Muscogee (Creek) Indians

(1715—1861)

The Muscogee or Creek Indians, as they are better known, populated the south eastern region of the United States until they were removed to Oklahoma in the 1830s on the “Trail of Tears.” The Muscogee were given the name Creek by English Colonists who identified tribes based on geographic location; the Muscogee lived near the Ocmulgee River or creek. Muscogees organized themselves into tribes and confederacies with a chief or mico at the head. Considered one of the “Five Civilized Tribes” by the U.S. government, the Muscogee were subject to the false promises and the eventual harsh removal on the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma. Despite losing the lands their people had possessed for centuries, the Muscogee people continue to practice their culture and speak their language. The Muscogee people are headquartered today in Oklahoma where they succeed in preserving their past and continuing to create a promising future.

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Early attempts to lure the Creeks from Spanish influence

Coweta Falls (Phenix City, Ala.)

In 1685, Indian trader, founder of South Carolina's rice industry and well known explorer Dr. Henry Woodward left Charleston traveling through Creek territory down the Chattahoochee river to the falls between present day Columbus, Ga. and Phenix City, Ala. His mission was to induce the Creeks to trade with the British and thus reduce the influence the Spanish had over the Creek Indians. A "factory" or trading post was set up at Coweta falls, making that Creek town very influencial in years to come. Woodward set up a relationship with traffic in British goods which stretched through Sandtown on the Chattahoochee in Dekalb County, back to Charleston, S.C.

The Spanish were furious and chased the South Carolinians all over Georgia, burning Indian villages, taking retribution for this insult. The result was the Creek Indians began moving closer to the South Carolina border and the British goods, and in one case abandoning Florida completely by the late 1680s...leaving the state with no Indian population whatsoever. In 1739, James Oglethorpe made the journey to Coweta Falls, to increase trade with the Creeks at the expense of the Spanish. As the Georgia colony grew, the Creek found themselves returning to the waters of the Chattahoochee where they would remain until 1836.

Savaner Jack: most ruthless Creek Indian ever

Souvanogee, Ala.

Both Albert Pickett and Gen. Woodward agree, John Hogue or Hague was the most ruthless Indian to ever walk the South. Taken by the Shawnee from his white parents at an early age, John Hogue became a "young Turk", a hater of the white man and a bit of a nuisance for everyone around him.  He operated around Detroit and was instrumental in the defeat of Gen. St. Clare there. He had many sons by a Uchee wife, one of whom was also called John and known as Savaner Jack. Jack became notorious to settlers in the Alabama- Tennessee area and he bragged he could swim in the blood of Tennesseans he had killed in the Wautauga settlements and was singled out as the perpetrator of the several massacres in Alabama. He was first described by Creek Agent Benjamin Hawkins who had traversed the entirety of the Creek nation many times in his capacity as Indian Agent. Others described him as "one handed" with his "ears cropped"...both sign the creeks themselves had dealt with his treachery. He had a Creek wife but was Shawnee and lived with the Creek as did many of the Shawnee. Savannah, Ga. is named after the Cherokee word for the Shawnee and many Creek towns sported Shawnee names .

Savaner Jack was a leader of the Redsticks and fought alongside Menawa and William Weatherford at Horseshoe Bend. His War of 1812 treachery against Americans made him exile to Florida for protection by the Seminoles. After the 1836 Creek War AKA the Second Seminole War, Jack and his people were exiled to Oklahoma where he died in peace.

Were there really Pirates on the Chattahoochee River?

Appalachicola to Sandtown

Did the Pony Club of old Carroll County, Ga. owe its origin to the pirating of William Augustus Bowles on the Chattahoochee River after the American Revolution? Some thought so, positing that the pirates of Appalachicola and the Mikasuki Nation of Bowles were pushed north by the Spanish Governor and with the death of Bowles in Cuba migrated north until they settled on the old Hillabee settlement of Octahazauzua, or Sandtown on the Chattahoochee opposite Carrol County, Ga. This group of Tories, crackers from Virginia's dismal swamp, halfbreeds and Seminoles purportedly formed a horse stealing operation that would descend on Carrollton or Campbellton on court day, steal horses and sell them in another county or even state. 

There were indeed some very shady characters operating in Florida during the Revolutionary War. Dan and William McGirt, the Burgesses, Bloody Bill Cunningham and many others created havoc for the Americans as members of the Tory "East Florida Rangers". They continued their treachery, becoming involved with the Camden County "Moccassin Boys", involved in stealing Indian cattle and running imported slaves thru the south despite an 1807 ban on imported slaves.

Was this hodgepodge of malcontents and losers from the British cause the precursors of the group lionized by William Gilmore Simms in Guy Rivers? Apparently not. The Pony Club associated with Carroll County, Ga. and written about in "border romances" and treatises by Dickens and Twain were from McMinn County Tennessee. A group of about 50 interrelated families left Tennessee in 1826 and found there way to Sandtown in Dekalb County, Ga. on the Chattahoochee River.  According to descendants, the group left Tennessee for the explicit purpose of forming a pony club to raid Cherokee and Creek  settlements, stealing horses and passing them on to club members in other counties and states for sale.  

This group operated until 1834 in Paulding County, Ga., a haven they inhabited after being run out of Carroll County in 1832. A wave of "Captain Slick" activity from Alabama and parts of North Georgia resulted in Ga. Gov. Schley calling the militia to run down the club, which they did in 1834, near CleanTown in then Paulding, now Polk County. The members were horsewhipped, hung and others run out of the state, moving first to Alabama, then Mississippi and Texas.

The purported association between Bowles men and the Tenneseans never existed.

Creek banditti: anti American sentiment between the wars

Fla.-Ala-Ga. border survey by Endicott

 

In 1795, The new United States had signed the Pinckney Treaty with Spain, which gave America the rights of navigation on the Mississippi River and required that the northern boundary of Florida be set at the 31st parallel. In 1796, Washington chose Andrew Ellicott as head surveyor and  by may, 1798, they were near Mobile placing markers for metes and bounds. In 1799, the party approached the Chattahoochee River portion of the survey, where Seminoles began to harass and rob them.

An early indication of Seminole resistance to the advancing tide of white settlers in Florida was furnished by the hostile activities of bands of "bandetti" among the tribe who effectively halted the commission near the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers in 1799. The journals, diaries, and correspondence of those connected with the southern frontier at that time clearly indicate the emergence of the Seminoles as a major threat to white settlement (Holmes, 1966: 312).

Elicott found the going very rough: Mosquitoes, rain, heat and humidity were taking its toll. On top of that the depredations of the Seminoles and Eufaulas were jeopardizing the mission:

After arriving at this place, and finding the disposition of the Uphales, and Seminoles, I had serious thoughts of relinquishing a further prosecution of the business on account of the expense which would necessarily be incurred, by the delays owing to so great a number of our horses being stolen by the Indians, and the probability of losing the greater part of the remainder between this, and St. Mary's, which event would effectually put an end to our operations, and reduce us to the necessity of carrying our apparatus and baggage on our backs to some settlement in Georgia (317)…

….The lower towns, and Seminoles, are perhaps a set of the most unprincipled villains in existance, while partaking of hospitality, they will secret and carry off every article of value which they can lay their hands on belonging to their entertainer (318).

 

Ellicott and his party entered the Apalachicola river from the gulf and proceeded north by boat, hiring canoes to beat the rapid current and began surveying. Each day he would stop at a different Indian Town and avail them of canoes, guides and hospitality.

 

...Only with difficulty can Your Excellency form an idea of how disagreeable and unfortunate our situation is. We are camped next to an Indian village, and below it is another one. Our camp, our tents, are continually filled with Indians, who are not only not desirable guests, but who are the most skillful and subtle thieves that I have ever seen. Not only have they robbed us of a large number of our horses, but they have also pillaged many articles from the tents. They take as much as they can carry when they come to see us if we do not watch them carefully. Moreover, we are forced to give daily supplies to a considerable number. Presently we have ninety among us (320)...

 

William Augustus Bowles and his Creek Nation were barely in the background as these incidents of hostility arose for Endicott. Bowles was fighting the Spanish, the Americans and even wished to supplant the trading house of Panton and Leslie. Creek Agent Benjamin Hawkins sought to discuss these matters with William Panton on several occasions, as Bowles was a mutual enemy.

 Just after they had finished their observations there and had fixed the day for their movement to the source of St. Marys they were visited by twenty mischief makers from Talasee, who created a momentary alarm. This banditti aided by some Semanoles stole fourteen horses and plundered a vessel of property of the value of 3 or 400 dolls. I met them on the night of their arrival in the vicinity of our camp with the armed force under command of Capt. Boyer, rebuked them for their improper conduct and ordered them to return home and to conduct themselves agreeable to the voice of their nation. They for a short time seemed obstinately bent on mischief but determined as soon as they discovered we possessed the means and were determined to punish them. . . .

The next day I sent out some chiefs for the stolen horses and they [-----] the hole and brought a message from this Banditti; that they should return home, that what they had done did not [two words torn from mss] with themselves, that they had been out for, that the greatest part of the mischief done was by Indians in our neighborhood and that they had taken but two horses which they returned. I advised Mr. Ellicott with his unwieldy accumulation of baggage to go round by water, and for Major Minor to go through with their escort by land (327, 328)...

Once the boundary was drawn, Ellicott began his journey downstream to the gulf and eventually Pensacola. It was pointed out by many including Timothy Bernard, one of Hawkins deputy agents, that he would probably be accosted and robbed on his way there. Now the party had an Indian escort from the friendlier Creeks, but a group of plunderers were following the group as it headed towards its final Florida destination. When one of Ellicott’s horses was stolen within site of the camp he ordered all stock inside the camp, only to realize 8 or 10 were already missing (334). A schooner ordered by Ellicott had been plundered the night before, the crews clothes stolen off their backs by marauding Indians.

Ellicott, upon finishing the boundary survey wrote of his experiences,  which chronicles the  depredations of the Creeks and Seminoles on his party. He concluded:

The Southern Creeks, commonly called Seminoles, with the Tallesees and some individuals in the Upper Towns are certainly hostile towards the U.S. and nothing but the firm language of our Executive will prevent a war with them if encouraged by M.r Bowles. - But I am far from being certain what part he will act (340).

The Indians followed the party to Pensacola where they kept up the hostilities as the surveyors Lay behind the walls of the Fort near the Panton store. Ellicott would blame much of this on the Spanish, whose escort, Major Minor, he deemed incompetent. He also pointed out the Indians the Spanish said were Seminoles were in many cases Tallesee from the Upper Creek Towns. Bowles hold over the Upper Towns and the Seminole would end with his capture in 1804, but the hostility toward America and the Duplicity of the British would make the banditti on the Georgia – Florida border busy as beavers.


1966 Holmes, Jack D.L., The Southern Boundary Commission, the Chattahoochee River, and the Florida Seminoles, The Florida Historical Quarterly Vol. 44 No. 4, Florida Historical Society: St. Augustine.

(from: History of the Pony Club, unpublished)

Organization Details

Edit
General Facts:
Chief: Mico 1
Government: Tribes bound in loose Confederacies 1
Language Family: Muskhogean 1
Weapons: Bow & Arrow, Tomahawks, Spears, Shields 1
Important Creeks:
Ernest Childers: Savaner Jack 2
Ernest Childers: Lt. Col. in the U.S. Army and WWII Medal of Honor recipient 1
Opothleyahola: Fought for the Union during the U.S. Civil War 1
William Weatherford or Red Eagle: Led the Creek War offensive against the U.S. 1
Creek Indians divided during Revolutionary War:
1776 1
Creek War or Red Stick War:
1813-1814 1
Creeks officially side with the Union in Civil War:
1861 1
Fort Mims Massacre led by Creek Red Sticks:
30 Aug 1813 1
Most Creeks removed on Trail of Tears to Oklahoma:
1834 1
Muscogees considered first “civilized” tribe:
1800 1
Red Sticks surrender:
August 1814 1
Tecumseh leads Muscogee in rebellion against U.S.:
1812 1
Treaty of New York cedes land to U.S.:
1790 1
William Bowles forms short-lived State of Muscogee:
Pirates on the chattahoochee river 2
William Bowles forms short-lived State of Muscogee:
1795 1
William Bowles forms short-lived State of Muscogee:
Florida 1
Yamasee War:
1715 1
Two Primary Creek Tribes Today:
Oklahoma Creeks, Poarch Creeks in Alabama 1
Place:
Location: North Carolina 1
Place:
Headquarters: Henry B Smith 3
Headquarters: Appalachicola 2
Location: Florida 3
Location: boundary survey 2
Location: Florida 1
Place:
Location: Alabama 1
Place:
Location: Georgia 1
Place:
Headquarters: Okmulgee, Oklahoma 1

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