American Civil War-Union and Confederate-Slavery to Reconstruction
Footnote.com now has the largest Civil War collection on the internet. Take a look at the war through the eyes of those living at the time and your experience will be enriched. With Footnote history really does come alive! The American Civil War began on April 12,1861. President Abraham Lincoln witnessed the Union victory and the Confederate defeat. Before his death Mr. Lincoln knew that America would not be divided and through the Emancipation Proclamation the end of slavery finally became a reality. Shot by an assassins bullet Lincoln would die before the reconstruction of the Confederate States began. This was the worst war in America's short history. Father against son, brother against brother, the battles raged on but the country would not be broken!
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Abraham Lincoln Is Elected and the Union Dissolves
6 November 1860 | Washington, DC
Abraham Lincoln was elected as the 16th American President on the 6TH OF NOVEMBER 1860. On February 9th, 1861 Jefferson Davis formed the Confederate States of America. For four long years the Civil War would go on and America would stay divided. FOOTNOTE,COM has compiled the LARGEST ARCHIVE OF CIVIL WAR DOCUMENTS ON THE INTERNET! We have over 51 million original source Civil War records that have been digitized and indexed for your research. To be able to study any period of history through primary source documents is the best way to experience what really happened. Not only has Footnote digitized Union documents but they also have a very large collection of Confederate documents as well. The documents cover slavery to reconstruction and they are in beautiful condition. If you are a student or teacher of the Civil War you will be amazed at the price of a FOOTNOTE SUBSCRIPTION for the content you will have access to!
The Union and the Confederacy
1861 | North and South
With Jefferson Davis as President the Confederate States of America were formed and on the other side Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as the 16th president of the United States of America. After years of public debate in 1861 the Confederate States officially secede carrying the sovereignty of states as their banner, with slavery at the heart of the issue.
Fort Sumter was attacked and captured by the Rebels, after which President Lincoln asked for 75,000 militia, and a special session of Congress on July 4th. The Confederate States would number 11 with a population of 9 million including 4 million slaves. The Union would eventually grow to 21 states with a population of over 20 million.
Robert E Lee who served with distinction in the United States Army for 25 years and was the son of a Revolutionary War hero refused to lead the Union Army and accepted a commission in the Confederate Army over the Virginia Militia and Navy.
The Union forces were defeated at the first Bull Run.
A SPECIAL SESSION OF CONGRESS was called for on July 4th, 1861 and a call for an additional 500,000 union troops was made.
George B McClellan was given leadership of the Union Army.
A Bitter War for Both the Confederate and Union Troops
1862 | Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, etc
President Lincoln issued a general war order on Jan 31, 1862. Union naval and land forces began their advance. Ulysses S Grant stood out as a leader in the battles of Fort Henry and Donelson and became known as "UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER GRANT".
The Confederate Navy built an iron clad ship and named it the Merrimac. After sinking two Union vessels the Confederate Merrimac and the Union Monitor fought an EPIC BATTLE, which would change the course of Naval Warfare forever!
Battles were fought and victories went back and forth throughout the year. Some of the better known battles were; Richmond, Shiloh, New Orleans, Seven Pines, Malvern Hill, Bull Run, and then the bloodiest day in American military history was experienced at the battle of Antietam! In one day 26,000 men were dead. 17,000 more men died at Fredericksburg.
The Emancipation Proclamation and the War Continues!
1863 | Virginia, Pennsylvania,Tennessee,
In January of 1863 President Lincoln presented the Emancipation Proclamation to the world. Slavery was outlawed but it had no positive effect on ending the war. The war now became a legal struggle for the abolition of slavery.
General Joseph Hooker would become the commander of the Potomac and General Ulysses S. Grant the commander of the Army of the West. In March of 1863 Congress enacted A CIVIL WAR DRAFT, which would include male citizens 20 to 40 years of age, but exempted those who paid $300 or provided a substitute. Amazing!
Chancellorsville, a Confederate victory, 30,000 killed or wounded!
May 10th, 1863 Confederate General STONEWALL JACKSON DIED from wounds received in battle from a sniper.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought in July of 1863, and from this battle the most famous speech of our time was given. The GETTYSBURG ADDRESS, a speech given by President Lincoln to dedicate a national cemetery there, defined the Civil War and gave recognition to all who fought and died. All are Americans whether they were Union or Confederate soldiers. A vow was made that day to remember what these soldiers had given, "their last full measure of devotion". A hope for a nation again reunited in freedom was the goal of the Union in the war.
After Gettysburg came the battles of Vicksburg, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga. In between there was a major "antidraft" riot in New York led by poor immigrants and due to the fact that people could buy their way out of military service.It was at this time that "Negro Troops" were formed. They assaulted Fort Wagner in South Carolina (The Movie Glory). From this battle emerged the FIRST BLACK MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENT. At Lawrence, Kansas, Pro-Slavery Confederates led by William C. Quantrill raided the town and butchered 182 boys and men.
The Civil War Winds Down
1864 | Cold Harbor Virginia, Georgia
In 1864 President Lincoln appointed General Ulysses S. Grant as the commander of all of the US Armies. He marched towards Richmond with major battles at Wilderness, Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor. In June they began a 9 month siege of Petersburg. The Union had a 13 inch mortar named 'Dictator'. Its 200lb shells traveled over 2 miles and were used to lay Petersburg to waste.
General Sherman captured Atlanta and the Union won a decisive battle at Shenandoah. After Abraham Lincoln was re-elected, 1865 ends with GENERAL SHERMAN taking a 60 mile wide 300 mile long march of devastation across Georgia. He ended it with a telegram to Lincoln that Georgia was his Christmas present.
The War Ends, a President Dies and Reconstruction Begins
1865 | The United States of America
1865 began with the US Congress passing the 13th Amendment to abolish slavery. It would be ratified in December. Lincoln was inaugurated and made it known that the only thing he wanted was to end the war and reunite the Union. He made it clear that this was to be done with "malice to none"!
In March Lee's forces again attacked Grants. With his troops being well supplied and outnumbering Lee, Grants forces began a final advance and broke trough Lees lines at Petersburg.
In April President Lincoln toured Richmond and the Confederate White House. Finally on the 9th of April, GENERAL ROBERT E LEE SURRENDERED HIS ARMY TO GENERAL GRANT at the Appomattox Court House.
The Civil War wound down and reconstruction began. Southern cities that had been decimated were rebuilt and slowly the southern states were reclaimed and accepted back into the Union.
Footnote has over 50 million Civil War images and documents available for you, to study and to own. You can experience this in the comfort of your own home. GO HERE and you can peruse the titles that we now carry. We are adding 2 million documents each month so there is always more on the way!